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A WORLD OF EMPIRES 1450-1750 CE

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Title: A WORLD OF EMPIRES 1450-1750 CE


1
A WORLD OF EMPIRES1450-1750 CE
2
Six Things to Remember
  • Americas included in world trade for the first
    time
  • Improvements in shipping and gunpowder technology
    continued
  • Populations in transition
  • New social structures based on race and gender
  • Traditional beliefs threatened in Europe but
    reinforced in China
  • Empires both land-based and cross oceanic

3
The Bookends
  • 1450Beginning of European Atlantic empires
  • 1450Beginning of global trade
  • 1492End of Islam in Western Europe
  • 1433End of Chinese treasure ship expeditions
  • 1750Beginning of industrialization
  • 1750Western Hemisphere colonization peaks

4
Americas1300-1800
  • Rise of Incas
  • Continued rise of Aztecs
  • Conquest arrival of Spanish in Western
    Hemisphere
  • Population impacts disease, racial
    intermingling, war
  • Columbian Exchange
  • Colonial societies

5
Inca Empire1438-1525
  • Highly centralized government
  • Diverse ethnic groups
  • Extensive irrigation
  • State religion/ancestor cult
  • Rope suspension bridges
  • Metallurgy copper and bronze
  • No use of wheel
  • Roads for tax, labor, and courier system

6
Aztec Empire1325-1520
  • Tenochtitlan Foundation of Heaven
  • By 1519, metropolis of 150,000
  • 5 square miles
  • Island location
  • Tribute empire based on agriculture
  • State control of market redistributes all goods

7
Changes in Trade, Technology and Global
Interactions
  • Exploration
  • God, Glory, and Gold?
  • Commodities
  • Cartography
  • Empire Building

8
Age of Exploration
  • European exploration
  • Why then?
  • Why?
  • Who and where?
  • End of Ming Treasure / Tribute Voyages
  • Zheng He

9
Commodities
10
Commodities
  • African slave trade
  • Notice the primary destinations

11
Commodities
  • Coffee beans used first in Yemen and then
    later in Europe and Americas
  • European used chocolate technology from Aztecs in
    17th Century

12
Cartographic Changes
13
Empire Building
  • How do empires rise and expand?
  • What factors at this time will help empires
    maintain themselves and expand their borders?
  • Consider the impact and nature of interaction
    with others

14
Africa
  • Characteristics
  • Stateless societies-organized around kinship,
    often larger than states
  • Large centralized states
  • Increased unity came from linguistic baseBantu,
    Christianity and Islam, as well as indigenous
    beliefs
  • Trademarkets, international commerce, taxed
    trade of unprocessed goods

15
African Empires
  • Oyo
  • Benin
  • Kongo
  • Asante

16
Songhay1340-1591
  • Initially farmers, herders, and fishers
  • Foreign merchant community in Gao (gold)
  • Powerful cavalry forces, expansive empire (1492)
  • Fusion of Islamic and indigenous traditions

17
Ming China1368-1644
  • Mongols are gonesimilar to Russia
  • Became more traditional not like Russia
  • Naval expeditions then isolationist
  • wasnt worth it
  • Nomads were bigger threat
  • Collected tribute
  • Cash crops, like cotton

18
Qing China1644-1911
  • Pastoral nomads, Manchus, from north
  • Manchus had highest positions
  • Kept civil-service exams for promotion
  • Traded with Europeans at off mainland islands and
    closely supervised at Canton
  • Missionaries expelled
  • Patriarchal
  • Expanded tribute coloniesTaiwan, Mongolia,
    Tibet, Vietnam, Burma Nepal

19
Tokugawa Japan1600-1853
  • Cultural borrowing from China
  • Emergence of warrior class and increasing civil
    wars
  • Encounter with Portuguese-1543
  • Isolation from West rise of Tokugawas
  • Tokugawa elite followed development in West

20
Rise of Gunpowder Empires
  • Political developments loom larger this period
  • Sea-based Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English
  • Land-based Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal
  • These are major empires/political units/social
    system

21
Ottoman1281-1914
  • 1350s Initial Ottoman invasion of Europe
  • 1453 Ottoman capture of Constantinople
  • 1683 Ottoman siege of Vienna

22
Safavid Persia1334-1722
  • Founded by militant Sufis
  • Broke away from Ottoman Empire, creating schism
    among Muslims
  • Adopted Shia Islam
  • Theocracy

23
Mughal India1556-1739
  • Empire based on military strength
  • Akbar the Great-combined beliefs into new
    religion to unite Hindu and Muslim subjects
    Din-I-Ilahi
  • Indian textile tradevalue to Europeans
  • Patron of the arts Shah Jahan

24
Empires Russia
  • Mongol occupation stalled Russian unification and
    development
  • Increasing absolutist rule and territorial
    expansion by 16th Century Ivan the Terrible
  • Role of Russian Orthodox Church
  • Peter the Great accelerated westernization process

25
Portugal
  • Search for maritime route to Asia
  • Naval school
  • Advanced naval technology caravels, astrolabe
    and compass

26
Portugal
  • Established fortresses along the Gold Coast
    sugar plantations and African slave labor
  • Indian Ocean trade and Da Gama Malindi, Sofala
    and Kilwa, Calicut and Goa, and later Macao
  • Atlantic trade with conquest of Brazil sugar
    plantation

27
Brazil Plantation colony
  • Portuguese due to Treaty of Tordesillas
    1494
  • African slave labor used to support
    plantation complex (sugar)
  • Largest producer of sugar in world first half of
    17th C.

28
Spain
  • Inquisition
  • Reconquista ended with fall of Granada
    (1492)
  • Columbus voyage
  • Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru
  • Took over existing tributary empires labor,
    silver, gold, and foodstuffs
  • Demographic impact disease, death, and mestizos

29
England
  • Limited/constitutional monarchy
  • Tudors
  • Stuarts
  • Civil War
  • Commonwealth
  • Glorious Revolution
  • Bill of Rights
  • Enlightenment ideas
  • Colonies in Americas

30
France
  • Absolute Monarchy
  • King Louis XIV
  • I am the State
  • Versailles
  • Mercantilism
  • Territorial expansion in Europe and colonies in
    Saint Domingue (Haiti) and New France (Quebec)

31
Dutch
  • Dutch East India Company
  • 1660employed 12,000 people with 257 ships
  • Sought monopolies and large profits
  • North America (fur trade-Hudson River, New
    Amsterdam)
  • Caribbean islands for plantations
  • Capetown, South Africa way station
  • Southeast Asia spice trade (nutmeg, cloves and
    pepper)

32
Changing Beliefs
  • Reformation
  • Neo-Confucianism
  • Missionaries Christianity, Islam, Buddhism

33
Cultural and Intellectual Development
  • Renaissance
  • Scientific Revolution
  • Enlightenment

34
Comparisons
  • Be able to compare the following
  • Imperial systems European monarchy vs. a
    land-based Asian empire
  • Coercive labor systems
  • Empire building in Asia, Africa and Europe
  • Russias interaction with the West compared to
    others

35
Conclusions
  • What are the major themes that seem apparent?
  • What global processes are in action?

36
Trade
  • Trade extended through all parts of the world
  • Europe finally gains access to Asian trade routes
    and attempts to control them through choke
    points- fail
  • Europe uses American raw materials- especially
    silver-to trade with Asia
  • Columbian Exchange

37
Technology
  • Spread of shipping technology to Europe as a
    result of the Crusades and experiments by Prince
    Henry the Navigator
  • Improvements in gunpowder technology- muskets and
    cannons

38
Demography
  • Disease killed millions of native Americans
  • Africans were forcibly transported to New World
    for work in plantation agriculture
  • Populations grew as new calorie-rich foods were
    brought from New World
  • Populations migrated to harsher climates as food
    crops became available
  • Populations migrated from the Old World to the
    New World

39
Social and Gender Structures
  • Americas- Castas system
  • Muslim areas (Ottomans, Mughals) Women in the
    harems wielded considerable power behind the
    scenes
  • China- power struggle between the Eunuchs and the
    Scholar Gentry

40
Cultural and Intellectual Expressions
  • Europe- Renaissance and Reformation reduces the
    power of the Catholic Church and challenges old
    beliefs
  • China ends contact with the outside world as
    neo-Confucianism dominates

41
Structure and Function of State
  • Empire remains predominant political structure
  • Coercive tribute system
  • European states, such as Spain and Portugal but
    also France, England and the Dutch, perfect
    overseas empires by claiming territory in Western
    Hemisphere
  • Qing, Russia, Mughals, Ottomans, and Safavids are
    powerful land-based empires

42
Trade- Cant live without it!
  • Global trade is THE thing this time period!
  • Core-periphery theory
  • Core states are manufacturing states
  • Periphery states provide raw materials
  • Semi-periphery supply both
  • Three core zones
  • China
  • India
  • West

43
Changes and Continuities
  • Change The Americas are added to world trade
    network
  • Change Europe becomes a Maritime area
  • Continuity Trade is really important
  • Continuity Religions continue to adapt to new
    times, but very important
  • Continuity Diffusion of ideas and diseases as
    people come into contact with each other

44
A WORLD OF EMPIRES1450-1750 CE
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