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The First World War

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The First World War Boys and Girls! War Savings Stamps Poster by James Montgomery Flagg 1917-18 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The First World War


1
The First World War
Boys and Girls! War Savings Stamps Poster by
James Montgomery Flagg 1917-18
2
The First World War
  • What?
  • War involving nearly all the nations of the world
  • When?
  • 1914-1918

3
Causes?
  • Militarism
  • Alliance
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Assassination

4
Militarism at its finest
  • Militarism
  • Strongly promoting the development of armed
    forces within a nation
  • Its what all healthy males were trained to be
  • Best army in Europe pre war Germany
  • Best Navy England
  • Had to duke it out to find out who could win

5
Alliances
  • -put in to place by participating countries for
    defense
  • The Triple Entente
  • France, Russia, GB
  • Triple Alliance
  • Central Power
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman

6
Nationalism
  • Extreme pride in ones country
  • Our way is the right way
  • Multiple countries felt this way and it led to
    rivalries

7
Imperialism
  • Extension of a nations territory beyond its
    borders through the establishment of colonies
  • More competition

8
Assassination
  • Franz Ferdinand
  • Archduke of Austria Hungary
  • Shot by Gavrillo Princip
  • Member of Black Hand
  • Radical group in Serbia
  • Now revenge would be sought

9
The Black Hand..
  • The main objective of the Black Hand was the
    creation, by means of violence, of a Greater
    Serbia.
  • Its stated aim was "To realize the national
    ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This
    organization prefers terrorist action to cultural
    activities it will therefore remain secret."

10
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11
So how did an assassination cause a war?
  • Austria-Hungary attacks Serbia for revenge
  • Serbia allies with Russia
  • Germany allied with Austria Hungary
  • France allied to Russia
  • England allied to France

12
WAR!
  • Germany is aggressor
  • Wants to colonize
  • Schlieffen Plan
  • Step 1 Hold off Russia
  • Step 2 France
  • Step 3 Finish Russia off

13
Why didnt plan work?
  • France was stronger than Germany thought
  • Germany did not count on Britain and US getting
    involved

14
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15
Why did Britain get involved?
  • England allied to Belgium
  • Was afraid to lose power to Germany if it got too
    big
  • If Germany took the mainland it would have
    natural resources

16
Why did the US get involved?
  • We stayed neutral at first
  • Most of Government and US not interested in war
  • Divided loyalties because of ethnic background
  • Why should our sons die?
  • No immediate threat

17
US sides with Allies, but not militarilyyet
  • most have similar ethnic backgrounds
  • Media coverage of Germany attacking Civilians
  • More business with allies
  • picture British women loading American supplies
    rifles

18
Germany and England at war in the Sea
  • England blockades Germany
  • Germany uses the U-Boat to break blockade
  • Both effective, but going to need more to win war

19
Germany takes revenge and dares the US
  • 1915 Lusitania
  • 128 Americans
  • 1916 Sussex
  • Americans killed
  • Sussex Pledge Germany promises not to fire on
    passenger ships

20
Even with the threat of war, normal stuff has to
happen too
  • 1916 Presidential election
  • Wilson(D) v. Hughes( R)
  • Wilson wins
  • Calls for Peace without victory
  • Human nature wont allow

21
How did the US finally get involved then?
  • 1. Germany violates Sussex pledge
  • Zimmerman note
  • Russia backs out of war
  • Has a revolution, and new government does not
    stay involved
  • Easier to fight for Democracy

22
The Zimmerman Note
23
What is goal of war?
  • War to end all wars
  • War to make the World Safe for Democracy

24
Section 2
  • Before US gets involved
  • The war was not going well for the allies
  • Ships were being sunk
  • GB down to two months of food
  • Allies morale low

25
The US prepares
  • US military in horrible shape pre-war
  • Less then 200,000 men
  • Need to increase army
  • Selective Service Act 1917
  • All men 18-45
  • 24 million registered

26
The Dough Boys In The Building
  • Propaganda worked
  • Army rose to 3 million
  • Most no high school education or had ever left
    town
  • Nicknamed Doughboy
  • African Americans allowed in Army, but not Navy
    or Marines
  • Segregated units
  • Many stuck in non combat units

27
Women
  • Noncombat roles
  • Most were nurses
  • Also worked in factories to make supplies for war

28
Needed to increase the amount of supplies not
just soldiers
  • Modernize and increase the size or army and navy
  • Needed to build more ships Dont draft
    shipbuilders
  • Promote importance of factory work
  • Increase efficiency
  • Gov. took control of ships and converted for war
    use

29
Modernize Weaponry
  • Build new Tanks
  • Long Range artillery
  • Machine Guns (600 shots per minute)
  • Chemical warfare
  • Develop Army Air Corps
  • First American Ace Eddie Rickenbacker

30
Allied Leaders
  • John Pershing head of whole AEF
  • Allied leader Marshall Foch

31
Conditions
  • Soldiers had bad conditions
  • Lice
  • Mud
  • Polluted water
  • Disease
  • Shell shock

32
How did US make a difference?
  • We were Fresh
  • Nicknamed Doughboys
  • We had good morale
  • We helped develop
  • Sonar
  • We helped place mines
  • Convoy system to protect supplies

33
The end
  • Central powers finally collapse
  • 1. outnumbered
  • 2. soldiers refused to fight
  • 3. flu

34
Peace
  • Nov. 11 1918 Armistice
  • 22 million dead
  • US 110,000
  • 20 million wounded
  • US 200,000

35
Section 3
  • 3 Priorities of Congress during war
  • 1. Supply allies with food and equipment
  • 2. Raise money to pay for war
  • 3. Get American public to maintain support for
    the war

36
How do we supply allies?
  • War Industries Board
  • Headed by Bernard Baruch
  • Purchased items for war
  • Converted factories
  • Could control prices
  • Worked out good for businesses, but not always
    good for consumers

37
  • Fuel Industry Board
  • Boosted coal and Oil production
  • Encouraged conservation of energy
  • I.e. Daylight Savings Time

38
National War Labor Board
  • Prevent Labor disputes
  • Union membership doubled
  • Better pay and working conditions

39
War Creates Opportunities
  • Women went to factories, proved they could do
    mans job and got vote
  • African Americans
  • Moved N for jobs
  • Great Migration
  • Less discrimination
  • Better standard of living
  • Some race riots

40
Citizens Role
  • Regular people had part to play
  • Herbert Hoover encouraged volunteerism
  • Victory Gardens
  • Wheat-less Wednesdays sacrifice
  • Government bought farmers goods for soldiers at
    great price
  • Herbert Hoover Food Administration

41
Need money for war. How?
  • Needed 35.5. billion
  • 1. Taxes
  • Not just income, but corporate and excise tax
    (gum, liquor)
  • 2. Bonds
  • Sold to public
  • Good deals
  • Used propaganda to sell

42
How to get Public Support?
  • Committee on Public Information started
  • Headed by George Creel
  • Established propaganda to support war
  • Art, literature, speakers, movies

43
What about enemies in US? Were there any?
  • Worried about spies
  • Passed Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • Fine and jail people who violate
  • Limit 1st Amendment
  • Schenck v. US
  • Socialist who wrote pamphlets that said the draft
    was like slavery
  • During was First Amendment does not always apply
  • Sentenced to Jail

44
Anti German Sentiment
  • Some Germans picked on
  • People did not want to be connected to anything
    German
  • Change city names
  • Change food names
  • Ban German books and songs
  • Some violence against Germans

45
The Flu?
  • 1918 the Flu hit during war
  • People stayed home and businesses shut down to
    avoid contagion
  • Doctors did not have answers
  • Soldiers affected due to close quarters
  • 30 million in world, 500,000 in US
  • Ended in 1919
  • Only real answer was to clean up and quarantine

46
Section 4Proposal for Peace
  • Wilson had a plan for Peace called The 14 Points
  • No secret treaties
  • Freedom of Seas
  • Lower tariffs to increase trade
  • Reduce militaries
  • No more colonizing
  • New boundaries for countries
  • League of Nations
  • All countries could peacefully settle
    disagreements
  • Like a modern UN
  • Many countries not happy because did not punish
    Germany

47
Treaty of Versailles
  • Peace talks held in France
  • No Central Powers present
  • Big 4 there
  • Clemenceau France
  • George Britain
  • Orlando Italy
  • Wilson US

48
The Details
  • 9 new countries created
  • Central Powers and Russia all lost land
  • Will cause future issues
  • Germany
  • Took blame for war
  • Lost all colonies
  • Not allowed to have army
  • Lost all industry
  • Had to pay 33 billion in reparations

49
US Reaction
  • Some people thought it punished too much
  • Some did not like LN
  • Henry Cabot Lodge (R)
  • Believed it could be looked at as another
    alliance
  • Took away US power

50
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51
Why did the US never join League?
  • Wilson insisted on all Treaty or none
  • Congress refused to authorize treaty
  • Wilson tried to tour country to gain support,
    ended up having a stroke
  • Told his party to vote for all or none, so treaty
    failed
  • US did not sign treaty till 1921
  • Made separate peace treaties with each government
  • Without US, the League of Nations has no guts,
    and will fail

52
Consequence of War
  • US recognized as a super power
  • More integration
  • Europe and Russia left in a state of destruction
  • Needed to rebuild
  • Most countries went to a dictator to help through
    hard times
  • Will cause future issues
  • Germany not forget how they were treated

53
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