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Title: Skills focus


1
(No Transcript)
2
  • Skills focus
  • Reading
  • understanding dependent clauses with passives
  • Writing
  • paraphrasing
  • expanding notes into complex sentences
  • recognizing different essay types/structures
  • descriptive
  • analytical
  • comparison/evaluation
  • argument
  • writing essay plans
  • writing essays
  • Vocabulary focus
  • synonyms
  • nouns from verbs
  • definitions
  • common direction verbs in
  • essay titles (discuss, analyze,
  • evaluate, etc.)

3
(No Transcript)
4
A Discuss the following questions.
1 What does the word insanity mean to you?
Insanity is a term for serious mental illness. It
is often associated with impetuous behaviour and
irrational decisions and linked with violence.
2 Which words in box a are correct psychological
terms and which words are colloquial? What
do they mean? Psychological terms autistic,
psychotic Colloquial terms crazy, deranged,
insane, lunatic, retarded, mad
5
A Discuss the following questions.
Terms Meanings
autistic
psychotic
crazy mad
deranged
insane
lunatic
retarded
affected by a mental disorder which inhibits
social interaction, communication and emotional
development.
affected by a mental illness which is
characterized by delusions, hallucinations and
losing touch with reality.
colloquial, or slang, terms meaning mentally
unbalanced. Crazy is the colloquial word for
insane in US English, but it is used worldwide.
In UK English, mad is the colloquial word for
insane, but in US English, mad means angry.
insane
affected by a mental illness. Insane is used in
general conversation, but is not a technical term
for psychological diagnosis.
a person afflicted by mental illness.
Historically, people with mental disorders were
thought to be affected by the phases of the moon
(luna means moon in Latin).
used as a derogatory term for people with
learning difficulties or brain damage.
6
B What stereotypes are depicted in headlines A-D
on the textbook page opposite?
7
B What stereotypes are depicted in headlines A-D
on the textbook page opposite?
The stereotype is of people with mental illness
committing violent crimes. The headline evokes
images of a crowd of savages attacking
defenceless children. Insanity is popularly
linked with arson, and research has shown that it
is the crime most frequently committed by
psychiatric patients. The word crazies is a
colloquial noun, formed from the adjective
crazy and then made plural.
8
B What stereotypes are depicted in headlines A-D
on the textbook page opposite?
The stereotype of a schizophrenic committing
murder, particularly his/her mother. The knife
is popular in films as the preferred weapon of
an insane person. The film Psycho is an example
of the confusion between schizophrenia and
dissociative identity disorder and psychotic
episodes. Psycho (adj and n) is a colloquial word
for insane or a person who is mentally ill.
9
B What stereotypes are depicted in headlines A-D
on the textbook page opposite?
The autistic genius stereotype comes from the
factual relationship between autism and
exceptional talent (savant syndrome). 10 of
people with autism possess an unusual ability in
art, music or mathematics. This stereotype is
combined with the image of the antisocial
personality committing intellectually complex
crimes. In 2001, Gary MacKinnon, a Scottish
computer enthusiast with a form of autism, hacked
into confidential US Pentagon files.
10
B What stereotypes are depicted in headlines A-D
on the textbook page opposite?
The depressed adolescent has been a popular
stereotype throughout history. The link between
depression and suicide is, however, factual.
Since the advent of the Internet and social
networking sites, for example, teenagers have
taken part in online suicide pacts.
11
C Look up each noun in box b in a dictionary.
1 Is it countable, uncountable or both? 2 What
is its psychological meaning? 3 What is a good
synonym? 4 What useful grammatical information
can you find?
12
C Look up each noun in box b in a dictionary.
Word C/U Meaning in psychology Synonym Useful grammatical information
abuse
delusion
dissociation
usual use is in phrase drug abuse, alcohol
abuse. Usually meaning to take in excess and/or
without medical guidance. Can be found as
countable in fixed expressions. v to abuse
C/U
1. excessive or incorrect use of a substance 2.
physical or mental harm
1. misuse, mishandling 2. injure, mistreat,
damage, hurt
1. a false belief or opinion about yourself or
your situation 2. the act of believing or making
yourself believe something that isnt true.
fantasy, illusion, hallucination
C/U
distancing self from disturbing events
detachment, separation
U
13
C Look up each noun in box b in a dictionary.
Word C/U Meaning in psychology Synonym Useful grammatical information
episode
frenzy
imbalance
mood
C
usual use is in set phrases manic episode,
depressive episode
a period when the symptoms of a disorder appear
event, incident, occurrence
state of uncontrolled mental excitation
outburst, hysteria, derangement
C/U
C/U
1. excess or deficit of a chemical element 2.
disproportionate behaviour
1. disparity, discrepancy 2. derangement,
insanity
usually used in the singular
disposition, frame of mind, mindset
C
an emotional state
14
C Look up each noun in box b in a dictionary.
Word C/U Meaning in psychology Synonym Useful grammatical information
pact
psychosis
suicide
syndrome
C
arrangement, promise
used in the phrase suicide pact
an agreement to do something together
C/U
inability to differentiate between imagination
and reality a symptom of mental illness
derangement, mental disturbance
used in the set phrase psychotic episode usually
used in the singular
C/U
act of killing yourself
take your own life
v to commit suicide
a group of symptoms that indicate a specific
disorder
condition, illness, disease
C/U
used in the phrase Downs syndrome, Aspergers
syndrome
15
D Study the two lists of verbs in box c.
1 Match the verbs with similar meanings. 2 Make
nouns from the verbs if possible.
16
D Study the two lists of verbs in box c.
Verb Noun Verb Noun
characterize
expel
exploit
link
lose touch with
manifest
perpetuate
propagate
vary
definition
define
characteristic
eliminate
elimination
expulsion
take advantage of
_____
exploitation
connect
connection
link
be detached from
detachment
___
display
manifestation
display
continue
continuation
perpetuation
spread
spread
propagation
differ
difference
variety, variation
17
E Look at the Hadford University handout.
  • How does the writer restate each section heading
    within the paragraph?
  • Model answers
  • A Sensationalism in the press
    melodramatic headlines in the newspaper
  • B Mental health and violence people
    who suffer from mental disorders are violent

18
E Look at the Hadford University handout.
2 Find synonyms for the italicized words and
phrases. Use a dictionary if necessary.
Italicized words/phrases synonyms Italicized words/phrases synonyms
Melodramatic misconceptions
improve of
With this in mind popular
exploits violent
primitive intimidating
such as characterizes
linking acute
mental illness episodes
perpetuate
Sensational
mistaken beliefs
increase
about
Taking this into account
common
takes advantage of
aggressive
basic
hostile
like
typifies
severe
associating
psychiatric disorders
incidents
promote
19
E Look at the Hadford University handout.
  • 3 Rewrite each sentence to make paraphrases of
    the texts. Use
  • synonyms you have found yourself
  • synonyms from Exercise C
  • the nouns you made in Exercise D
  • passives where possible
  • any other words that are necessary
  • Example
  • Melodramatic headlines in the press can
    affect sales considerably.
  • ? Newspapers sell far more when they have
    sensational headlines.

20
E Look at the Hadford University handout.
3 Rewrite each sentence to make paraphrases of
the texts.
Possible paraphrases
A Sensationalism in the press Newspaper
sales are enhanced by dramatic headlines. To
appeal to the publics basic instincts, the press
presents people afflicted with mental disorders
as hostile and aggressive. The media does this
both by misusing psychological terminology and by
directly associating violence and psychiatric
disturbance. This results in the continuation of
negative stereotypes of mental illness. B
Mental health and violence Although mental
disorders and violent behaviour are often
associated in the popular imagination, there is
no scientific proof to support this. In fact,
studies indicate that aggression is only typical
of a minority of psychiatric patients in moments
of severe psychosis.
21
F Study the chart on the page opposite.
  1. Look up the definitions of the types of crime
    represented in the chart.

22
F Study the chart on the page opposite.
  1. Look up the definitions of the types of crime
    represented in the chart.

Types of crime definitions
Common assault
Arson
Threats and harassment
Assaulting a police officer
Sexual offences
Robberies
intentionally attacking and physically harming a
person
deliberately setting fire to a building
to threaten is to frighten people by telling them
that they, or anyone associated with them, are
going to be harmed to harass is to bully or
intimidate people by insulting them or making
them afraid of what might happen to them
the same as common assault, but is a different
category of crime because the police represent
law and order
acts which force individuals, including children,
into unacceptable intimate contact
stealing, theft, burglary
23
F Study the chart on the page opposite.
  • What crime is most commonly committed by people
    with mental disorders?
  • Why do you think this is?
  • Possible answer
  • Arson is the crime most commonly committed by
    psychiatric patients. The reason is not fully
    understood, but research has shown that
    firesetters are typically male with personality
    disorders and occasionally mental retardation.
    The reasons given for starting fires deliberately
    often include anger and revenge.

24
A Link the causes of mental illness in this list
with the items in box a
schizophrenia, depression
a chemical imbalance in the brain
______________________________________ b
traumatic experience
______________________________________ c poverty

______________________________________ d
genetics
______________________________________ e
abuse in childhood
______________________________________ f drug
abuse
______________________________________
dissociative identity disorder, phobias
anxiety, hysteria
schizophrenia, depression
dissociative identity disorder
schizophrenia
25
A Link the causes of mental illness in this list
with the items in box a
1 Which are stereotypically associated with
violence? Schizophrenia and dissociative
identity disorder are popularly associated with
violence. 2 Give an example of a common
belief related to mental illness.
Examples of common beliefs
Schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder
are both characterized by split personality.
All schizophrenics are violent.
Hysteria is exclusive to middle-aged women.

26
B Look at the five essay types on the right.
1 What should the writer do in each type?
What the writer should do
Descriptive writing
Analytical writing
Comparison
describe or summarize key ideas/events/points.
Give the plain facts. Could involve writing
about a narrative description (a history of
something) a process (how something happens)
key ideas in a theory main points of an article
(answers the question what is/are ? )
try to analyze (go behind the plain facts) or
explain something or give reasons for a
situation may also question accepted ideas and
assumptions (answers the question why/how ?)
compare two or more aspects/ideas/things/people,
etc. usually also evaluate, i.e., say which is
better/bigger, etc.
27
B Look at the five essay types on the right.
1 What should the writer do in each type?
What the writer should do
Argument writing
Practical report
give an opinion and support the opinion with
evidence/reasons, etc. may also give opposing
opinions (counter-arguments) and show how they
are wrong
outline background of experiment (previous
experiments/literature) give reasons for
conducting experiment state hypothesis describe
the design, materials and methodology report
results discuss results (e.g., identify problems
with design, materials, methodology) evaluate
results of experiment (in relation to
hypothesis) recommend future research
28
B Look at the five essay types on the right.
2 Match each essay type with one of the
questions below the slide (A-E). 3 What topics
should be covered in each essay question?
See Vocabulary bank.
29
B Look at the five essay types on the right.
Type of writing Question Topics
Descriptive writing
Analytical writing
Comparison
  • stereotype definition
  • four stereotypes e.g., violent, unpredictable,
    criminal, deluded
  • symptoms of mental illnesses examples
  • how stereotypes linked to symptoms examples

B
  • images of mentally ill dangerous, homeless,
    criminal, embarrassing
  • irresponsible reporting, exaggerated link
    between crime, violence and mental imbalance
    examples
  • use of graphics, fonts, colours in press
    examples from headlines
  • use of terminology to misrepresent mental
    illness examples

C
  • schizophrenia definition
  • dissociative identity disorder definition
  • examples of similarities
  • -- symptoms delusions, unpredictability
  • examples of differences
  • -- causes genetic, physiological/trauma
  • -- disorganization/coherence
  • -- treatment

E
30
B Look at the five essay types on the right.
Type of writing Question Topics
Argument writing
Practical report
  • violent crimes often linked to mental illness
  • thesis statement mental illness is/is not
    linked to crime
  • mental disorders associated with crime
    examples
  • disorders not associated with crime statistics

A
  • background social pressure to conform
  • reasons for experiments investigate effect of
    social pressures on
  • individuals
  • hypothesis individual attitudes affected by
    the majority
  • describe experiments and result
  • relate to effect of mass media on individual
    thinking
  • strengths and weaknesses of experiments in
    relation to media
  • influence
  • conclusion conformity promoted by mass media
    to some degree

D
31
Understanding direction verbs in essay titles
Special verbs called direction verbs are used in
essay titles. Each direction verb indicates a
type of essay. You must understand the meaning of
these words so you can choose the correct writing
plan.
Kind of essay Direction verbs
Descriptive State Say Outline Describe Summarize What is/are?
Analytical Analyze Explain Comment on Examine Give reasons for Why? How ?
Comparison/evaluation Compare (and contrast) Distinguish between Evaluate What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of ?
Argument Discuss Consider (Critically) evaluate To what extent ? How far ?
Practical reports Outline Explain State Describe . Summarize Discuss
32
C Read the title of the text on the opposite
page and the first sentence of each paragraph.
  • What will the text be about?
  • The title of the text suggests that the
    text will discuss common approaches to mental
    illness. The expression You must be crazy, is
    an example of the way language related to mental
    illness is used colloquially. The title implies
    that misuse of language supports popular
    misunderstandings about psychiatric disorders.
  • Para. 1 will outline the historical and
    cultural background of attitudes to mental
    illness.
  • Para. 2 will describe the misconception
    that mental illness is not real.
  • Para. 3 will discuss the myth that mental
    disorders are linked to violent crime.
  • Para. 4 will consider the stereotype of
    those with a mental illness being out of touch
    with
  • reality.
  • Para. 5 will describe and discuss
    schizophrenia.
  • Para. 6 will ask how myths are perpetuated
    in society.
  • Para. 7 will give examples of films that
    misrepresent psychiatric disorders.
  • Para. 8 will give examples of how the
    press promotes negative stereotypes of mental
  • disorders.
  • Para. 9 will conclude that mental illness
    remains misunderstood, in spite of psychiatric
  • advances.

33
C Read the title of the text on the opposite
page and the first sentence of each paragraph.
2 Choose one of the essay questions in
Exercise B. Write four research questions which
will help you to find information for your essay.
34
D Read the text.
  1. Using your own words, make notes from the text on
    information for your essay question.
  2. Work with another person who has chosen the same
    essay question as you. Compare your notes.

35
D Read the text.
Possible notes
  • A Violent crimes are often committed by those
    who are mentally ill. To what extent do you
    agree with this statement? Give examples to
    support your points.
  • common misconception mentally ill individuals
    aggressive and intimidating
  • fact violence occasionally caused by
    psychiatric patients e.g., psychiatric patients
    acute, psychotic events e.g., schizophrenia
  • but research Pescosolido (ref. 1 in reading
    text) ? alcohol and drug abuse principal causes
    of violent crime
  • mental illnesses not common cause e.g.,
    depression, phobia, anxiety

36
D Read the text.
Possible notes
B Describe four stereotypes of mental illness.
How do they relate to the symptoms of real
illnesses? 1 mental illness not real ?
causes not physiological e.g., symptoms of
clinical depression similar to normal reaction to
lifes problems ?clinical depression not
recognized. But depression has physiological
causes ?genuine disease 2 people with
psychiatric disorders are aggressive and
anti-social but mental illness not often the
cause of violence only in exceptional cases of
severe psychosis more common causes of violence
drugs and alcohol 3 psychiatric patients
detached from reality true for schizophrenia ?
delusions but most patients in touch with
reality e.g., depression, anxiety, phobias
4 schizophrenia split personality ? Greek
origin schizo split phrene mind ?
schizophrenia mistaken for dissociative identity
disorder multiple personality disorder but
different causes.
37
D Read the text.
Possible notes
  • C Explain the methods used by the media to
    influence popular images of mental illness.
  • conformity Aschs experiments (ref. 2 in reading
    text) individual beliefs affected by social
    pressure e.g., mass media (film and press)
  • media promotes stereotypes of mental illness
    e.g., film
  • examples in film Three Faces of Eve multiple
    personality disorder very dramatic frightening
    personality shifts one Flew over the Cuckoos
    Nest violent, unstable images of mental
    disturbance, and equally disturbing treatment of
    patients by medical staff
  • examples in press link between mental illness
    and violence misuse of psychological terms
    slang perpetuate negative images

38
D Read the text.
Possible notes
  • D Describe Aschs conformity experiments. How do
    they explain the influence of the media on
    individual attitudes to mental illness?
  • continuation of stereotypes
  • e.g., media (films and press) promotes harmful
    stereotypes
  • conformity effect of majority on attitudes of
    individuals Asch (ref. 2 in reading text)
  • E Outline the differences and similarities
    between schizophrenia and dissociative identity
    disorder.
  • schizophrenia incoherent inner reality
    separate from outer world
  • dissociative identity disorder multiple
    personality disorder
  • similarities delusions, unpredictable inner
    world
  • differences causes schizophrenia genetic
    dissociative identity trauma

39
E Study the highlighted sentences in the text.
  • Underline all the subjects and their verbs.
  • 2 Which is the main subject and verb for each
    sentence?

Joining word Subject Verb Object/complement
1 prejudices and misconceptions persist in a modern scientific society
where the physiological causes are () understood than in the past
2 schizophrenia is () confused with multiple personality disorder, (another name for dissociative identity disorder)
which is in fact, the result of traumatic events
whereas schizophrenia is largely inherited
3 It is interesting to ask
how these popular myths are perpetuated in modern society
the underlined noun is the head
word of the noun phrase
40
F Study the table on the right.
  1. Match each word or phrase with its meaning.

1 illusion 2 depression 3 mood 4 psychosis 5
delusions 6 multiple personality
a psychiatric disorder which disconnects
different aspects of the personality unreasonable
or illogical beliefs a mental disorder
characterized by losing touch with reality an
event that only occurs in the mind of an
individual an emotional state a mood disorder
that makes a person feel very sad and unable to
live an active life
41
F Study the table on the right.
2 Underline the words or phrases in the text
which the writer uses to give the definitions.
See Vocabulary bank.
Word/phrase Actual words giving the meaning Punctuation/vocab/structure
1 illusion that it is an illusion word/phrase followed by semicolon/definition/comma
2 depression a mood disorder word/phrase followed by comma/definition
3 mood emotional state word/phrase followed by comma/noun phrase
4 psychosis when an individual loses touch with reality word/phrase followed by comma/when definition
5 delusions unreasonable beliefs word/phrase followed by dash/definition
6 multiple personality disorder (another name for dissociative identity disorder), word/phrase followed by brackets with phrase another name for, followed by definition/comma
42
Understanding new words using definitions
You will often find new words in academic texts.
Sometimes you will not be able to understand the
text unless you look the word up in a dictionary,
but often a technical term will be defined or
explained immediately or later in the text. Look
for these indicators
is or are it is an illusion
brackets (another name for dissociative identity disorder)
or mood, or emotional state
which Schizophrenia , which is characterized by the creation of an irrational internal world.
a comma or a dash (-) immediately after the word or phrase depression, a mood disorder delusions unreasonable beliefs
phrases such as that is, in other words clairvoyance, that is, the ability to see into the future. In other words, the mentally ill
43
A Find the words in the box in the text in
Lesson 8.2.
1 What part of speech is each word? 2 Think
of another word which could be used in
place of the word in the text. Use your
dictionary if necessary.
44
A Find the words in the box in the text in
Lesson 8.2.
Word Para. number Part of speech Another word
misconception
attitude
culture
prejudice
delusion
inherited
split
melodramatic
alarming
terminology
1
n (C/U)
misunderstanding, mistaken, belief
1
n (C)
opinion, belief, view, approach
1
n (C)
society, social group
1
n (C/U)
discrimination, intolerance
fantasy, vision
4
n (C)
5
adj
innate, hereditary
5
adj/v
divided, separated
adj
exaggerated, sensational
7
7
adj
frightening, shocking
8
n (C/U)
specialist language, jargon
45
B Study sentences A-D from the text in Lesson
8.2.
1 Identify the dependent clause. 2 Copy the
table under the sentences and write parts of each
dependent clause in the table.
46
B Study sentences A-D from the text in Lesson
8.2.
Main clause Linking word Dependent clause Dependent clause Dependent clause
Subject Verb By whom/what
A These traditional beliefs are probably responsible for the fear with which
B A film such as the Three Faces of Eve (1957), dramatizes her illness. which
C Schizophrenia is a widely misunderstood disorder which
D One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest (1975) is another film in which
(mental illness) it
is approached.
(film) which
is based
on the true story of Eve Whites multiple
personality disorder,
(schizophrenia) which
is characterized
by the creation of an irrational internal world.
is represented.
the more alarming face of mental illness
Note that in B and C, the relative pronoun is
the subject of the dependent clause, while in D
the subject is the more illness
47
B Study sentences A-D from the text in Lesson
8.2.
  • Rewrite the sentence using an active
    construction.
  • Example A People often approach mental
    illness with fear, probably as a result of
    traditional beliefs.

Suggested answers A People probably approach
mental illness with fear and ridicule as a result
of traditional beliefs. B The true story of Eve
Whites multiple personality disorder is the
basis of the film The Three Faces of Eve (1957),
which dramatizes Eves illness by exaggerating
her unpredictability with sudden and startling
changes of personality. C The creation of an
irrational internal world, and detachment from
external reality are characteristic of
schizophrenia, a widely misunderstood, inherited
disorder. D One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest
(1975) is another film which represents the more
alarming face of mental illness.
48
C Read the essay plans and extracts on the
opposite page.
1 Match each plan with an essay title in Lesson
8.2.
Model answer Plan A essay title E Outline
the differences and similarities between
schizophrenia and dissociative identity
disorder. Plan B essay title D Describe
Aschs conformity experiments. How do they
explain the influence of the media on individual
attitudes to mental illness?
49
C Read the essay plans and extracts on the
opposite page.
2 Which essay is each extract from?
Model answer Extract 1 plan B Extract 2
plan A
50
C Read the essay plans and extracts on the
opposite page.
3 Which part of the plan is each extract from?
Model answer Extract 1 Plan A, point 6
Conclusion, disorder 1 and 2 are similar
delusions, detachment from reality but different
causes and treatment Extract 2 Plan B,
point 1 Introduction social importance of
conformity definition of conformity give essay
aims
51
D Work with a partner.
1 Write another paragraph for one of the
plans. 2 Exchange paragraphs with another pair.
Can they identify where it comes from?
52
A Make complete sentences from these notes. Add
words as necessary.
53
A Make complete sentences from these notes. Add
words as necessary.
Possible answers A In conclusion, it can be
said that a limited number of patients with
severe mental illness commit violent crimes, but
they are more likely to be victims than
criminals. B Studies into crime and psychiatric
disorders have shown that patients are more
likely to be victims of crime than perpetrators.
C However, the vast majority of mental illnesses
are not linked to violent crime. D Research has
demonstrated that, although mental illness may be
linked to a small number of violent crimes, drug
and alcohol abuse are responsible for a much
higher percentage. E First, it is essential to
identify the different types of mental disorder
that are commonly associated with aggression.
F For many years, it has been a popular belief
that people with mental disorders are violent and
dangerous.
54
B The sentences in Exercise A are topic sentences
for paragraphs in essay A in Lesson 8.2. Put them
in the best order for the essay. What is the main
topic for each paragraph?
Topic sentences Paragraph topic






F For many years, it has been a popular belief
that people with mental disorders are violent and
dangerous.
introduction
C However, the vast majority of mental illnesses
are not linked to violent crime.
E First, it is essential to identify the
different types of mental disorder that are
commonly associated with aggression.
definition
D Research has demonstrated that, although
mental illness may be linked to a small number of
violent crimes, drug and alcohol abuse are
responsible for a much higher percentage.
evidence
B Studies into crime and psychiatric disorders
have shown that patients are more likely to be
victims of crime than perpetrators.
evidence
A In conclusion, it can be said that a limited
number of patients with severe mental illness
commit violent crimes, but they are more likely
to be victims than criminals.
conclusion
55
C Look at the essay question on the opposite page.
1 What kind of essay is this?
Model answer This is essentially an argument
type essay since it requires an opinion (a
thesis) and a discussion of arguments for and
against it. It also asks students to consider
possible causes of the high school massacres.
56
C Look at the essay question on the opposite page.
2 Do some research and make a plan.
  • Possible essay plan
  • Introduction background history of high school
    massacres focus mental illness and adolescent
    males in
  • US thesis statement aims of essay.
  • Definition and description of psychological
    problems typical of male adolescents
  • Possible causes of violent responses to
    psychological problems, e.g.,
  • parenting styles/violence/neglect at home
  • availability of weapons
  • conformity
  • --- influence of online peer pressure
    suicide/websites showing violence
  • --- media coverage ? sensationalized
    violence ? fame
  • isolation from peer group ? alienation ? anger
    ? depression
  • depression ? violence?
  • Schizophrenia onset in adolescence and early
    adulthood ? delusions
  • schizophrenia ? violence?
  • Conclusion some massacres committed by
    adolescents with mental illness, but other causes
    are social.

57
C Look at the essay question on the opposite page.
See Skills bank
3 Write the essay.
58
Skills bank
Choosing the correct writing plan
When you are given a written assignment, you must
decide on the best writing plan before you begin
to write the outline. Use key words in the essay
title to help you choose --- see Vocabulary bank.
Type of essay - content Possible structure
Descriptive writing List the most important points of something e.g., in a narrative, a list of key events in chronological order a description of key ideas in a theory or from an article you have read. Summarize points in a logical order. Example Describe four stereotypes of mental illness. How do they relate to the symptoms of real illnesses? introduction point/event 1 point/event 2 point/event 3 conclusion
59
Skills bank
Choosing the correct writing plan
When you are given a written assignment, you must
decide on the best writing plan before you begin
to write the outline. Use key words in the essay
title to help you choose --- see Vocabulary bank.
Type of essay - content Possible structure
Analytical writing List the important points which in your opinion explain the situation. Justify your opinion in each case. Look behind the facts at the how and why, not just what/who/when. Look for and question accepted ideas and assumptions. Example Explain the methods used by the media to influence popular images of mental illness. introduction definitions most important point example/evidence/reason 1 example/evidence/reason 2, etc. next point example/evidence/reason 3 example/evidence/reason 4, etc. conclusion
60
Skills bank
Choosing the correct writing plan
When you are given a written assignment, you must
decide on the best writing plan before you begin
to write the outline. Use key words in the essay
title to help you choose --- see Vocabulary bank.
Type of essay - content Possible structure
Comparison/evaluation Decide on and define the aspects to compare two subjects. You may use these aspects as the basis for paragraphing. Evaluate which aspect (s) is/are better or preferable and give reasons/criteria for your judgment. Example What are the differences between schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder? introduction state and define aspects Either aspect 1 subject A v. B aspect 2 subject A v. B Or Subject A aspect 1, 2, etc. Subject B aspect 1, 2, etc. conclusion/evaluation
61
Skills bank
Choosing the correct writing plan
When you are given a written assignment, you must
decide on the best writing plan before you begin
to write the outline. Use key words in the essay
title to help you choose --- see Vocabulary bank.
Type of essay - content Possible structure
Argument writing Analyze and/or evaluate, then give your opinion in a thesis statement at the beginning or the end. Show awareness of difficulties and disagreements by mentioning counter-arguments. Support your opinion with evidence. Example Violent crimes are often committed by those who are mentally ill. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Give examples to support your points. introduction statement of issue thesis statement giving opinion define terms Point 1 explain evidence point 2 explain evidence, etc. conclusion implications, etc. Alternatively introduction statement of issue define terms for point 1, 2, etc. against point 1, 2, etc. Conclusion statement of opinion
62
Skills bank
Choosing the correct writing plan
When you are given a written assignment, you must
decide on the best writing plan before you begin
to write the outline. Use key words in the essay
title to help you choose --- see Vocabulary bank.
Type of essay - content Possible structure
Practical reports of experiments and studies Outline the problem and previous experiments. Explain why you carried out the experiment (rationale). State your hypothesis. Describe the experiment. Summarize and discuss results. Example How do Aschs conformity experiments explain the influence of the media on individual attitudes to mental illness? introduction background to problem, literature review, hypothesis methodology participants, methodology, tasks, measurements results summary of findings, graphs discussion assess findings in relation to hypothesis, suggest future research
63
Tips for Reference
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paraphrase psychological terms??????B?E ?F ? 8.2
Reading??,??????? You must be
crazy!,????A-F????????????????? essay types,
???Vocabulary bank ?? Understanding new words
using definitions??? 8.3 Extending
skills??,????????A????????B ?C? 8.4 Extending
skills??,????????A ?B ,???Skills
bank?????????????essay plan???????essay???
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