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The Development of International Standards for Very Small Entities: Historical Perspectives, Achievements and Way Forward

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Title: The Development of International Standards for Very Small Entities: Historical Perspectives, Achievements and Way Forward


1
The Development of International Standards for
Very Small Entities Historical Perspectives,
Achievements and Way Forward
Department of Software and IT Engineering
  • Professor Claude Y Laporte
  • Editor, ISO/IEC JTC1 SC7 Working Group 24
  • NASSCOM Quality Summit 2009
  • Hyderabad, May 23rd

2
Content
  • Introduction
  • Need for "VSE" Standards
  • Establishment of ISO Working Group 24
  • Approach used by Working Group 24
  • Survey technique used and results
  • Accomplishments to Date
  • Deployment Package
  • Network of VSE Support Centers
  • Next Steps

VSEs Very Small Entities are enterprises,
organizations, projects or departments having up
to 25 people.
3
École de technologie supérieure
  • Over 4500 students, 125 professors, 25 general
    senior lecturers and 200 lecturers.
  • About 2000 paid industrial internships in over
    900 companies each year.
  • Undergraduate Programs
  • Software Engineering
  • IT Engineering
  • Construction Engineering
  • Production Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Logistics and Operations Engineering
  • Graduate Programs
  • Software Engineering
  • Information Technology
  • Other programs
  • 700 students
  • 17 Professors in the department have a
    mean industrial experience of 15 years.

150 students.
www.etsmtl.ca
Department of Software and IT Engineering
4
The Importance of VSEs An Example from Japan
Manufacturer
Prime (60)
Suppliers (600)
Producers (6,000)
  • A software defect from one of the producers went
    into a product and resulted in over 200 M lost
    by the manufacturer

K. Shintani, Small Settings Workshop, SEI, 2005
5
Size of Enterprises
  • European Union
  • 93 are micro enterprises (less than 10
    employees)
  • Micro enterprises account for 70 to 90 of
    enterprises in OECD countries (57 in US)
  • Greater Montréal Area - Software Enterprises.

Number of employees Number of Software Enterprises Percentage
1 to 25 540 78
25 to 100 127 18
Over 100 26 4
50 of enterprises have less than10 employees
Source Montreal International,
2006
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development
6
History of Working Group 24
  • SC7 Plenary Meeting - Australia 2004
  • Canada raised the fact that small enterprises
    require standards adapted to their size and
    maturity
  • Establishment of a Special Interest Group
  • Two Workshops - Thailand 2005
  • Sponsored by the Thai Industrial Standard
    Institute and the Thai Software Industry
    Promotion Agency,
  • Representatives
  • Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
    Czechoslovakia, Finland, South Africa, South
    Korea, USA and Thailand.
  • SC7 Plenary Meeting - 2005 Finland.
  • Proposal to establish a new WG was tabled
  • Twelve countries offered their support to staff
    WG 24
  • WG 24 Meetings
  • Italy (2005), Thailand - Luxembourg (2006),
    Russia Canada (2007), Germany Mexico (2008),
    India (2009).

7
Approach of Working Group 24
  • Conduct an international survey of VSEs
  • To identify their problems with standards and
    their needs
  • Focus on Very Small Enterprises
  • Our work should also apply to very small teams or
    projects
  • Develop Standards and Technical Reports by
    assembling Parts from existing standards (e.g.
    from ISO/IEC 12207)
  • Profiles (stages)
  • First for Generic software development VSEs
  • Develop detailed Guidelines
  • Conduct Pilot Projects
  • "Market" WG24 products
  • e.g. conferences, papers
  • International Network of Support Centers for VSEs

8
International Survey of VSEs
  • Objectives
  • Identify VSEs' utilization of standards
  • Identify problems and potential solutions to help
    VSEs apply standards and become more capable and
    competitive.
  • Method
  • Web-based Survey
  • Questionnaire in 9 languages English, French,
    German, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish,
    Thai and Turkish.
  • Invitation to participate in survey widely
    broadcasted via
  • WG 24 Network of contacts
  • Centers and initiatives focused on SMEs/VSEs
  • e.g., SIPA (Thailand), CETIC (Belgium),
    Parquesoft (Colombia)
  • SPINs (Software Process Improvement Network)
  • Affiliated/Sponsored by the Software Engineering
    Institute

9
Responses from 32 Countries
 Country Number of Responses  Country Number of Responses  Country Number of Responses
Argentina 2 Finland 13 New Zealand 1
Australia 10 France 4 Peru 4
Belgium 10 Germany 1 Russia 4
Brazil 72 India 57 South Africa 10
Bulgaria 3 Ireland 10 Spain 4
Canada 10 Italy 2 Taiwan 1
Chile 1 Japan 3 Thailand 59
Colombia 109 Korea (South) 4 Turkey 1
Czech Republic 3 Luxembourg 3 United Kingdom 2
Dominican Republic 1 Mexico 20 United States 3
Ecuador 9 Morocco 1
435 responses
10
Why don't VSEs use Standards?
10
24
15
Not required
9
Lack of support
Lack of resources
14
Too time-consuming


Standard(s)
28
Other
Difficult, Bureaucratic, not enough guidance.
11
Requests from VSEs
  • Certification and Recognition
  • Only 18 are certified
  • Over 53 of larger companies are certified
  • Over 74 indicated that it was important to be
    either recognized or certified
  • ISO certification requested by 40.
  • Market recognition requested by 28
  • Only 4 are interested in a national
    certification
  • Needs Regarding Documentation
  • 62 are asking for more guidance and examples
  • 55 are requiring 'lightweight' standards that
    are easy to understand and apply and come with
    templates

12
A Roadmap in 4 Stages for Generic Software
Development
Stage 4
Stage 3
Defined
Stage 2
Stage 1
13
Second Stage Project Management
14
Second Stage Software Implementation
15
Documents Targeted by Audience
  • General Documents (applicable to all profiles)
  • Part 1- Overview (Technical Report)
  • Introduces the major concepts required to
    understand and use the suite of documents
  • Part 2- Framework and Profile Taxonomy (Standard)
  • Specifies the elements common to all profiles
    (structure, conformance, assessment) and
    introduces the taxonomy (catalogue) of 29110
    profiles.
  • Part 3 -Assessment Guide (Technical Report)
  • Describes the process to follow to perform an
    assessment to determinate the process
    capabilities and the organizational process
    maturity
  • Documents for the first Profile (i.e. specific to
    Stage 2)
  • Part 4-1 -Specifications (Standard)
  • Provides the composition of a profile, provide
    normative links to the normative subset of
    standards
  • Part 5-1 Management and Engineering Guide
    (Technical Report)
  • Provide guidance on its implementation and use of
    a profile
  • Deployment Packages (DP)

16
Deployment Packages for VSEs
  • 1. Introduction
  • Purpose of this document
  • Key Definitions
  • 2. Why this Topic is important
  • 3. Overview of Main Tasks
  • 3.1 Tasks
  • 3.2 Roles and artifacts
  • 3.3 Activity Lifecycle and examples of lifecycles
  • Annex A Templates
  • Annex B Checklists
  • Annex C Coverage Matrices (ISO 12207, ISO 9001,
    CMMI)
  • Annex D Tools
  • Annex E Deployment Package Evaluation Form

A DP is Free and is Transferable to a VSE in
about 3 hours
17
Deployment Packages for the Stage 2
Integration and Tests
Verification and Validation
Construction and Unit testing
Architecture and Detailed Design
Product Delivery
Project Management
Version Control
Self-Assessment
Requirements Analysis
18
Network of Support Centers for VSEs
  • Objectives
  • Help accelerate the development of ISO standard
    for VSEs
  • Accelerate deployment of VSE Standard
  • Accelerate the development and application of
    Deployment Packages
  • Belgium (Cetic)
  • Canada (ÉTS)
  • Colombia (Parquesoft)
  • Finland
  • France (UBO)
  • Hong Kong
  • Ireland (LERO)
  • Luxembourg (Tudor Research Center)
  • Mexico
  • Thailand (Institute of Software Promotion for
    Industries)

19
Proposed Stage 1 For Very Small Projects
  • To help VSEs working on small projects
  • e.g. at most six person-months effort or start-up
    VSEs
  • Processes
  • Project Planning and Monitoring
  • Develop an agreement with customer
  • Develop a plan
  • Determine phases, tasks, milestones, deliverables
  • Assess available resources, estimate effort
  • Monitor project status and perform reviews (e.g.
    retrospective)
  • Collect data (e.g. effort spent on tasks)
  • Software Development
  • Requirement Analysis and Design
  • Identify the set of requirements to implement,
  • Plan interactions with customer
  • Design the software
  • Software Code and Test
  • Code and debug
  • 2. Perform unit and system testing

To be discussed at the WG24 meeting in India
20
Two Additional Stages
  • Management of more than one project
  • Additional practices
  • Quality assurance
  • Configuration management
  • Version management is done at Stage 2
  • Testing
  • Improved Integration and Acceptance testing
  • Other Practices (to be determined)
  • Supplier management
  • Measurement
  • Business Management
  • To help the VSE to grow its business

To be discussed at the WG24 meeting in India
21
Next Steps
  • Conduct pilot projects before the Standards get
    published
  • Some WG24 delegates are already working closely
    with VSEs and will play a key role in the
    coordination of the pilot projects
  • Produce final version of documents for
    publication by ISO
  • In 2010 for Stage 2
  • Finalize deployment packages and made them
    available, free to VSEs, on public web sites.
  • Develop Stage 1, 3 and 4
  • Develop Standards for Other Domains
  • e.g. critical software development

22
Contact Information
  • Claude Y Laporte
  • Voice 1 514 396 8956
  • E-Mail Claude.Y.Laporte_at_etsmtl.ca
  • Web www.logti.etsmtl.ca/profs/claporte
  • Public site of WG 24
  • Free access to Deployment Packages and articles
  • http//profs.logti.etsmtl.ca/claporte/English/VSE/
    index.html

23
Thank you for your attention
  • Questions?

24
Back-up Slides
25
Differences between small and large companies
  • Characteristics
  • Specific business models and goals
  • Market niche
  • Limited financial resources
  • Very good responsiveness and flexibility as
    competitive advantage
  • Informal management
  • Resource constraints
  • Lack of regular employee training
  • Standardization aspects
  • Aware of importance of standards
  • Difficulties in implementing complex standards
  • Inability to make effective use of standards
    available
  • Lack of understanding of the language,
    terminology, etc. of the standards

Marty Sanders, LERO, 2007
26
Use of Standards by VSEs
  • Reasons for not using Standards
  • Not written for or difficult to use by VSEs
  • Current standards do not specifically address VSE
    needs
  • Current standards requires critical mass (staff,
    budget, time) to implement
  • Compliance with existing standards difficult to
    achieve
  • Net benefit not obvious
  • Benefits of use (but not seen by VSEs)
  • Reduction of risk (business, cost, schedule,
    quality)
  • Align IT strategy to business objectives
  • Enables measurement of productivity and quality
  • VSEs are often critical component of
    enterprise/product.

27
Current Initiatives to help SMEs and VSEs
  • Europe
  • Ireland - Centre for Software Process
    Technologies (CSPT)
  • Belgium - Centre dExcellence en Technologies de
    lInformation et de la Communication (CETIC)
  • Ireland (LERO)
  • Luxembourg - Public Research Center Henri Tudor
  • UK National Computing Center
  • European Software Institute IT Mark
  • Australia - Software Quality Institute (Rapid)
  • Latin Countries
  • Mexico - Moprosoft
  • COMPETISOFT Project 13 Latin American
    countries, Spain, Portugal.
  • Columbia ParqueSoft
  • Asia
  • Thailand - Association of Thai Software Industry
  • Hong Kong Productivity Council
  • North America
  • ÉTS Technology Transfer Center for small and
    very small software enterprises
  • Software Productivity Center (SPC) - Vancouver
  • Software Engineering Institute - Improving
    Processes in Small Settings (IPSS)

28
The Survey - Weaknesses
  • The Sample
  • Survey was initiated through WG24 contacts
  • Not a true random sample
  • Geographical Distribution of the Responses
  • Strong representation Latin America (50)
  • Weak representation Europe (11), US (0.6)
  • Application Domain
  • Strong representation
  • 40 of life/mission-critical systems
  • 34 of regulated developments.

29
Number of Employees in Enterprises Surveyed
17
36
0-9
16
10-25
26-49
50-249
9
250
22
30
Role of Respondents
21
31
Director
Manager
QA
Coordinator
Consultant
Blank
1
Other
4
31
1
11
31
Types of Software Development
Number of Responses
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Customized
In-house
COTS
Specialized Product
Embedded
Integrated
Other
32
CMMI Level 2 Coverage by Moprosoft
Fully Largely Partially Not Covered
Requirements Management 70 20 10 0
Project Planning 66 17 13 4
Project Monitoring and Control 70 20 10 0
Measurement and Analysis 61 17 22 0
Process and Product Quality Assurance 72 0 21 7
Configuration Management 55 0 28 17
Supplier Agreement Management 70 0 18 12
  • 84 practices are Fully covered
  • 13 practices are Largely covered
  • 22 practices are Partially covered
  • 7 practices are Not covered

33
COMPETISOFT Project
  • To provide Latin-American countries with a
    reference framework for the improvement and
    certification of their software processes,
  • To be more competitive in the global market,
  • Participants 13 Latin American countries, Spain,
    Portugal,
  • Pilot projects 6 organisations over 4 months.

34
Scope of SEI Project in Small Settings
Small Companies (lt100)
Small Organizations (lt50)
Small Projects (lt20)
Focus of WG24
Prototype of field guide available
on www.sei.cmu.edu/iprc/ipss.html
S. Garcia, Montréal SPIN, 2005
35
Improving Processes in Small Setting (IPSS)
  • Part of the International Process Research
    Consortium (IPRC)
  • To explore the unique challenges of improving
    processes in small settings.
  • Establish an effective method or methods for
    process improvement in several different examples
    of small settings
  • Codify the method(s) for use by others
  • Process improvement initiative - IPSS Phase 1
  • A small business operating within a large
    software/system development program
  • A small or short-term project operating within a
    large organization
  • A small business improving for competitive
    advantage

Caroline Graettinger, May 2007 www.sei.cmu.edu/ipr
c/ipss.html http//www.sei.cmu.edu/publications/bo
oks/process/cmmi-survival-guide.html
36
  • Non-profit organization established in Columbia
    in 1999
  • Purpose
  • Create and develop enterprises providing goods
    and services to the information technology
  • Integrates 11 sites in Columbia
  • Houses more than 200 VSEs
  • Over 120 VSEs under the same roof in Cali
  • 1000 Software Engineering Professionals,
  • About 200 professionals provide support in
    technical, administrative and business
    development processes
  • Q.A., Test, Finance, Communication, Contract,
    Publication, etc.
  • Cost of expertise is pay-as-you-use and shared
    between VSEs.

www.parquesoft.com
37
Stage 2 VSE Profile Processes
Implementation Process
Project Management Process
Outside World
Source Timo Mäkinen, Timo Varkoi, SPICE 2008
38
Examples of Issues and Solutions (Proposed by
Thailand)
Standard should be broken down in to stages or
levels in order to fit all sizes of SMEs.
SMEs are not ready to implement the whole
standard.
Need to modify activities to suit SMEs operation
product and project based type of business.
Not all standard activities are suitable for
SMEs' operations
A set of checklists was developed for use by
assessors.
There is no assessment model.
Provide packaged templates and examples for rapid
documentation
Most software developers are not
document-oriented.
Source
39
Mexican Standard
  • Top Management
  • Business Management
  • Management
  • Process Management
  • Project Portfolio Management
  • Resource Management
  • Operations
  • Specific Projects Management
  • Software Development and Maintenance

Vazquez, A., A Software Process Model for Very
Small Enterprises. Presentation to ISO/IEC JTC1
SC7 WG24, Bangkok, May 2006.
40
Network of VSE Support Centers
CETIC (Belgium)
Parquesoft (Columbia)
UNAM (Mexico)
U of Tampere (Finland)
FTI (Thailand)
ÉTS
U de Bretagne (France)
Tudor (Luxembourg)
LERO (Ireland)
U Polytechnique (Hong Kong)
41
Application of ISO 20000 to VSEs
  • IT Service Management
  • Defines the requirements for a service provider
    to deliver managed services of an acceptable
    quality for its customer.
  • Development of Deployment Packages
  • Pilot project

42
Systems Engineering for VSMEs
  • Project done under sponsorship of INCOSE/AFIS
  • Goals
  • To improve or make product development efficient
    by using Systems Engineering methodology
  • To elaborate tailored practical guidance to apply
    to VSMEs in the context of prime or
    subcontractor, of commercial products
  • To contribute to standardization


VSMEs stands for Very Small and Small Entities or
Enterprises
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