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Chapter 19 Food Resources: A Challenge For Agriculture

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Chapter 19 Food Resources: A Challenge For Agriculture – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 19 Food Resources: A Challenge For Agriculture


1
Chapter 19 Food Resources A Challenge For
Agriculture
2
Overview of Chapter 19
  • Food and Nutrition
  • World Food Problems
  • Principle Types of Agriculture
  • Challenges of Producing More Crops and Livestock
  • Environmental Impact of Agriculture
  • Solutions to Agricultural Problems
  • Fisheries of the World

3
Food and Nutrition
  • Carbohydrates
  • Sugars and starches metabolized by cellular
    respiration to produce energy
  • Proteins
  • Large, complex molecules composed of amino acids
    that perform critical roles in body
  • Lipids
  • Include fats and oils and are metabolized by
    cellular respiration to produce energy
  • Vitamins and Minerals
  • Inorganic elements such as zinc iron
  • Vitamins are complex molecules need in small
    amounts

4
Human Foods
5
World Food Problems
  • Feeding growing population is difficult
  • Annual grain production (left) has increased
    since 1970
  • Grain per person has not (right)

6
Food Insecurity
  • Regions in the world with greatest food
    insecurity are South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa
  • low income food deficits in countries
  • Problem is not producing enough food but
    distribution and intermittent problems such as
    famine and politics.
  • 1. Undernourished fewer calories than needed
  • 2. Mal-nourished getting food, but not
    enough specific essential nutrients (e.g.
    protein)
  • 3. Over nourished eat in excess of required
    for general
  • nutrition
  • 4. Famine severe food shortage

7
2 Diseases of Malnutrition
  1. Kwashiorkor- resulting from protein deficiency
    (big stomach)
  2. Marasmus- emaciation from a diet low in calories
    and protein

8
World Food Problems
  • Famine
  • Failure of crops caused by drought, flood or
    catastrophic event
  • Temporary but severe shortage of food
  • Maintaining World Grain Carryover Stockpiles
  • Amounts of rice, wheat, corn and other grains
    remaining from previous harvest
  • Provides measure of food security
  • Decreased each year since 1987
  • UN feels carryover stock should not fall below 70
    days

9
World Grain Carryover Stock
  • Why the decline?
  • Rising temperatures
  • Falling water tables and droughts
  • Ethanol production
  • More grain is going towards feeding livestock
  • Animal products are 40 of diet in developed
    counties. 5 in developing

10
World Food Problems
  • Poverty and Food
  • 1.3 billion people are so poor they cannot afford
    proper nutrition
  • More common in
  • Rural than urban areas
  • Infants, children and the elderly
  • Economics and Politics
  • Cost money to store, produce, transport and
    distribute food
  • Getting food to those who need it is political
  • Cultural Acceptance what is food for one
    culture is not for another

11
Types of Diets
  • Omnivores eat both animals and plants
  • Vegetarians
  • 1. Lacto ovo milk, eggs and food from
  • milk
  • 2. Lacto-vegetarians no eggs, milk and
  • milk products
    ok
  • 3. Vegans no milk, eggs or their
  • products

12
Principle Types of Agriculture
  • Industrialized agriculture
  • Modern agriculture methods that require large
    capital input, and less land and labor

13
Principle Types of Agriculture
  • Subsistence Agriculture
  • Traditional agricultural methods, which are
    dependent on labor and large amounts of land
  • Examples
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Slash and burn agriculture- clearing small
    patches of tropical rain forests to plant crops
  • Nomadic herding livestock on land to arid for
    crops. Herds moved to find grazing
  • Intercropping

14
Challenges of Producing More Crop and Livestock
  • Domestication and Genetic Diversity
  • Domestication of crops and livestock causes a
    loss of genetic diversity
  • Farmer selects and propagates animals with
    desirable agricultural characteristics
  • Many high yielding crops are genetically uniform
  • High likelihood that bacteria, fungi, viruses,
    etc. will attack and destroy entire crop

15
Challenges of Producing More Crop and Livestock
  • Increasing Crop Yield
  • Food production increased in developed countries
    (wheat (left)
  • Pesticides
  • Selective breeding

16
Green Revolution
  • Production of more food per acre of cropland
    using modern methods and new high yielding
    varieties
  • High Yielding Rice Varieties

17
Food Additives
  • Sugar salt are the 2 most common food additives
  • Common preservatives- sodium propionate
    potassium sorbate
  • Other food additives- anti oxidants,
    nitrates/nitrites
  • Food Drug Administration- responsible for
    monitoring food additives

18
Food Processing
  1. Manual alteration via drying, canning, freezing,
    irradiation, curing refrigeration
  2. Food additives to enhance taste color or
    texture, improve nutrition, reduce spoilage /or
    extend self life

19
Challenges of Producing More Crop and Livestock
  • Increasing Livestock Yields
  • Hormone supplements
  • US and Canada do this
  • Europe does not citing human health concerns
  • Antibiotics
  • 40 of antibiotics produced in US are used in
    livestock operations
  • Problems with increased bacteria resistance

20
Antibiotic Use and Resistance
21
Genetic Engineering
  • Manipulation of genes by taking specific gene
    from a cell of one species and placing it into
    the cell of an unrelated species

22
Issue with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
  • Determined to be safe for human consumption
  • Concerns about GMO seed or pollen spreading in
    wild
  • Backlash against GMOs
  • GMOs are not currently labeled
  • FDA finds it would be counterproductive and
    expensive to label

23
Environmental Impacts of Agriculture
  • High use of fossil fuels and pesticides
  • Air pollution
  • Untreated animal wastes and agricultural
    chemicals
  • Water pollution
  • Harms fisheries
  • Insects, weeds, and disease-causing organisms
    developing resistance to pesticides
  • Contaminate food supply

24
Environmental Impact of Agriculture
  • Land degradation
  • Decreases future ability of land to support crops
    or livestock
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Breakup of large areas of habitat into small,
    isolated patches
  • Cultivating marginal lands
  • Irrigating dry land
  • Cultivating land prone to erosion

25
Solutions to Agricultural Problems- Sustainable
Agriculture
26
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Examples
  • Natural Predator-prey relationships instead of
    pesticides
  • Crop selection
  • Crop rotation and conservation tillage
  • Supplying nitrogen with legumes
  • Organic agriculture
  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • Limited use of pesticides with sustainable
    agriculture practices

27
Fisheries of the World- Problems
  • No nation lays claim to open ocean
  • Resource susceptible to overuse and degradation
  • Overharvesting
  • Many species are at point of severe depletion
  • Cod (right)
  • 62 of worlds fish stock are in need of
    management action

28
Fish/Aqua culture
  • Fish/Seafood popular cause they are a source of
    high quality protein (5 of human diet is
    seafood)
  • 4 Main categories
  • 1. Fish
  • 2. Crustaceans
  • 3. Mollusks
  • 4. Algae

29
Fisheries of the World- Problems
  • Overharvesting (continued)
  • Sophisticated fishing equipment
  • Bycatch killed off
  • Magnuson Fisheries Conservation Act

30
Magnuson Fishery Conservation Act
  • Regulates U. S. Fishing
  • Established 8 regional fishery management
    councils.
  • Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
  • Management Act.
  • Requires regional councils and National Marin
    Fisheries Service

31
Fisheries of the World- Problems
  • Ocean Pollution - dumping ground
  • Oil
  • Heavy metals
  • Deliberate litter dumping
  • Stormwater runoff from cities and agricultural
    areas
  • Aquaculture (mariculture)
  • Growing of aquatic organisms for human
    consumption
  • Great potential to supply food

32
Fisheries of the World- Problems
  • Aquaculture (continued)
  • Locations of fisheries may hurt natural habitats.
    Potential for release of invasive exotics
  • Produce waste that pollutes adjacent water
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