Chapter 19 Food Resources: A Challenge For Agriculture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 19 Food Resources: A Challenge For Agriculture


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Title: Chapter 19 Food Resources: A Challenge For Agriculture

Chapter 19 Food Resources A Challenge For
Overview of Chapter 19
  • Food and Nutrition
  • World Food Problems
  • Principle Types of Agriculture
  • Challenges of Producing More Crops and Livestock
  • Environmental Impact of Agriculture
  • Solutions to Agricultural Problems
  • Fisheries of the World

Food and Nutrition
  • Carbohydrates
  • Sugars and starches metabolized by cellular
    respiration to produce energy
  • Proteins
  • Large, complex molecules composed of amino acids
    that perform critical roles in body
  • Lipids
  • Include fats and oils and are metabolized by
    cellular respiration to produce energy
  • Vitamins and Minerals
  • Inorganic elements such as zinc iron
  • Vitamins are complex molecules need in small

Human Foods
World Food Problems
  • Feeding growing population is difficult
  • Annual grain production (left) has increased
    since 1970
  • Grain per person has not (right)

Food Insecurity
  • Regions in the world with greatest food
    insecurity are South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa
  • low income food deficits in countries
  • Problem is not producing enough food but
    distribution and intermittent problems such as
    famine and politics.
  • 1. Undernourished fewer calories than needed
  • 2. Mal-nourished getting food, but not
    enough specific essential nutrients (e.g.
  • 3. Over nourished eat in excess of required
    for general
  • nutrition
  • 4. Famine severe food shortage

2 Diseases of Malnutrition
  1. Kwashiorkor- resulting from protein deficiency
    (big stomach)
  2. Marasmus- emaciation from a diet low in calories
    and protein

World Food Problems
  • Famine
  • Failure of crops caused by drought, flood or
    catastrophic event
  • Temporary but severe shortage of food
  • Maintaining World Grain Carryover Stockpiles
  • Amounts of rice, wheat, corn and other grains
    remaining from previous harvest
  • Provides measure of food security
  • Decreased each year since 1987
  • UN feels carryover stock should not fall below 70

World Grain Carryover Stock
  • Why the decline?
  • Rising temperatures
  • Falling water tables and droughts
  • Ethanol production
  • More grain is going towards feeding livestock
  • Animal products are 40 of diet in developed
    counties. 5 in developing

World Food Problems
  • Poverty and Food
  • 1.3 billion people are so poor they cannot afford
    proper nutrition
  • More common in
  • Rural than urban areas
  • Infants, children and the elderly
  • Economics and Politics
  • Cost money to store, produce, transport and
    distribute food
  • Getting food to those who need it is political
  • Cultural Acceptance what is food for one
    culture is not for another

Types of Diets
  • Omnivores eat both animals and plants
  • Vegetarians
  • 1. Lacto ovo milk, eggs and food from
  • milk
  • 2. Lacto-vegetarians no eggs, milk and
  • milk products
  • 3. Vegans no milk, eggs or their
  • products

Principle Types of Agriculture
  • Industrialized agriculture
  • Modern agriculture methods that require large
    capital input, and less land and labor

Principle Types of Agriculture
  • Subsistence Agriculture
  • Traditional agricultural methods, which are
    dependent on labor and large amounts of land
  • Examples
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Slash and burn agriculture- clearing small
    patches of tropical rain forests to plant crops
  • Nomadic herding livestock on land to arid for
    crops. Herds moved to find grazing
  • Intercropping

Challenges of Producing More Crop and Livestock
  • Domestication and Genetic Diversity
  • Domestication of crops and livestock causes a
    loss of genetic diversity
  • Farmer selects and propagates animals with
    desirable agricultural characteristics
  • Many high yielding crops are genetically uniform
  • High likelihood that bacteria, fungi, viruses,
    etc. will attack and destroy entire crop

Challenges of Producing More Crop and Livestock
  • Increasing Crop Yield
  • Food production increased in developed countries
    (wheat (left)
  • Pesticides
  • Selective breeding

Green Revolution
  • Production of more food per acre of cropland
    using modern methods and new high yielding
  • High Yielding Rice Varieties

Food Additives
  • Sugar salt are the 2 most common food additives
  • Common preservatives- sodium propionate
    potassium sorbate
  • Other food additives- anti oxidants,
  • Food Drug Administration- responsible for
    monitoring food additives

Food Processing
  1. Manual alteration via drying, canning, freezing,
    irradiation, curing refrigeration
  2. Food additives to enhance taste color or
    texture, improve nutrition, reduce spoilage /or
    extend self life

Challenges of Producing More Crop and Livestock
  • Increasing Livestock Yields
  • Hormone supplements
  • US and Canada do this
  • Europe does not citing human health concerns
  • Antibiotics
  • 40 of antibiotics produced in US are used in
    livestock operations
  • Problems with increased bacteria resistance

Antibiotic Use and Resistance
Genetic Engineering
  • Manipulation of genes by taking specific gene
    from a cell of one species and placing it into
    the cell of an unrelated species

Issue with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
  • Determined to be safe for human consumption
  • Concerns about GMO seed or pollen spreading in
  • Backlash against GMOs
  • GMOs are not currently labeled
  • FDA finds it would be counterproductive and
    expensive to label

Environmental Impacts of Agriculture
  • High use of fossil fuels and pesticides
  • Air pollution
  • Untreated animal wastes and agricultural
  • Water pollution
  • Harms fisheries
  • Insects, weeds, and disease-causing organisms
    developing resistance to pesticides
  • Contaminate food supply

Environmental Impact of Agriculture
  • Land degradation
  • Decreases future ability of land to support crops
    or livestock
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Breakup of large areas of habitat into small,
    isolated patches
  • Cultivating marginal lands
  • Irrigating dry land
  • Cultivating land prone to erosion

Solutions to Agricultural Problems- Sustainable
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Examples
  • Natural Predator-prey relationships instead of
  • Crop selection
  • Crop rotation and conservation tillage
  • Supplying nitrogen with legumes
  • Organic agriculture
  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • Limited use of pesticides with sustainable
    agriculture practices

Fisheries of the World- Problems
  • No nation lays claim to open ocean
  • Resource susceptible to overuse and degradation
  • Overharvesting
  • Many species are at point of severe depletion
  • Cod (right)
  • 62 of worlds fish stock are in need of
    management action

Fish/Aqua culture
  • Fish/Seafood popular cause they are a source of
    high quality protein (5 of human diet is
  • 4 Main categories
  • 1. Fish
  • 2. Crustaceans
  • 3. Mollusks
  • 4. Algae

Fisheries of the World- Problems
  • Overharvesting (continued)
  • Sophisticated fishing equipment
  • Bycatch killed off
  • Magnuson Fisheries Conservation Act

Magnuson Fishery Conservation Act
  • Regulates U. S. Fishing
  • Established 8 regional fishery management
  • Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
  • Management Act.
  • Requires regional councils and National Marin
    Fisheries Service

Fisheries of the World- Problems
  • Ocean Pollution - dumping ground
  • Oil
  • Heavy metals
  • Deliberate litter dumping
  • Stormwater runoff from cities and agricultural
  • Aquaculture (mariculture)
  • Growing of aquatic organisms for human
  • Great potential to supply food

Fisheries of the World- Problems
  • Aquaculture (continued)
  • Locations of fisheries may hurt natural habitats.
    Potential for release of invasive exotics
  • Produce waste that pollutes adjacent water