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Cardiovascular and Blood

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Cardiovascular and Blood Chapters 10 and 11 ABO Blood Groups The immuno response in this case is that the plasma will begin to clump around the transfused RBC ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cardiovascular and Blood


1
Cardiovascular and Blood
  • Chapters 10 and 11

2
Cardiovascular
  • The function of the cardiovascular system is
    transportation.
  • Blood is the transport vehicle.
  • Materials that are transported range from oxygen
    from the lungs, nutrients from digestion, or
    hormones from the endocrine system.

3
Heart
  • The heart is the major pump of the cardiovascular
    system.
  • This hollow cone shaped organ is approximately
    the size of a closed fist.
  • Flanked by both lungs
  • Not symetrical, apex points toward the left hip.
  • Most of the heart lies on the left side of our
    body.

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Heart Coverings
  • The heart is covered by the pericardium double
    layer serous membrane.
  • The membrane connects the heart to the
    surrounding structures such as the sternum.
  • It also contains a slippery lubricating fluid
    that allows the heart to move in an almost
    frictionless environment.

6
Heart Wall
  • The heart walls actually have three layers
    epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.
  • The epicardium is part of the serous membrane we
    discussed.
  • Myocardium is the middle, actual cardiac muscle
    that contracts.
  • Endocardium is the innermost layer that lines the
    entire heart and continuous with the inside layer
    of the blood vessels.

7
Heart Layers
8
Heart Chambers
  • Our hearts have four chambers, two atriums and
    two ventricles.
  • Atriums receive blood from the body or the lungs.
  • They have no relative importance in the pumping
    action of the heart, they mostly receive blood
    under low pressure from the veins in the body.
    Because of this they have relatively thin walls.

9
Heart Chambers
  • The two lower ventricles have a much thicker
    wall.
  • This is due to the fact that this part of the
    heart is in charge of pumping blood to the lungs
    or the rest of the body.
  • The left and right ventricles are separated by
    the septum.

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11
Blood Flow through Heart
  • Deoxygenated blood from the smaller vessels
    collects in the superior and inferior vena cava.
  • These two major veins empty this used blood
    into the right atrium.
  • It is held here by one of the four
    atrioventricular valves, aka AV valves,
    specifically the tricuspid valve.
  • This keeps the movement of blood in one direction
    only.

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15
Blood Flow through the Heart
  • When the tricuspid valve opens, blood falls into
    the right ventricle.
  • This is the first beat of the heart, very gently
    pumping blood into the lower chambers.
  • The second beat of the heart is stronger and is
    accomplished by the ventricle.

16
Blood Flow through the Heart
  • Blood in the right ventricle is pumped up through
    the pulmonary valve and into the pulmonary
    artery.
  • This artery takes the blood to the lungs where it
    picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.
  • Reoxygenated blood then returns to the heart
    through the pulmonary vein.

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Blood Flow through the Heart
  • Blood reenters the heart in the left atrium. It
    is kept here by the Mitral valve.
  • When the mitral valve opens blood empties into
    the left ventricle, the strongest of the four
    chambers.
  • When it pumps, blood flows through the aorta and
    is distributed to the entire body.

19
Heart Sounds
  • Characterized as Lub Dup
  • Signal the closing of the AV valves
  • Lub sound is heard when the valves close after
    the emptying of the atria.
  • The Dup sound is heard when the ventricle
    contracts and the semilunar valve closes.
  • Abnormal heart sounds are called murmurs.

20
Heart Beat
  • Avg heart rate should be 70bpm
  • Tachycardia is a fast heart beat (over 100bpm),
    Bradycardia is a slow heart beat (under 60bpm).
  • The heart is controlled by electrical impulses.
  • When this electrical impulse fails, a pacemaker
    can be used.

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22
Heart Circulation
  • Even though the interior of the heart is
    constantly bathed in blood, it receives no
    nutrients in this fashion.
  • Nutrients are fed to the heart through the
    coronary arteries. These branch off of the aorta
    and wrap around the heart, feeding it oxygen and
    nutrients.

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Heart circulation
  • If any of these heart arteries are clogged or do
    not receive oxygenated blood, heart tissue can
    die called an infarction.
  • If left unattended, a myocardial infarction, aka
    heart attack can occur.

25
Blood
  • Carries everything that needs to be transported
    around the blood.
  • Nutrients
  • Wastes
  • Body heat
  • Hormones
  • Etc.

26
Blood
  • Blood is the only liquid tissue.
  • It is made of both solid and liquid components.
    Living blood cells suspended in the nonliving
    fluid matrix called the plasma.
  • Scientists can use a centrifuge to separate the
    different elements of the blood.

27
Solid Blood Elements
  • Erythrocytes red blood cells transports
    oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • 4-6 million cells per mL of blood
  • Leukocytes White blood cells protects the
    body from invaders
  • 4-11 thousand
  • Platelets cell fragments that help in clotting.

28
Liquid Blood Elements
  • Plasma 90 water, 10 nutrients and plasma
    proteins.
  • Blood as a whole is slightly basic
  • Has the taste of iron due to hemoglobin
  • It is also approximately 8 of your body weight
    6 quarts

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Erythrocytes
  • Ferry oxygen around the body.
  • No nucleus, contain hemoglobin
  • Central depression on both side allows for more
    surface area
  • Anemia is a decrease in oxygen carrying ability
  • Sickle cell anemia is a misshapen cell due to
    hemo mutation

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Leukocytes
  • White blood cells are not confined to the
    vessels, they can leave and help to stop
    infections where needed.
  • They use positive chemotaxis to find areas in
    need.
  • WBC can be produced above the normal amount.
    Anything over 11,000 cells/mL is referred to as
    leukocytosis

33
ABO Blood Groups
  • Blood transfusions can save lives, however, they
    can be deadly if the right blood is not chosen.
  • The RBC of each blood group has different
    membrane proteins attached to them, called
    antigens.
  • If the antigens on the transfused blood do not
    equal those of the normal blood, the immune
    system will respond and attack it.

34
ABO Blood Groups
  • The immuno response in this case is that the
    plasma will begin to clump around the transfused
    RBC, turning the blood into a gel which can block
    small arteries. This can lead to organ failure

35
ABO Blood Groups
  • Type B Anti A, can receive from B, or O, 19
  • Type A anti B, can receive from A or O, 32
  • Type O Anti A and B, universal Donor, 45
  • Type AB no plasma antibodies, can receive any
    blood, 4

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Rh Blood Groups
  • Another set of Antigens that can be found on the
    surface of the RBC are the Rh Factors, named
    after the Rhesus monkey from which they were
    discovered.
  • Rh you have the antigens, Rh- you dont.

38
Blood Typing
  • To determine what blood type a person is you add
    anti A or anti B to different samples, if the
    blood clots, the blood contains that antigen.

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40
Blood Vessels
  • Blood vessels are the one-way highways of our
    cardiovascular system.
  • Blood vessels that carry blood away from the
    heart are called arteries
  • Blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart
    are veins.
  • The interconnected series of tubes is called the
    vascular system.

41
Vascular System
  • Just like roads in New Jersey, our vascular
    system has a series or major highways, side
    streets, and alleys which determine how much
    blood can flow through at a given time.
  • The largest artery is the aorta, the largest vein
    is the vena cava.
  • Capillaries are your smallest tubes, allowing for
    only one blood cell to pass at a single time.

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Artery and Vein Differences
  • Arteries tend to have thicker walls due to
    increased pressure near the heart.
  • Veins tend to have thinner walls because the
    pressure is lower.
  • Veins tend to have a larger diameter as well as
    valves.
  • Valves are necessary since without blood
    pressure, blood would never get back to heart.

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Capillaries
  • Capillaries only have a very thin tunica intima.
    This allows for easy diffusion of oxygen and
    nutrients from capillaries to the surrounding
    tissue.
  • Because they are so thin they are easily broken.
    Bruises.

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Vital Signs
  • Pulse and blood pressure are two vital signs that
    doctors will often refer too.
  • The other two are respiration rate, and
    temperature.
  • Pulse is measured by placing the fingers on an
    artery close to the surface of the skin, as the
    heart beats, the pressure in the vessels push up
    on your fingers.
  • Avg would be 70-80 bpm

49
Blood Pressure
  • Hypertension is high blood pressure
  • Hypotension is low blood pressure.
  • Caused by diet, chemicals, temperature, amount of
    blood and neural factors.

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