"The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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"The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation

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Title: "The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation


1
World War I
"The world must be made safe for democracy. Its
peace must be planted upon the tested foundations
of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to
serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We
seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material
compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely
make. - Woodrow Wilson -
2
Causes of the War
  • -Lots of Instability in Europe
  • Nationalism
  • Devotion to ones country leads to competition
    and rivalries (fear of Germany)
  • Old Empires
  • Competition for colonies
  • Ethnic groups want to become independent from
    empires
  • Old Style Govts (Militarism)
  • Imperial nations building large, competitive
    armies and navies
  • Alliance System
  • Nations fear other militaries, begin to form
    alliances


3
Alliances
  • -Led to an arms race
  • Major nations all racing to build and arm large
    armies and navies
  • -Triple Alliance
  • (Central Powers)
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
  • -Triple Entente
  • (Allies)
  • France, Britain, Russia
  • Later Italy and the U.S. will join the Allied war
    effort

Just prior to WWI, the major imperial nations of
Europe began competing to build bigger and better
armies and navies. Wanting to become the leading
imperial power, Germany competed with rival Great
Britain to build the worlds largest navy. Both
countries successfully built strong navies, and
competed with one another in the arms race.
4
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5
Strategy
  • -War starts
  • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand heir to
    Austro-Hungarian throne
  • Shot by Serbian nationalist
  • Alliances cause chain reaction to
    Austria-Hungarys attack on Serbia after the
    assassination
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
  • Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary
  • Germany declares war on Russia and its ally
    France (all within weeks)
  • Britain declares war on Germany and Austria
    Hungary

6
Memoir of Count Franz von Harrach As the car
quickly reversed, a thin stream of blood spurted
from His Highness's mouth onto my right check. 
As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the
blood away from his mouth, the Duchess cried out
to him, "For God's sake!  What has happened to
you?" At that she slid off the seat and lay on
the floor of the car, with her face between his
knees. I had no idea that she too was hit and
thought she had simply fainted with fright.  Then
I heard His Imperial Highness say, "Sophie,
Sophie, don't die.  Stay alive for the
children!" At that, I seized the Archduke by the
collar of his uniform, to stop his head dropping
forward and asked him if he was in great pain. 
He answered me quite distinctly, "It is
nothing!" His face began to twist somewhat but he
went on repeating, six or seven times, ever more
faintly as he gradually lost consciousness, "It's
nothing!" Then came a brief pause followed by a
convulsive rattle in his throat, caused by a loss
of blood.  This ceased on arrival at the
governor's residence. The two unconscious bodies
were carried into the building where their death
was soon established. - Witness to the
assassination of Archduke Ferdinand -
7
Allies Russia, France, Great Britain, Serbia
WWI
Central Powers Austria Hungary, Germany
Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism
Assassination of Ferdinand

Powder Keg of WWI
8
Strategy
  • -War develops into trench warfare after initial
    German advance failed to defeat France
  • -Germany wants to defeat Russia first if faced
    with two front war
  • Does not want to split forces on Western Front in
    France and Eastern Front in Russia
  • -Allies want to force fighting on two fronts and
    get help from U.S.

Germanys first strategy was to avoid fighting a
war on two fronts. To keep this from happening,
German leaders developed the Schlieffen Plan,
which would have them defeating France on the
Western Front to later focus on Russia on the
Eastern Front. To get to France, Germany had to
invade neutral Belgium, which brought Great
Britain into the war. What Germany thought would
be a quick, easy victory ended up being anything
but that as stalemate developed.
9
U.S. Neutrality
  • -U.S. declares neutrality in the war President
    Wilson
  • -develops sympathy for the Allied cause
  • Americans feel loyalty to Britain as stories of
    atrocity circulate through propaganda
  • -Begin to export war materials
  • U.S. begins to ship millions of dollars in
    supplies to Allies

Some atrocity storiesspread by British
propagandareferred to Germany as the Bully of
Europe. Stories of Germany attacking civilians,
destroying villages, cathedrals, libraries, and
even hospitals prompted sympathy among Americans.
This was spread through British propaganda aimed
at the US"It should be America's duty to help
us subdue the mad dog of Europe."
10
U.S. Neutrality
  • -Submarine warfare begins
  • British blockade German coast and severely limit
    supplies
  • Germans use u-boats to attack British blockade
    (and others)
  • -Wilson wins 1916 election on He kept us out of
    war!
  • -isolationist policy
  • Wilson sticking to policy to stay out of European
    affairs

View from the tower of an attacking u-boat as a
torpedo hits home on a merchant ship.
11
Stalemate
  • Both sides want U.S. involvement
  • -War quickly reaches a stalemate
  • Neither side winning on the Western Front
  • -Trench warfare
  • Thousands of miles, no territory
  • Over the Top charge!
  • No Mans Land space between enemy trenches
    where men were gunned down by machine guns
  • new technology
  • submarines (u-boats)
  • airplanes
  • horrible weapons
  • poison gas
  • mustard gas

12
U.S. Enters War
  • -U.S. continues to export war materials
  • Hindered by British blockade and German u-boat
    attacks
  • -German u-boats sink any ships they find
    unrestricted submarine warfare
  • Lusitania sinks, 1915
  • British ship sunk by German sub
  • 128 Americans killed passenger ship
  • Sussex Pledge
  • Germany promises not to use unrestricted
    submarine warfare and will warn ships prior to
    attack

13
U.S. Enters War
  • -Wilson wins 1916 election
  • calls for peace
  • -Zimmerman Note
  • Attempt to get Mexico involved in war vs. U.S.
  • Final straw for U.S. citizens
  • Push for war declaration

The Zimmerman note
14
19 January, 1917 The Zimmerman Note to the
German Minister to Mexico Berlin, January 19,
1917 On the first of February we intend to begin
submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this,
it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral
the United States of America. If this attempt is
not successful, we propose an alliance on the
following basis with Mexico That we shall make
war together and together make peace. We shall
give general financial support, and it is
understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost
territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The
details are left to you for settlement.... You
are instructed to inform the President of Mexico
of the above in the greatest confidence as soon
as it is certain that there will be an outbreak
of war with the United States and suggest that
the President of Mexico, on his own initiative,
should communicate with Japan suggesting
adherence at once to this plan at the same time,
offer to mediate between Germany and Japan.
Please call to the attention of the President of
Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine
warfare now promises to compel England to make
peace in a few months. Zimmerman(Secretary of
State)
15
U.S. Enters War
  • -Peace without Victory
  • Wilson attempts to keep U.S. out of the war
    isolationist
  • -idealistic peace plan
  • -Submarine warfare continues
  • Germany continues unrestricted submarine warfare,
    no warnings
  • -Zimmerman Note intercepted
  • Proposed Mexican alliance
  • -Wilson calls for War
  • Make world safe for democracy
  • Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
  • -Russian Revolution takes them out of the war
  • Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, set up
    communist government and exit war

Property can be paid for the lives of peaceful
and innocent people cannot be. The present
German submarine warfare against commerce is a
warfare against mankindWe are gladto fightfore
the ultimate peace of the world and for the
liberation of its peoplesThe world must be made
safe for democracyWe have no selfish ends to
serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We
seek no indemnitiesIT is a fearful thing to lead
this great peaceful people into warBut the right
is more precious than peace. Woodrow Wilson
16
Military Operations
  • Mobilizing the U.S. for war
  • -Selective Service Act (May 1917)
  • drafted over 3 million troops
  • 24 million men registered, 3 million randomly
    selected
  • -recruits trained for 9 months
  • 17-hour days with fake weapons, not prepared
  • -transportation problems
  • Must get men, food, equipment across ocean
  • govt control of industry
  • Took over warships and production
  • use of convoy system
  • Guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships
    across Atlantic

To meet the governments need for fighting power,
Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May
of 1917. The act required men to register with
the government in order to be randomly selected
for military service. By the end of 1918, 24
million men had registered under the act. Of
this number, almost 3 million were called up.
About 2 million troops reached Europe before the
truce was signed, and three-fourths of them saw
actual combat. Most of the inductees had not
attended high school, and about one in five was
foreign-born.
17
Military Operations
  • -Over There Europe/France
  • -Dough Boys nickname for American soldiers
  • -General John Pershing
  • American Expeditionary Force
  • Most went to Western Front
  • -Argonne Forest Campaign
  • -Alvin York-American Hero
  • Killed 25 Germans and captured many prisoners of
    war
  • -Armistice Nov. 1918
  • Nov. 11 at 11 a.m.
  • Germans exhausted, A-H already surrendered
    cease-fire
  • no battles fought in Germany

A redhead mountaineer and blacksmith from
Tennessee, York sought exemption from war as a
conscientious objector, a person who opposes
warfare on moral grounds, saying that the Bible
says, Thou shalt not kill. York eventually
decided that it was morally acceptable to fight
if the cause was just. On October 8, 1918, armed
with only a rifle and a revolver, York killed 25
Germans andwith six other doughboyscaptured 132
prisoners.
18
About 9 oclock in the evening we heard wild
commotion in the little town. The French people,
old and young, were running through the streets.
Old men and women wed seen sitting around their
houses too feeble to move, were out in the
streets yelling, Vive la France! Vive la
France! Vive lAmerica!Down the street came a
soldier. He was telling everybody the armistice
had been signed. I said, Whats an armistice?
It sounded like some kind of machine to me. The
other boys around there didnt know what it meant
either. When the official word came through that
it meant peace, we couldnt believe it. Finally
Jesse said, Well kid, I guess it really does
mean the war is over. I said, I just cant
believe its true. But it was.
19
Fighting Over There
  • -most U.S. soldiers were not experienced
    travelers
  • Impressed by foreign sights and sounds, not ready
    for harsh realities of war
  • -huge cannons, Zeppelins, machine guns, poison
    gases, tanks, airplanes
  • Modern warfare brings large numbers of casualties
  • -poor medical care
  • Unsanitary conditions
  • shell shock, trench foot
  • Emotional breakdown/shocks
  • Caused by standing in wet trenches, feet rot
  • Trench mouth

Physical problems included trench foot, caused by
standing in cold, wet trenches for long periods
of time without changing into dry socks or boots.
First the toes would turn red or blue, then they
would become numb, and finally they would start
to rot. The only solution was to amputate the
toes, and in some cases the entire foot.
20
Preparing for War
  • -War Industries Board
  • Encourage companies to increase efficiency and
    decrease waste in production (waste less)
  • Set quotas on raw materials
  • -Conservation efforts
  • Victory Gardens citizens plant gardens to
    conserve food
  • Daylight Savings Time conserve fuel and energy
  • -Liberty Bonds, increased taxes
  • Income taxes increased, war-profits tax passed,
    higher excise taxes
  • Volunteers sold government bonds
  • -Opportunities for Women and Minorities

21
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22
Common Objectives and Tools of Propaganda
  • Objectives
  • Recruitment of Soldiers
  • Finance the War
  • Eliminate Dissent/ Unify the Country
  • Conserve Resources
  • Participate in Home Front Efforts
  • Tools
  • Demonization
  • Emotional Appeals
  • Name Calling
  • Patriotic Appeals
  • Half-Truths/ Lies
  • Catchy Slogans
  • Evocative Visual Symbols
  • Humor or Caricatures

23
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24
Public Opinion
  • -Committee on Public Information
  • Propaganda agency to sell the war
  • George Creel
  • 4 Minute Men volunteers who spoke out about
    the war (draft, rationing, bonds, etc.)
  • I Want You Campaign
  • Army and Navy recruitment
  • -Espionage and Sedition Act
  • Fined 10,000 or jailed 20 years for interfering
    with the war effort or saying anything disloyal
    about the government
  • Schenck v. United States
  • Can limit freedoms in times of clear and present
    danger
  • -Anti-immigrant sentiment
  • Discrimination and violence against immigrants

25
"Falsehood is a recognized and extremely useful
weapon in warfare, and every country uses it
quite deliberately to deceive its own people, to
attract neutrals, and to mislead the enemy.
Arthur Ponsonby, Member of Parliament, England -
1928
26
Social Changes
  • -African Americans
  • Great Migration brought increased opportunities
  • Movement of blacks into the cities to escape
    discrimination and work in industry
  • Civil Rights Debated??
  • Put aside differences to fight
  • -Women
  • took the jobs left by many men
  • Jobs previously reserved for men ONLY
  • 19th Amendment was passed
  • Women get right to vote

About 400,000 African-Americans served in the
armed forces. More than half of them served on
the Western Front in France. African-American
soldiers served in segregated units and were
excluded from the navy and marines. Most
African-Americans were assigned to non-combat
duties, although there were exceptions.
27
Epidemic
  • -World War brought disease to a new level
  • -large groups of people were exposed
  • -Influenza (flu) outbreak of 1918 spread all over
    the world
  • -1/4 of the U.S. fell victim and ½ million died
  • -as many as 40 million dead worldwide
  • Epidemic ended about the same time as the war

In the fall of 1918, about ¼ of the U.S.
population from the international flu epidemic.
The effect on the economy was devastating. Mines
shut down, telephone service was cut in half, and
factories and offices staggered working hours to
avoid contagion. Cities ran short of coffins,
and the corpses of poor people lay unburied for
as long as a week. The mysterious illness seemed
to strike people who were otherwise in the best
of health, and death could come in a matter of
days.
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