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Overview from Virtual Reality, Scientific and Technical Challenges, NRC, 1995

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Overview from Virtual Reality, Scientific and Technical Challenges, NRC, 1995 Summarized by Geb Thomas Learning Objectives Be able to describe the current areas of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Overview from Virtual Reality, Scientific and Technical Challenges, NRC, 1995


1
Overview from Virtual Reality, Scientific and
Technical Challenges, NRC, 1995
  • Summarized by Geb Thomas

2
Learning Objectives
  • Be able to describe the current areas of research
    related to SE.
  • Be able to draw a system diagram differentiation
    teleoperation and virtual environments.
  • Be able to define augmented reality.
  • Be able to distinguish the NRC definition of
    Presence from Ellis definition.
  • Define the distinctions between a simulator and a
    virtual environment.
  • Describe common characteristics of SEs.
  • Define the symptoms of sopite syndrome.

3
Introduction
  • Includes both Virtual Environments and
    Teleoperation
  • VE - Human connects to simulated world
  • Telerobotics - Human connects to a real world via
    a robot sensors and actuators

4
Scope of the SE Field
  • Multidisciplinary
  • Terminology confusion
  • input and output
  • interface
  • High talk-to-work and excitement-to-accomplishment
    ratios

5
Current Areas of Research
  • Computer generation of VE
  • Design of telerobots
  • Improvement of human/machine interfaces
  • Relevant aspects of human behavior
  • Comm. systems and networks
  • Computer-generated images of the real world

6
Basic Concepts and Terminology
  • Teleoperator system -- a human operator, a
    human-machine interface and a telerobot
  • facilitate the human operators ability to sense,
    maneuver in, and manipulate the environment
  • Virtual environments system -- a human operator,
    a human-machine interface and a computer

7
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8
Augmented Reality System
  • Virtual and real environments are combined
  • Information from real environment is directly
    sensed with see-through display, supplementary
    information from VE is overlaid on the display
  • VE, Teleoperator and Augmented Reality together
    constitute Synthetic Environments

9
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10
Presence
  • Telepresence, virtual presence or synthetic
    presence
  • Extent to which the human operator loses his or
    her awareness of being present at the site of the
    interface and instead feels present in the
    artificial environment
  • Depends on transparency of interface, amount
    and kind of interaction

11
VE and Simulator Distinction
  • VEs are
  • Reconfigurable
  • Can create unnatural environments
  • Highly interactive and adaptable
  • Variety of sensing modalities
  • Strong sense of presence
  • Simulator is tied to physical system, VE to the
    operator
  • Simulator does far field, VE does near field

12
Common Characteristics
  • Visual and auditory displays
  • Head-mounted display monitoring head position
  • Control signals from head, hands, feet or speech
  • Haptic interface - interfaces hand for manual
    sensing and manipulation with gloves or
    exoskeletons

13
Application Domains
  • Entertainment
  • National Defense
  • Design, Manufacturing, and Marketing
  • Medicine and Health Care
  • Hazardous Operations
  • Education
  • Information Visualization
  • Telecommunication and Teletravel

14
Some Psych. Considerations
  • Most human behavior topics are relevant
  • Human performance
  • Sensorimotor resolution
  • Perceptual illusions
  • Information transfer rates
  • Manual tracking

15
Sopite syndrome (simulator sickness)
  • Symptoms
  • chronic fatigue,
  • lethargy
  • drowsiness
  • nausea
  • Causes --
  • Temperature
  • Field of view
  • Visual/kinesthetic misalignment
  • Interaction effects

16
Current State of Technology
  • Visual channel
  • Auditory channel
  • Position tracking and mapping
  • Haptic channel
  • Motion interfaces
  • Other interfaces

17
Visual channel
  • Poor resolution
  • Limited field of view
  • Excessive weight
  • Poor fit
  • May cause sopite syndrome
  • 10K-1M
  • Stereo glasses, booms

18
Auditory Channel
  • Effective, inexpensive and ergonomically
    reasonable
  • Limited spatial resolution
  • Loud speakers are sensitive to head position
  • Record and playback technologies must store huge
    quantities of information
  • Auditory scene analysis requires central
    processing

19
Position Tracking and Mapping
  • Position tracking
  • Real-time measurement of pose
  • Position mapping
  • Dense set of 3D positions on a surface
  • Determine body dimensions
  • Facial expressions
  • map real environments

20
Position tracking
  • Mechanical linkages
  • Magnetic sensors
  • optical sensors
  • acoustic sensors

21
Haptic channel
  • Complex combination of sensory functions and
    manipulative functions and electromechanical
    systems
  • Lack of recognized social need
  • Body-based gloves and exoskeletons
  • Ground-based devices (joysticks, robots)
  • Tool-handle systems
  • Skin, tactile displays

22
Motion interfaces
  • Vestibular system,
  • Motor system,
  • Visual and auditory systems,
  • Proprioceptive/kinesthetic systems
  • Tactile systems
  • Inertial Displays -- body moves
  • Noninertial displays -- body remains stationary
  • Treadmills, stair climbers, stationary bikes

23
Telerobotics
  • Design and performance of robots
  • micromechanical systems
  • Communication time delays
  • 30 ms between Washington and LA
  • 1 s between Earth and Moon
  • Supervisory control and predictive displays
  • Demands of real time input/output
  • distributed telerobotics

24
Networks
  • Shared virtual environments
  • SIMNET
  • 300 soldiers in tank and aircraft simulators
    interacting
  • 10baseT standard
  • 100baseT optional at CoE
  • 1.25 Gbit/s reasonable, with effort

25
Recommendations
  • Promising application areas
  • Design, manufacturing and marketing
  • Medicine and health care
  • Hazardous operations
  • Training
  • Two special projects
  • Modeling the human body
  • Knowledge transfer

26
Learning Objectives
  • Be able to describe the current areas of research
    related to SE.
  • Be able to draw a system diagram differentiating
    teleoperation and virtual environments.
  • Be able to define augmented reality.
  • Be able to distinguish the NRC definition of
    Presence from Ellis definition.
  • Be able to define the distinctions between a
    simulator and a virtual environment.
  • Be able to describe common characteristics of
    SEs.
  • Be able to define the symptoms of sopite syndrome.

27
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