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Inforation%20Literacy

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Title: Inforation%20Literacy


1
Welcome to the Colby-Sawyer CollegeInformation
Literacy TutorialThis tutorial is designed to
teach you how to start your research, how to
find the best sources and how to properly cite
them. Please send all feedback to Carrie
Thomas, College Librariancathomas_at_colby-sawyer.ed
u This tutorial was modeled after the Pilot
Information Literacy Tutorial Healey Library, U
Mass., Boston. http//www.lib.umb.edu/WebTutorial
/ Many thanks to them for allowing us to use it.
2
Choose a Tutorial
Getting Started Finding Books Finding Articles Finding Websites
Obtaining Materials Citations Plagiarism Evaluation of Sources Quizzes See Blackboard
3
Getting Started
4
Getting Started with research
  • After completing this module, you will be able
    to
  • State a Topic
  • Refine a Topic
  • Identify Keywords and Concepts
  • Create Search Strategies

5
Begin Chapter One
  • CONTENTS
  • Select a Topic
  • Refine a Topic
  • Develop a Research Question
  • Organize a search strategy
  • Refine or limit a search

6
Beginning your Research
  • A research topic should be   Manageable Do
    some preliminary investigative work to see if
    there's too much (or too little) information on
    the topic you've selected.  Related to your
    personal interests Choose a topic related   to
    your personal interests. It's likely that you'll
    put more effort into researching a topic that
    piques your curiosity and more effort can mean a
    better grade.
  • Selecting a topicUsually your professor will
    assign a topic to research. However, there are
    times a professor will ask that you select a
    research topic of your own. This can be difficult
    if you don't have any direction. Here are some
    tips to help you get started,

7
Get your feet wet!
  • If you are just starting research in a totally
    new area, you might want to get some background
    information on the field first. You can
    investigate sources such as these for ideas
  • CQ Researcher
  • Subject Encyclopedias
  • Websites
  • World InfoZone
  • Hot Paper Topics
  • Speech and Term Paper Topics

8
REFINING A TOPIC
  • When refining a topic you need to think about the
    scope of your subject. If you are writing a short
    or medium length paper you can not cover a huge
    topic adequately. If your topic is too broad,
    you will be overwhelmed with information
    Conversely, if your topic is too narrow you will
    be frustrated trying to find information. Ask
    yourself these questions

9
Too Broad or Too Narrow
Is my topic too broad?
Too Broad Narrower
  Domestic abuse   Prevention programs for domestic abusers
  Domestic abuse   Psychological impact of abuse on children
  Domestic abuse   Abuse and teenage mothers
Is my topic too narrow?
Too Narrow Broader
What is the effect of cigarette advertising on anorexic teenage girls? Cigarette advertising and teenagers
What is the effect of cigarette advertising on anorexic teenage girls? Advertising and body image
10
Exercise in Determining Scope
How widespread is drug abuse among adolescents today? Too Broad Too Narrow Manageable
How does trade affect the economy? Too Broad Too Narrow Manageable
What is the average air speed velocity of the un-laden swallow? Too Broad Too Narrow Manageable
11
Developing a Research QuestionState your topic
in the form of a question so its easier to
identify the main concepts
Research Question Main Concepts
What health effects are associated with polluted drinking water? Health effects Water Pollution
Try this fun exercise in finding the main topics!
12
Exercise In Finding The Main Topics
How many college students are engaged in binge drinking today? Alcoholism Binge Drinking College Students
How does education play a role in reducing the recidivism rate of juvenile offenders? Juvenile Education Gang Violence Recidivism
What have been the results of various sign language experiments with chimpanzees? Sign Language Animal Testing Monkey Brains
13
To be sure you have located all the resources
available on a topic, check for synonyms of your
main concepts
Water Rivers Lakes Oceans Bays Harbors
Pollution Pollutants Waste Sewage Runoff Acid rain Oil spills
Risk Factors Disease Reactions
14
Further RefinementThese techniques work in most
databases and on the web
Phrase Searching Use or select as a phrase in a pull down menu. Examples acid rain , Martin Luther King
Nesting Use Parentheses ( ) to nest search terms. Example (bay or harbor) and pollution
Truncation Use a symbol to search work variants. Truncation symbols vary but the CSC Library catalog uses the Examples Pollut pollution, pollutants, polluting
Limiters Often you can limit your results by date, type of publication (article, dissertation), language or other factors
15
Correct
Click here to return to the quiz
16
Wrong!!
Click here to return to the quiz
17
Correct
Click here to return to the quiz
18
Wrong!!
Click here to return to the quiz
19
Congratulations!! You are done with this
chapter! Please exit to the Blackboard site to
review the quiz questions.
20
Finding Books
21
Finding Books
  • After completing the chapter you will be able to
  • Discover what books the Library owns by searching
    the online catalog
  • Understand several ways to locate books.
  • Learn Title and Subject searching

22
THE LIBRARY CATALOG    
A Library Catalog is a database of the books, newspapers, magazines and journals ( NOT articles) the Library owns. This catalog, like the other web based tools we will show you, is available 24/7. A Library Catalog is a database of the books, newspapers, magazines and journals ( NOT articles) the Library owns. This catalog, like the other web based tools we will show you, is available 24/7.
See the Library Catalog link upper left
23
This is the opening page of the CSC Library
Catalog. "All Title Browse" is the first choice
offered but you can search by author, subject or
other variables by clicking on the arrow. There
are many ways to search the catalog... click here
to see....
24
SELECTING A SEARCH METHOD   These are some of
the options available on the Basic Search
screen.Choose...                Title -
(Browse or Keyword)          If you know a title
of a book            Author - (Browse or
Keyword)       If you know an author of a book  
            Serial Title - (Browse)
                 If you're looking to see if the
library subscribes to a periodical  
            Subject - (Browse or Keyword)    
If you need to look for a subject   
We will focus on these 2 search techniques 
Title  Subject
25
Doing an All Title Browse search for the word
"environment" brings up 25 titles where the word
environment is the first significant word in the
title (ignoring the initial A, An or The in a
title).
26
All the information you need to find the book on
the library shelves and to cite it in a
bibliography is listed here.
The section of the library where the book is
shelved
If book is checked out the date due back will
appear here
See explanation of call numbers later
27
A Title Keyword search for "environment" produces
236 results. As you can see - the word
"environment"   may occur anywhere in the title,
not as just the first word.
28
Let's try another type of search.   If you don't
know the title of a book but want to find any
books about a topic -You can do a Subject
Keyword Search
You will use this search when looking for books
on a topic or subject.When you run a subject
keyword search for the words "violence" and "mass
media" - you come up with a list of 13 titles the
library owns that have those terms in the titles
or subject headings - lets see how that works
29
Lets look at title 2 Where do you draw the
line?
30
When you click on the title, the catalog record
shows that the book is available.
The left hand side of the page gives you the
opportunity to look at more titles by this author
or other books in related subjects.Clicking on
Mass media - censorship
31
Brings you to 4 other titles, two of which did
not show up in the earlier search!! In this way
you can move around in the catalog finding other
titles that may be useful to you.
32
CALL NUMBERS Every book in the CSC Library has
a unique number assigned to it. Think of that
"call number" as the address that allows you to
locate the book.A call number is actually a
code of letters and numbers used to identify the
subject matter of a particular item, and its
exact location on the shelf.The material in the
CSC Library is classified according to the
Library of Congress (L.C.) Classification System.
Click here for a brief look at an outline of
the "L.C." classification system The call
number can be found on a label on the spine of a
book. It will look something like this
QA General Subject Area
76.64 More Specific Subject Area
.S72 Author Or Title
1996 Year Published
Lets see how well you do deciphering a catalog
record Now try the Chapter 2 Quiz
33
In order to locate a book, you must understand
how the numbers are filed. In the examples
below, the call numbers are arranged as they
would be on the shelf - from left to
right....Find the classification letter, then
the number

Q Q QA QA
101 115 76 76.64
.M39 .S82 .H67 .N497
1985 1975 1992 1986
The second section of the call number is the
Cutter number   which is used to indicate the
author or title.Cutter numbers (like
classification numbers) are filed first
alphabetically, then numerically.However, since
they follow a decimal point - they are in decimal
order.
LA LA LA LA
278 278 278 278
.B6 .B615 .B69 .C7
1992 1989 1985 1976
34
Congratulations!! You are done with this
chapter! Please exit to the Blackboard site to
review the quiz questions.
35
Finding Articles
36
Finding Articles
  • After completing this module, you will be able
    to1. Identify a popular magazine and a
    scholarly journal 2. Learn where to find
    periodical indexes and how to choose which one to
    use 3. Use periodical indexes to find articles
    on a topic 4. Find the articles and journals in
    the CSC Library
  • .
  • Contents   What are Periodicals?  Scholarly
    Journals vs. Popular Magazines  Using Indexes
    to locate articles  Print Indexes 
    Deciphering index information  Finding
    Articles using Citation Information  Requesting
    Articles from Other Libraries

37
WHAT ARE PERIODICALS?  Colby Sawyer College
Library subscribes to 600 periodicals in paper
format and has access to another thousand or so
in electronic format. Periodicals include
journals, magazines and newspapers that are
published at regular or periodic intervals
(daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.).
Articles provide   Up to date information  
Information specific to your topic   Research
studies   Opinions on current issues  
References to other sources   Current
Statistics   Book, film and music reviews
38
Scholarly Journals vs. Popular Magazines
  • Scholarly Journals
  • Are written by scholars in a particular field
    Have bibliographies and/or cite sources
    Report original research (not personal
    opinions) Use a specialized vocabulary Are
    often "peer reviewed" or refereed which means
    approved by a group of experts
  • Popular MagazinesAre targeted toward a
    general audience Often have a good deal of
    advertising Rarely include references to
    other works Written by journalists and staff
    writers Can include opinions on current
    issues

39
Popular Magazine Article Titles  Try to catch
the reader's attention  Are often short and
funny  Can sound like a newspaper headline 
     
40
  • Scholarly Journal articles
  • Tend to be more specific
  • Can be quite long
  • Describe the subject being discussed       

41
  • How do I tell the difference?
  • Scholarly Journals often have titles that include
    the words Journal, Quarterly,
    Studies, Review, Bulletin
  • Sometimes you need to look though the periodical
    to determine it's nature.

Quiz Scholarly vs. Popular magazines
42
Scholarly vs. Popular
A scholarly journal is one that is read mostly by specialists in the field True False
Is the New England Journal of Medicine considered a scholarly or a popular journal? Scholarly Popular
US News and World Report is considered? Scholarly Popular
Rolling Stone is considered? Scholarly Popular
Quarterly Review of Sociology is considered? Scholarly Popular

You will need to use an index to locate an
article on a particular topic...
43
TRUE
  • Yes this is the right answer

Click here to return to the quiz
44
False
  • No scholarly journals are mostly read by the
    professionals in each field

Click here to return to the quiz
45
Correct
Click here to return to the quiz
46
Wrong
Click here to return to the quiz
47
USING ONLINE INDEXES TO LOCATE JOURNAL
ARTICLESWhat is an online periodical index?  
Gives you keyword access to the articles
published in journals   Lists the basic
information you need to find the article and to
cite it in a bibliography or footnote (Journal
Title, Article Title and Author, Volume, Date,
Page Numbers)   Sometimes includes an abstract
or summary of the article and sometimes includes
the full text of the article.
48
Finding the right index  On the Information
Resources Library Homepage click on   "Online
Databases" 
49
Clicking on the "Online Databases" linkOpens
this page listing all the databases the library
carriesEach entry has a brief explanation of the
contents of that database.
50
PRINT INDEXES Most online indexes have limited
coverage - only the last 20 years or so. Where
do you look if you want to find??  A journal
article published during the Great Depression of
the 1930's ?  A war correspondent's tales of
World War II?   A spectator's account of the
Civil Rights protests of the 1960's?Printed
and bound journal indexes have been published
since the late 1800's so you can use them to find
articles printed over a century ago. These
volumes can be found in the Reference section of
the library on the main floor.
51
Examples of print indexes  Art Index 
Readers Guide to Periodical Literature  Book
Review IndexWhether you are looking in a print
or online journal index, the principles of
citation deciphering are the same...
52
       DECIPHERING INDEX INFORMATION   Index
entries come in three forms Basic
CitationCitation with AbstractCitation with
Full Text
53
BASIC CITATIONContains all the information you
need to locate an article in the library and to
cite an article in a bibliography.It includes
basic information such as  article title  
author(s)  journal title   publication
date  volume and issue numbers  page numbers
54
CITATION WITH ABSTRACT  Includes all the
basic information as before plus a summary or
abstract (length and detail depends on the index
or database)   Abstracts help you determine if
an article is really related to your topic. They
can also help you determine the scope of the
article (scholarly, opinion piece, etc.).
55
CITATION WITH FULL TEXTIncludes all the
information as before plus the entire text and
sometimes all photos from the article.
56
ACADEMIC SEARCH PREMIERIs one of the more
popular databases or online indexes The Basic
Search Screen has one window to fill in with a
keyword or phrase
57
Advanced Search ScreenGives you three windows to
fill in with keywords, author names, journal
titles, or subject headings
Click here to try the online EBSCOHost tutorial
58
IF IT'S NOT AVAILABLE IN FULL-TEXT - DOES THE
LIBRARY OWN IT?  Let's say you found the
following citation in a periodical index
59
Don't assume that because you are using one of
our databases, that we have every article listed.
Periodical indexes don't always tell you if the
library has a particular journal. But, they do
give you all the information you need to find the
article such as  Journal title   Volume and
date   Starting page With this information,
you can search the CSC Library Catalog to see 
If the library currently subscribes to the
journal   If the library has back issues,
including the one you need
60
Search the Library Catalog  Use the "Serial
Title Browse" search function to search for the
journal title.
61
The library owns "Conservation Biology" from 1994
to the present. The December 2003 issue you need
will be shelved on Level 1
Learn what to do when the library doesn't seem to
have what you need...
62
WHAT IF THE LIBRARY DOESN'T OWN IT?    The
Colby-Sawyer College Library doesn't own every
journal. If you can't find a copy of the
article   Electronically in full-text   Here
in the library in paper or on microfilm   That
doesn't mean you can't get a copy of the article.
You can1. Check with a Reference Librarian to
see if there is another library in the area that
has the journal. 2. Request the article from
Interlibrary Loan You'll learn more about
obtaining materials not held by the CSC Library
in chapter five Obtaining Materials
63
Congratulations!! You are done with this
chapter! Please exit to the Blackboard site to
review the quiz questions.
64
Finding Websites
65
Finding Websites
  • After completing this module, you will be able
    to   Define the Internet and World Wide Web
      Successfully use Internet resources for
    research   Evaluate Internet resources

Contents   Internet Terminology   URL Basics
  What's on the web?   Search Engines  
Subject Directories   The Invisible Web  
Subject Guides   Web Site Evaluation
66
    INTERNET TERMINOLOGY    What is the
Internet?            The Internet is a global
network connecting millions of computers.
                                                T
his vast network of networks permits its users to
exchange electronic mail, transfer
files of texts, images, and sounds, and run
programs on remote hosts .   What is
the World Wide Web?   The Web consists of files
(called pages, home pages, or web
pages) containing links to documents and
resources
throughout  the Internet.                        
                        The Web relies primarily
on hypertext as its means of information
retrieval.
What is a web page?             A web page is a
file that is viewable by a web browser.
                                                I
t may contain links to other pages, images, sound
files .                                         
 A collection of web pages is usually called
a web site.  
67
URL BASICS Each page on the Web has a unique
address called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
The URL gives you a general idea of where the
resource originates and who is responsible for
creating it. The address also hints at the type
of resource and whether or not it will be of
value to you.Let's look at the following sample
URL, which is the address for the library's
resource page   
http// www.colby-sawyer.edu /information/index.ht
ml 1  2 3
1.. Protocol All Web addresses begin with http
which stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the
set of standards used by computers to transfer
hypertext files (Web pages) over the Internet.
68
URL BASICS Each page on the Web has a unique
address called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
The URL gives you a general idea of where the
resource originates and who is responsible for
creating it. The address also hints at the type
of resource and whether or not it will be of
value to you.Let's look at the following sample
URL, which is the address for the library's
resource page   
http// www.colby-sawyer.edu /information/index.ht
ml 1  2 3
2. Domain  This section identifies the computer
on which the Web page is located. From this
information, you can determine the entity which
supports that computer, as well as the general
type of organization that entity is.www
indicates that this computer is acting as a Web
server. colby-sawyer is the college's domain
name edu is the top level domain - it tells us
what type of organization is running the website
69
URL BASICS Each page on the Web has a unique
address called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
The URL gives you a general idea of where the
resource originates and who is responsible for
creating it. The address also hints at the type
of resource and whether or not it will be of
value to you.Let's look at the following sample
URL, which is the address for the library's
resource page   
http// www.colby-sawyer.edu /information/index.ht
ml 1  2 3
3.. Path The last part of the URL is the path .
The domain has identified one computer out of the
millions of computers connected to the Internet,
but it's the path that pinpoints one specific
file on that computer. In our example, the path
is information/index This tells us that we are
looking in a directory (or folder) on the host
computer called "information" and the filename is
'"index"  The . html is known as a file
extension and tells us what type of file it is.
In this case, it's a hypertext file (web page).
70
TOP LEVEL DOMAINS   Below are four major
categories of Web sites which can be
distinguished by the top-level domain.
DOMAIN ADDRESS WEBSITE
.edu educational institution http//www.harvard.edu
.com Commercial site http//www.microsoft.com
.org Organization or association http//www.ama-assn.org
.gov Federal government site http//www.fbi.gov
71
There are other less-common top-level domains as
well, such as .mil (military) and .net (network
access provider).And some new domains coming
into use .biz (businesses) and .museumYou
will also occasionally see two-letter codes at
the end of the domain. These are country codes,
which have been assigned to identify and locate
files stored on host computers in countries
around the world. Some examples.ca canada
.uk united kingdom .de germany .mx
mexico .au australia
72
Whats on the web
  • The web is currently estimated to contain
    billions of documents. It is not indexed in any
    standard vocabulary (unlike a library's catalogs
    which assign Library of Congress subject headings
    to their documents). This fact can make finding
    relevant information very difficult.The web is
    useful if you are searching for   Government
    information state, national, and international
      Statistics brief reports and studies  
    News and current events press releases  
    Information on educational institutions,
    companies, and non-profit organizations  
    Directions, schedules, addresses and phone
    numbers  

73
How do you find a relevant web site?
  • Unless you already know the address or URL of a
    web page, you will have a hard time finding what
    you need on the web.  
  • To find information, you need a search tool.
    These search tools allow you to search or browse
    the web in a variety of ways.
  • Types of Search Tools Search Engine Subject
    Directory Invisible Web Subject Guide

74
  SEARCH ENGINES   
  • A Search Engine is a program that searches
    documents for specified keywords and returns a
    list of the documents where the keywords were
    found.Use a search engine when...   You
    have a narrow or obscure topic or idea to
    research   You are looking for a specific site
      You want to search the full text of millions
    of pages   You want to retrieve a LARGE number
    of documents on your topic

75
Search Engine Characteristics
  • Searches the full-text of selected Web pages  
    Search by keyword   No browsing, no subject
    categories   Databases compiled by "spiders"
    (computer-robot programs) with minimal human
    oversight   Size varies from small and
    specialized to over 90 of the indexable Web.
  •   Popular Search Engines Google
  • Alta Vista
  • Hot Bot
  • Ask

76
SEARCH ENGINES - SAMPLE SEARCH   
  •  More search engine tips...   Different search
    engines will give you different results. Try more
    than one.   Use in front of a word or phrase
    that must be included in your results, or a - in
    front of words that you don't want to be in your
    results.  If you are looking for a specific
    phrase, enclose it in quotation marks.
  • Search Format Examples "victorian literature"
    "Martin Luther King Jr." childhood bass
    -fishing

77
GOOGLE search engine  The Google search engine
is one of the most powerful tools for searching
the web. It will list the web sites that are the
most popular (the ones with the most links to
them) first. These are usually the higher
quality web sites.
78
Other Search TipsIf you are searched for
pictures try clicking on the "Images" tab in
Google
79
If you get too many results - try the Advanced
Search Screen
80
  SUBJECT DIRECTORIES    
  • A Subject Directory is a service that offers a
    collection of links to Internet resources
    submitted by site creators or evaluators and
    organized into subject categories.Directory
    services use selection criteria for choosing
    links to include, though the selectivity varies
    among services.Most directories include a
    search engine mechanism to query the
    service.You should use a subject directory
    when...   You have a broad topic or idea to
    research   You want to see a pre-selected list
    of sites on your topic that are recommended
    or annotated by experts   You want to avoid
    viewing low-content or low quality documents
    that often turn up on search engines

81
  Subject Directory Characteristics    
  • Hand-selected sites picked by editors, more or
    less carefully   Organized into hierarchical
    subject categories   Some directories are
    annotated with descriptions   Browse subject
    categories or search using broad, general terms
     
  • Popular Subject Directories
  • Yahoo
  • About.com
  • Librarian's Index

82
INVISIBLE WEB (SEARCHABLE DATABASES)
  • You should use the invisible web when.. .  You
    want dynamically changing content such as the
    latest news, job postings, available airline
    flights, etc.
  •   You want to find information that is normally
    stored in a database, such as phone book
    listings, directories of lawyers, collections of
    laws, etc.
  • The CSC library subscribes to many databases that
    will lead you to articles, statistics, marketing
    information and other research needs. See the
    links under Online Databases
  •   For further explanations of the Invisible Web
  • see the Berkeley tutorial at http//www.lib.berk
    eley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/InvisibleWeb.
    html          

83
SUBJECT GUIDES  
  • Web pages of collections of hypertext links on a
    subject   You may locate subject guides with
    searches in both subject directories and search
    engines.
  • You should use a subject directory when...  
    You want a list of sites that have been compiled
    and evaluated by "expert" subject specialists.
  •   We have compiled a list of subject directories
    useful to CSC students under
  • " Research Links" on the library's web site
  • Other Subject Guides
  • Argus Clearinghouse
  • Suite 101.com
  • Academic Info

84
   HOW TO EVALUATE WEB INFORMATION  
  • Unlike journal articles and books that go
    through an editorial process and peer review,
    anyone at a computer can publish a Web site. To
    critically evaluate a site, do the
    followingDetermine the site's purpose   Is
    it to inform, to present opinions, to report
    research or sell a product?   For what audience
    is it intended? Identify the site's author  
    Are qualifications, experience, and/or
    institutional affiliation given?  Look for a
    "Contact Us" button or a homepage link to
    identify the web site's author(s)   Determine
    who supports the site.             government
    sites end in ".gov"             non-profit
    organizations end in ".org"             universit
    y sites end in ".edu"             commercial
    sites end in ".com"
  • Information from a site labeled with the domain
    names ".org" or ".edu" may provide a different
    viewpoint than information from a site labeled
    ".com" will.

85
Consider the site's authority   Does the web
site contain documented facts or personal
opinion?   Beware of personal pages - those
with a (tilde) in the URL.  Are sources of
information cited? Does the site look as if it's
been created by a professional (no typos,
spelling errors or messiness)?   Has the
information on the page been transcribed from
another source? If yes, this indicates
second-hand information check the original
source. Did you get to this site via a link from
a site you know and trust? Check the site's
timeliness   Is the content up to date? Is the
date of creation or most recent revision clearly
shown?   Are all the links on the page current
or are there many dead ends? Consider the
site's content   What aspect of your topic does
the site not cover? Can you use this site to
support a position you plan to take in your
paper?   How are the links on the site's pages
relevant and appropriate to the purpose of the
site?
86
EXAMPLES OF GOOD BAD WEBSITES
  • EXAMPLE ONE   SMOKING AND HEALTHRole of Media
    in Tobacco Control
  • http//www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00
    030959.htmWho is the authoring agency and what
    is their authority?
  • Secondhand Smoke the Big Liehttp//www.smokings
    ection.com/issues1.html
  • Who is the authoring agency here?
  • EXAMPLE TWO   AIDSGender and
    HIV/AIDShttpwww.genderandaids.orgThe United
    Nations is a trustworthy author on this topic
  • True But Little Known Facts about Women and
    AIDShttp//147.129.226.1/library/research/AIDSFAC
    TS.htmBe sure to scroll to the bottom!
  • Thank you to Susan E. Beck at New Mexico State
    Univ.for providing these examplesSee her web
    page for more information on evaluating web sites
    and other examples of good and bad sites.

87
Congratulations!! You are done with this
chapter! Please exit to the Blackboard site to
review the quiz questions.
88
Obtaining Materials
89
Obtaining Materials
  • After completing this module, you will be able
    to   Locate materials not held by the
    Colby-Sawyer Library.   Request materials
    through Interlibrary Loan.   Find other
    libraries from which you can borrow materials.  
    Identify people and places for assistance.

Contents   Obtaining Books not in the Library
  Obtaining Articles from Journals not in the
Library   Library Consortia   Library
Reference Hours   Off-Campus Access to Library
Resources   Location of Library Materials  
Key Library Departments
90
  Locating BooksCant find the books you
need? Dont worry! You have many options
  •   Interlibrary Loan ILL works with a
    national network of libraries to order copies of
    articles from periodicals and books unavailable
    at the CSC Library.
  • There is no cost for this service for faculty,
    staff and students.
  • Most orders take two weeks, though some may take
    longer.
  • Fill out an ILL form at the Reference Desk (main
    floor), or online at
  • http//www.colby-sawyer.edu/information/library/i
    ndex.html

91
Other Area LibrariesIf you want to go to
another area library to get a book, start by
searching the area libraries catalogs. Choose
Other Library Catalogs from the CSC Library
Homepage. The NH state catalog as well as other
catalogs are listed there. Check the status of
the book to be sure it is available. The CSC
Library is a member of a state-wide university
library consortium described at the end of this
module. You may borrow books from any of the
NHCUC libraries with a valid CSC student ID card.
Regulations and restrictions will vary at each
school. Library of CongressThere is a link to
the Library of Congress on the CSC Library
homepage as well. Although you may not borrow
books from the Library of Congress, it is the
world's largest library and you may use the
catalog to investigate what is available in your
subject area. If you find any titles you would
like to read, you may fill out an ILL form
(either in paper in the library or online) and
the library staff will try to borrow it from
another library for you.
92
Locating ArticlesIf you need a copy of an article
  • Check the CSC library catalog to see if we carry
    the journal.
  • If not, you may fill out a paper Interlibrary
    loan form
  • at the reference desk or an online form .
  • Some items to consider  It will take 2 days to
    2 weeks to get the article, depending on which
    library owns it and whether they email, snail
    mail or fax the photocopy to us.   Make sure
    you fill out the form as completely as possible.
    We need                         Journal
    Title                        Article Author and
    Title                        Volume number and
    Date of journal                        Pages
    numbers of article
  • ILL requests that are lacking some of this
    information may take longer to process and fill.

93
If you found an article during one of your
EBSCOHost searches(see Chapter 3 of this
tutorial) You simply click on the interlibrary
loan link under the article citation to fill out
the ILL form there. The form will come to the
library via email once you click "Submit" and the
library staff will try to obtain it for you.
94
New Hampshire College and University Council
  • Colby-Sawyer College is part of a state wide
    consortium of colleges and universities. A
    current CSC student, faculty member or staff
    member may borrow books at any of the colleges
    listed below with a valid CSC ID card. Loan
    periods and other regulations are set by each
    library. There is a free van service to return
    books to a library if you are unable to return
    them in person.   Daniel Webster College 
    Franklin Pierce College  Keene State College 
    New England College  Southern NH University 
    Plymouth State University  Rivier College 
    Saint Anselm College  UNH - Durham  UNH -
    Manchester

95
Library Hours
  • MONDAY - THURSDAY     8 am - 11 pmFRIDAY
                                8 am - 9
    pmSATURDAY                       10 am - 9
    pmSUNDAY                           10 am -
    11pmClick here for extended finals period
    hours, vacation hours, summer or holiday hours or
    call 526-3685For other questions, you may
    call
  • Reference Desk 526-3687 Circulation Desk
    526-3685
  • You may email us a question reference_at_colby-sawy
    er.edu

96
LOCATION OF LIBRARY MATERIALS
DEPARTMENT LOCATION PHONE
Archives Main Floor (level 3) 526-3687
Audio Visual materials Level 2
Circulation Main Floor (level 3) 526-3685
Curriculum and childrens materials Level 2
Interlibrary Loan Main Floor - Reference 526-3687
Microforms Level 1
Periodicals Levels 1, 3, 5
Reference Main Floor (level 3) 526-3687
Reserves Main Floor - Circulation 526-3685
97
Congratulations!! You are done with this
chapter! Please exit to the Blackboard site to
review the quiz questions.
98
Citations Plagiarism
99
Citations Plagiarism
  • After completing this module, you will be able
    to   Identify the components of a
    bibliographic citation   Recognize a variety of
    citation styles   Create footnotes and
    bibliographies for your work using citation style
    manuals   Avoid plagiarism    
  • Contents   Plagiarism   Avoiding Plagiarism
      Quoting Paraphrasing   Citations  
    Citation Styles

100
PLAGIARISM
  • Research skills enable you to effectively locate
    and evaluate relevant information. However, you
    need to remember to give credit for the
    information you use in your assignments.   When
    you forget to cite your sources, you are guilty
    of plagiarism.

101
  • What is Plagiarism?  "To take ideas from
    another and pass them off as one's own."
    -- Webster   Submitting someone else's work (in
    whole, part, or paraphrase) as one's own without
    fully and properly crediting the author.  
    Submitting as one's own, original work material
    that has been produced through unacknowledged
    collaboration with others.
  • What is Cybercheating? (Hint It's another form
    of Plagiarism)  Cutting and pasting someone
    else's webwork and submitting it as your own.  
    Downloading essays, papers, speeches etc. from
    the web and turning them in as your own.  
    Buying essays, papers, speeches etc. from the
    web and turning them in as your own.
  • Plagiarism in the Headlines
  • Colby-Sawyer Policy on Academic Honesty Do you
    know what Colby-Sawyer's policy on academic
    honesty is? Click here to read about it in the
    Student Handbook (p.16).

102
  • RECENT PLAGIARISM HEADLINES
  • Title Failure to credit others words breaks
    cardinal rule.   
  • Author(s) Source Baltimore Sun
    01/08/2006(Sun columnist, Michael Olesker,
    resigns after 27 years at the newspaper)
  • Title UMKC dean is put on leave after plagiarism
    accusation
  •   Author(s) Kavita Kumar   Source St. Louis
    Post Dispatch 06/22/2005(Dean at Univ. of
    Missouri is accused of lifting significant
    portions of a commencement address from other
    writers)
  • Title Psychiatry professor is being
    investigated.   Author(s)   Source BMJ
    British Medical Journal 01/07/2006, Vol. 332
    Issue 6(Two medical journals have retracted
    articles they published by Dr. Raj Persaud after
    allegations of plagiarism)
  • So how do you avoid plagiarism?Let's go to the
    next page and see...

103
  •     AVOIDING PLAGIARISM How Can I Avoid
    Plagiarism? Pay Attention. Be a careful writer.
    Make sure you are presenting your own ideas and
    give credit to others when you use their
    ideas.  Ask for Help. Talk to your teachers
    about what constitutes plagiarism. If you have
    questions, take specific examples.  Cite
    Information Accurately . Make sure you follow the
    proper citation manual for your assignment. The
    manuals have tons of examples for you to follow.
    If you don't have a manual, go to the library or
    look on the web. All the manuals are in those two
    places.  Plan Ahead. Don't wait until the last
    minute to research and write a paper. This is
    when people make mistakes and may plagiarize
    unknowingly. This is also when people might be
    tempted to purchase papers online or get a friend
    to write a speech.  Be Strong. If you see
    others cheating, have courage to tell them it is
    wrong. Plagiarism hurts us all as students,
    scholars, and members of the CSC community. 
    Try this interesting plagiarism quiz!
  • To effectively avoid plagiarism, you need to
    learn the principles of quoting and paraphrasing

104
Is This Plagiarism?
Yes
No
Yes and No
105
Is This Plagiarism?
Yes
No
Yes and No
106
Is This Plagiarism?
Yes
No
Yes and No
107
Correct
The author is correctly cited with an in-text
citation
Next Question
108
Wrong
The author is cited here so this is not plagiarism
Click here to return to question 1
109
Correct
The student did not cite the source of his
information so this is considered plagiarism
Next Question
110
Wrong
The student did not cite the source of this
information so it is considered to be plagiarism
Click here to return to question 2
111
Correct
The student correctly cited the information from
CNN but did not mention the Centers for Disease
Control Report
Click here to return to question 1
Next
QUOTING PARAPHRASING
112
Wrong
Click here to return to question 3
113
Wrong
Click here to return to question 3
114
QUOTING PARAPHRASING
  • Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing are three
    methods that allow you to ethically incorporate
    another author's writing into your research, as
    long as you cite your sources accurately.
  • Remember these guidelines...
  • Quotations must match the source word for word.
    They must be attributed to the original author.
  • Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from
    source material into your own words. A paraphrase
    must be attributed to the original source.
  • Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s)
    into your own words, including only the main
    point(s). Summarized ideas must be attributed to
    the original source.
  • When you quote, paraphrase, or borrow someone
    else's ideas for a research paper you must cite
    your sources .
  • Careful documentation takes time and can be a
    real bore to do, but there's no ethical way to
    avoid it

To use quotes or paraphrases in your work you
need to understand citations
115
  • CITATIONS     What is a
    citation? A citation is information about a
    resource. It is the key for finding and
    identifying the article or book. It always
    includes   Author   Title   Date of
    Publication   Publisher or Journal name
    Citations vary depending on the type of
    resource. For example, citations of book
    chapters include the chapter title and book
    title. Article citations include the article
    title as well as the journal name.

Citations do two things            1. Give
credit to a source.             2. Provide the
information you need.
116
  • Where can you find citations?
  • Everywhere! You'll find them in books,
    articles, websites, on-line and print indexes.
    Typical citations include footnotes,
    bibliographies, works-cited pages, parenthetical
    references

Lets look at some citation styles now
117
  •   CITATION STYLES     There are lots of style
    manuals to choose from. Talk to your instructor
    to determine the appropriate citation format
    before you start your research paper.
  • Style manuals including the Blair Handbook may
    be found at the Reference Desk and the
    Circulation Desk.
  • There are also numerous online guides to citation
    style.

Here are the most commonly used style manuals...
118
For term papers in the Social Sciences and
Sciences Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association, (2001). Washington,
DC American Psychological Association.CALL
NUMBER REF BF76.7 .P83American Psychological
Association Citation Examples
  •  

119
For term papers in the Humanities Gibaldi,
Joseph. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly
Publishing . New York Modern Language
Association of America, 1998.CALL NUMBER REF
PN147 .G444 1998Modern Language Association
Citation Examples  
  •  

120
Another popular style guide Turabian, Kate L.
Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and
Dissertations . Chicago University of Chicago
Press, 1996.CALL NUMBER REF LB2369 .T8
1996Turabian Style  
  •  

121
Electronic Citation Style    Walker, Janice R.
and Taylor, Todd. The Columbia Guide to Online
Style . New York Columbia University Press,
1998. CALL NUMBER Reference PN171 .F56 W35
1998Columbia Guide to Online Style
  •  

122

Citation Machine    This link will take you to a
web site where your citations will be formatted
for you.Citation Machine
  •  

The next (and last) chapter will help you
evaluate your sources. You are almost done!!
123
Congratulations!! You are done with this
chapter! Please exit to the Blackboard site to
review the quiz questions.
124
Evaluation of Sources
125
Evaluation of Sources
  • After completing this module, you will be able
    to   Evaluate information that you find in
    print sources   Evaluate information that you
    find on the Web   Learn to apply evaluation
    criteria     Contents   Why Evaluate?  
    Evaluation Criteria   Evaluating Periodicals
                Newspapers Popular Magazines
                Opinion Magazines             Trade
    Journals             Scholarly Journals  
    Evaluating Web Sites   Web Evaluation Example

126
WHY EVALUATE?
  • When you do research, you want to find the best
    information to support your ideas. This requires
    careful evaluation of the information.Evaluate
    information...   To find the most relevant
    information for your assignment.   To add
    quality and reliability to your research.   To
    find expert views, opinions, and research on your
    topic.   To weed out unreliable, biased, and
    incorrect information.   To make sure you get
    the information your professor is seeking.    

There are some specific things to look for when
you examine information...
127
EVALUATION CRITERIA
Apply the following evaluation criteria to all
types of information (print, broadcast, and
Web).
  • Authority
  • Currency
  • Scholarly
  • Objectivity
  • Relevancy
  • Primary vs. Secondary

Identify whether the authors are experts in their
field. You may need to check biographical
sources, to see if your author is a recognized
authority, such as Biography Index, Who's Who,
or Contemporary Authors. For web resources,
identify the website's sponsor (university,
company, organization, or individual)? Determine
if the source contains a bibliography this may
indicate that the author incorporates research
published by others.
128
EVALUATION CRITERIA
Apply the following evaluation criteria to all
types of information (print, broadcast, and
Web).
  • Authority
  • Currency
  • Scholarly
  • Objectivity
  • Relevancy
  • Primary vs. Secondary

Current information is important, especially in
the sciences, unless you are doing historical
research. What year was the work from your source
produced? For web resources, determine when the
site was last updated.
129
EVALUATION CRITERIA
Apply the following evaluation criteria to all
types of information (print, broadcast, and
Web).
  • Authority
  • Currency
  • Scholarly
  • Objectivity
  • Relevancy
  • Primary vs. Secondary

Note the source where the information appears. Is
it a scholarly journal? Does it include a
bibliography? Is the book publisher a university
press or other reputable publisher? Check review
sources such as Book Review Index, or the online
Literature Resource Center. Check Literary Market
Place for questions about a publisher.
130
EVALUATION CRITERIA
Apply the following evaluation criteria to all
types of information (print, broadcast, and
Web).
  • Authority
  • Currency
  • Scholarly
  • Objectivity
  • Relevancy
  • Primary vs. Secondary

Use reasonably presented information. Does the
source material appear accurate and balanced, or
is it heavily biased in one direction or another?
131
EVALUATION CRITERIA
Apply the following evaluation criteria to all
types of information (print, broadcast, and
Web).
  • Authority
  • Currency
  • Scholarly
  • Objectivity
  • Relevancy
  • Primary vs. Secondary

Make sure the level of information is appropriate
for your research. Is it directed at a
specialized or general audience?
132
EVALUATION CRITERIA
Apply the following evaluation criteria to all
types of information (print, broadcast, and
Web).
  • Authority
  • Currency
  • Scholarly
  • Objectivity
  • Relevancy
  • Primary vs. Secondary

Primary sources are sometimes required in your
research. These are firsthand, or original
records of events including diaries, letters,
artwork, data sets, statistics, survey results,
or case studies. The secondary aspect of sources
comes into play when there is interpretation,
analysis, or restatement of these events or
materials in order to explain them.
133
EVALUATING PERIODICALS NEWSPAPERS POPULAR
MAGAZINES First you need to identify the type
of information you need for your assignment, then
find the appropriate publication in which to find
this material.   Newspapers Popular
Magazines     Written by journalists who
sometimes consult with experts   Include
coverage of current events and hot topics, often
broad in treatment, and easy to read   Usually
include advertising and illustrations, and may be
attractive and entertaining   Do not usually
provide references (i.e. a bibliography)   Can
be a source of useful background information,
particularly when there is little other
information on a topic available elsewhere  
Not scholarly
Press Space Bar
Most news oriented magazines and newspapers try
to present unbiased information. If you are
looking for opinions, you may want to try an
opinion magazine such as Christianity Today and
The New Republic . Next Slide
134
EVALUATING PERIODICALS - OPINION MAGAZINES   
Opinion Magazines   Fall between popular and
scholarly periodicals   Intended for the
educated reader, but not necessarily the scholar
  Opinions or viewpoints on cultural or
political affairs, usually with particular bias
  Good for comparing points of view. Look at a
review of the same book in both The Nation and
The National Review to see vast differences of
opinion.  Opinion magazines typically have a
narrow focus
Lets learn more about scholarly journals, the
most important type of journal for college
assignments
135
EVALUATING PERIODICALS - SCHOLARLY JOURNALS  
Scholarly journals are often required for
academic assignments.  Articles are written
by experts   Often include reports of original
research   May be "peer-reviewed" or
"refereed," meaning the articles have gone
through a critical selection process by scholars
in the field   Often include an introductory
abstract   Include citations and bibliographies
  Considered primary source material if
presenting results from the author's original
research
Try this exercise on choosing your sources!
136
Topics and Types of PeriodicalsMatch the topic
with the source that will provide the most
appropriate information
For a review of a current movie Scholarly journal Newspaper or popular magazine Opinion magazine
For original research on college students and stress Scholarly journal Newspaper or popular magazine Opinion magazine
For research on medical treatments for AIDS Scholarly journal Newspaper or popular magazine Opinion magazine
For a conservative article on the ethics of cloning Scholarly journal Newspaper or popular magazine Opinion magazine
Next
137
  • Wrong

Click here to return to the quiz
138
  • Correct

Click here to return to the quiz
139
Topics Types of Periodicals Note Please be
aware that the journal categories we just covered
are somewhat arbitrary. You still need to use
your own critical skills to distinguish between
editorials, letters, reviews, and research
material, regardless of the category of journal
in which the information appears. Evaluation
Tool Ulrich's International Periodicals
Directory (Reference Desk - Z6941 .U56)Lists
important information about periodicals (ISSN
number, publisher, subscription price, etc.) and
it often lists the category (scholarly, trade,
etc.) that best describes the periodical.It also
has a list of refereed or peer reviewed journals.

Lets move on with a discussion of different
types of web sites
140
EVALUATING WEB SITES      Like periodicals,
most web sites fall into several major categories

Advocacy Organizations or associations
attempting to influence public opinion. Facts and
figures may be biased by the position of the
organization. Be sure to check when the site was
last updated to ensure that the figures are up to
date. Mostly useful for analyzing the
organization in question. Domain is usually
.orgEx. Amnesty International(www.amnesty.org)
  • Advocacy
  • Business
  • News and Entertainment
  • Federal Government
  • Education
  • Personal

141
EVALUATING WEB SITES      Like periodicals,
most web sites fall into several major categories

Business Commercial sites often provide
information, perhaps with bias, and with the
larger motive of selling you something.  Domain
is usually .com or .bizEx. Sun
Microsystems(http//www.sun.com)
  • Advocacy
  • Business
  • News and Entertainment
  • Federal Government
  • Education
  • Personal

142
EVALUATING WEB SITES      Like periodicals,
most web sites fall into several major categories

News or Entertainment   Company or
organizational attempt to provide current
information as a public service. These sites
typically include advertisements and may ask you
to subscribe for full access. Sites may also
provide games, music, movie reviews, etc. Domain
is usually .com Ex. CNN(www.cnn.com)
  • Advocacy
  • Business
  • News and Entertainment
  • Federal Government
  • Education
  • Personal

143
EVALUATING WEB SITES      Like periodicals,
most web sites fall into several major categories

Federal Government Information These sites tend
to present factual and statistical information.
Graphics are usually at a minimum and specific
facts may be difficult to tease out of the site.
Domain is .gov Ex. United States
Census(http//www.census.gov)
  • Advocacy
  • Business
  • News and Entertainment
  • Federal Government
  • Education
  • Personal

144
EVALUATING WEB SITES      Like periodicals,
most web sites fall into several major categories

Education These are sites hosted by a school,
college or university. Best place to look for
information on that institution, its sports
teams, faculty, students. May also have links to
course syllabi, bibliographies, online databases,
etc. Domain is .eduEx. Colby-Sawyer
College(www.colby-sawyer.edu)
  • Advocacy
  • Business
  • News and Entertainment
  • Federal Government
  • Education
  • Personal

145
EVALUATING WEB SITES      Like periodicals,
most web sites fall into several major categories

Personal Individual home pages are usually for
the promotion of individuals, their ideas,
hobbies or their work - which may be
entertaining, informative, or useless. Use with
caution! Domain is usually .com or .edu.URLs
often contain a tilde   (http//http//home.att.
net/peters-pages/alcohol2.htm/andy.brouwer/ennio
.htm)
  • Advocacy
  • Business
  • News and Entertainment
  • Federal Government
  • Education
  • Personal

146
WEB EVALUATION Lets look at some websites and
apply the criteria we have been discussing
We have picked three web sites on the same topic,
ENCRYPTION. Look at each web site listed below
and try to answer the questions posed
147
Click on the url listed below and answer these
questions(Press Spacebar for questions)
Who is the author? Clicking on the Home Icon
takes us to a page that indicates the authoring
agency is a new media organization that publishes
a newsletter. Why are there so many ads? As a
commercial web site, they need to generate income
does this compromise what they publish? Is this
information biased? You would need to check some
other sources web pages, encyclopedias, etc. to
determine if this info is accurate.
http//computer.howstuffworks.com/encryption.htm
148
http//www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/poli
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