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World war i


World war i Shannon Slaughter SCCHS WWI ARTILLERY British Mark IV HOWITZER 7.2 MM shell German Paris Gun 118 foot long barrel could shoot 25 MILES into ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World war i

World war i
  • Shannon Slaughter

World War I 1914-1919The war to end all
wars The Great War
  • A. Militarism- the aggressive build up of armed
    forces German militarism forced Great Britain
    to become involved in an alliance system.
    Germany began building a large modern navy. This
    naval race greatly increased tensions between
    Germany and Great Britain. Britain, France,
    Russia became known as the Triple Entente.

World War I
  • B. Nationalism- pride in ones country.
    Nationalism again brought about tensions between
    European nations. This led to some countries
    wanting independence from another nation that had
    power over them.
  • C. Imperialism- idea that a country can increase
    its power and wealth by controlling another
    country. This idea spread in the late 1800s.

World War ID. Alliance System started by OTTO
VON BISMARK (chancellor of Germany)
  • Triple Alliance- before war-then after the war
    began- called CENTRAL POWERS
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Bulgaria
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Triple Entente after the start of the war
  • France
  • Russia
  • Great Britain
  • 1915- Italy joined the effort
  • 1917-United States

World War I
  • June 1914- Franz Ferdinand Archduke of Austria
    Hungary- assassinated the Serbian nationalist
    group the BLACK HAND - this triggered the war-
    nations were ready for the fightsides were
  • Austria-Hungary then issued an ultimatum to the
    Serbian government. The Serbs counted on Russia
    to back them, the Russians in turn, counted on
    France. On July 28, 1914 Austria Hungary declared
    war on Serbia. W.W.I Began.
  • Germany began a policy of UNRESTRICTED SEA
    (SUBMARINE) WARFARE German policy of sinking
    ALL enemy watercraft spurred by the British
    blockade of the North Sea / warring nations had
    the right to sink ships carrying contraband
    (military supplies)

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World War I
  • Schlieffen Plan Battle strategy for Germany to
    attack France first then focus effort on Russia
    very difficult to fight a war on 2 fronts.
  • Germany attacks Belgium gets bogged down then on
    to France determined to conquer Paris.
  • The FRENCH dig in (elaborate system of trenches
    for defense) makes the war on the western front
    one of attrition.

American Involvement in WWI
  • American foreign policy NEUTRALITY / non
    involvement (ISOLATIONISM) from Washingtons
  • 1916 Woodrow Wilson ran on the slogan He Kept
    Us Out of War worked (proving that
    historically America does not change leadership
    during a world conflict)
  • There were strained civilian relations in the US
    because of the European immigrants here.
  • German Americans (came under heightened public
    scrutiny) / Irish / Franco-American
    German food names Frankfurter, Sauerkraut,
    Hamburger Steak ANTI- GERMAN feelings all
    across the US.
  • 900,000 German Americans altered their last

Anti German violence
  • Pensacola German American forced to shout To
    Hell with the Kaiser at movie theater, then
  • George Koetzer San Jose, CA tarred/feathered
    then chained to a cannon in a local park
  • Fritz Monat Jefferson City, MO stripped,
    beaten by a vigilante mob taken to a theater and
    forced to kiss an American Flag
  • Robert Prager Collinsville, IL lynched by a
    mob. Had previously tried to join the US Navy
    and had applied for citizenship. Was a suspect
    in a mine bombing because he was of foreign

American Involvement in WWI
  • Americans identified German Kultur with
    destruction and barbarism, and they regarded
    Germans as uncivilized brutes and Huns,
  • 2. March 1916- Sussex attacked. The Germans
    announced the Sussex Pledge they would never
    sink another merchant vessel. -- Germany LIED
  • The United States declared war in 1917. Why?
  • 1. Unrestricted submarine warfare. The Germans
    sank merchant ships without warning. This
    outraged most Americans. They were readying for
  • May 7, 1915-Lusitania sank by U-boats, killing
    1,200 passengers including 128 Americans. The
    attack outraged Americans who saw this as a
    terrorist attack. - yellow journalism

  • What does PATRIOTISM mean to you?
  • Do you think its important for people to be
    PATRIOTIC? Why? Why not?
  • Is it either PATRIOTIC or ANTI-AMERICAN to
    criticize the federal government?
  • Do you think Debs and Schenk were Anti-American?
    Why? Why not?

to make the world safe for democracy
US involvement in WWI
  • From Germany to Mexico be our ally (buddy)
    start a war against the United States (why?) so
    Germany could reclaim lost lands- Texas, New
    Mexico, Arizona- (the Mexican Cession) /this
    telegram was intercepted by intelligence.
  • 4. VIOLATION OF SUSSEX PLEDGE -- Many Americans
    were furious at Germany. Now the country
    concluded that war was necessary. Then , on
    February 1, 1917 the Germans began unrestricted
    submarine warfare again SUNK 4 American
    merchant ships.
  • 5. American (private investors) loans to the
    Allied Powers -- 2 billion to Great Britain
    alone for war supplies / tanks / weapons etc.
    US is the worlds largest CREDITOR NATION
  • JP MORGAN became the leading financier of the war
    effort by providing Britain, France, and Russia
    with loans and by convincing other bankers to do
    the same.
  • To Make the World Safe for Democracy ?????

6. Bolshevik Revolution
  • Lenin- Communist led the revolution. Lenins
    first act after seizing power was to pull the
    Russians out of war. TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK
  • Why did this allow the US to join the Allies?
  • Russian had a revolution in 1917- Lenin led this
    uprising in which he promised to get his country
    out of the war- Czar Nicholas II was ousted for
    his ill handling of the war.

World War I
  • The United States military needs volunteers.
  • Later the draft- Selective Service Act of 1917
    American males were drafted. All men between 21
    and 30 had to register for the draft. A lottery
    randomly determined the order of selection.

World War I
  • The government borrowed over 20 billion through
    the sale of Liberty Bonds/ Victory Bonds-
  • Americans who bought bonds were loaning money to
    the government.
  • The MAJOR method of the US government used to
    help fight the war.
  • Used propaganda to sell Four minute men /
    characterizing the Germans as Huns / Movies /
    and glamorizing war.

American Propaganda
  • Edith Cavell credited with saving the lives of
    200 Allied soldiers and helping them escape
    German occupied Belgium. She administered aid
    to soldiers on BOTH sides but was arrested for
    helping Allies. Eventually court-martialed,
    found guilty of treason by the Germans and put to
    death by a German firing squad. America used it
    as propaganda as her execution received
    world-wide press coverage.

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WWI on The Home Front
  • Why? to coordinate resources for domestic
    military needs
  • War Industries Board- coordinate the production
    of war materials. Retool assembly lines to
    produce war products. Told manufacturers what
    to produce / government bought everything/
    cost-plus contracts.
  • Food Administration- Herbert Hoover- reduce
    consumption of food. Wheatless Mondays, Meatless
    Tuesdays, Porkless Thursdays. VICTORY GARDENS!
  • Committee of Public Information- advertise the
    war- sell the war- George Creel- distributed
    pamphlets / arranged for patriotic speeches, used
    entertainers to sell the war effort.
  • Four minute men speeches at local theaters in
    support of the war BUY BONDS!! Report draft
  • Espionage Act of 1917 illegal to aid the enemy
    / or interfere with war effort.
  • The Sedition Act illegal to criticize the
    government (Remember 1800?)

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WWI on the Home Front
  • Schenck vs. United States- Schenck violated the
    Espionage and Sedition Acts by handing out
    pamphlets telling men not to register for the
    draft. This was illegal and caused problems for
    the United States. No freedom of speech in time
    of war/ cannot speak out against the government
    in time of war.
  • CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER -- The most stringent
    protection of free speech would not protect a man
    in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing
    a panic. ... The question in every case is
    whether the words used are used in such
    circumstances and are of such a nature as to
    create a clear and present danger that they will
    bring about the substantive evils that Congress
    has a right to prevent

World War I
  • World War I was the first war women officially
    served in the armed forces. By the end of the war
    more than 11,000 women had served in the navy.
  • Unlike the navy the army refused to enlist women
    . Instead , it hired women as temporary employees
    to fill clerical jobs. The only women to actually
    serve in the army were in the Army Nursing Corps.

WWI on the Home Front
  • Nearly 42,000 African Americans served in combat
    overseas. African American troops encountered
    discrimination and prejudice in the army. They
    served in segregated units always with white
    officers in charge.

World War I
  • The war was known for its trench warfare
    network of trenches to fight inside of / in the
    middle of the trenches was called no mans land
    it rough barren landscapes filled with craters
    from artillery fire. To prevent troops from
    crossing no mans land , both sides built barbed
    wire entanglements and obstacles in front of
    their trenches.
  • American soldiers were called doughboys so
    named for their fresh faces and the size of their
    uniform buttons.

World War I- No Mans Land
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Trench foot disease prolonged exposure to
dampness, mud
  • If you have never had trench feet described to
    you. I will tell you. Your feet swell to two or
    three times their normal size and go completely
    dead. You could stick a bayonet into them and not
    feel a thing. If you are fortunate enough not to
    lose your feet and the swelling begins to go
    down. It is then that the intolerable,
    indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry
    and even scream with the pain and many had to
    have their feet and legs amputated. -- Sergeant
    Harry Roberts

most important article of clothing?Socks
  • These feet have trench foot and frostbite caused
    by standing for hours in a freezing waterlogged
    trench. To avoid this condition soldiers were
    told to change their socks regularly, wear
    waterproof footwear or gumboots and cover their
    feet with whale oil.

Trench foot - 1916
New Technology in WWI
  • Germans poison gas / U-Boats / Zeppelins
  • British armored tanks
  • First aircraft in war (first spying) then dog
    fights- aircraft shot down other aircraft
  • Machine Guns
  • USE OF TOTAL WAR total annihilation /
    destruction targeting civilians
  • Convoy system delivery
  • of soldiers to Europe. Subs - useless

Red Baron
  • Manfred von Richthofen
  • The German Red Baron brought down 80 British
    and Allied pilots in WWI dogfights.
  • He would typically dive from above to attack with
    the advantage of the sun behind him. Was not a
    great pilot but a great strategist.

German propaganda circulated various false
rumors, including that the British had raised
squadrons specially to hunt down Richthofen and
had offered large rewards and an automatic
Victoria Cross to any Allied pilot who shot him
  • The Zeppelin, also known as a blimp, was an
    airship that was used during the early part of
    the war in bombing raids by the Germans. They
    carried machine guns and bombs. However, they
    were abandoned because they were easy to shoot
    out of the sky

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British Mark IV HOWITZER 7.2 MM shell
German Paris Gun 118 foot long barrel could
shoot 25 MILES into the air / shelled Paris from
75 miles away via railroad
World war I artillery
German Big Bertha Howitzer
World war I machine guns
British Vickers Machine Gun 300 500 shots
per minute
German Machinegewhr 08 Gun developed
originally by Hiram Maxim an American born in
World war I technology
British Tadpole Tank Mark IV pictured at
left is a MALE Tadpole Tank so named because of
its big gun in the tank turret a
At right German Panzer tank from WW1 invented
by the Australians
World War I Rifle and pistol
US Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) M1918
US Browning 1911 pistol
Convoy system
the western front - 1917
  • German military commander Erich von Ludendorff
    announced that if Germany was to win the war then
    the Allies had to be defeated on the Western
    Front before the arrival of American troops.

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World War I
  • Germanys Last Offensive- March 21, 1918- along
    the western front- American troops helped to stop
    this attack- On June 1 Americans and French
    troops blocked the German advance at the town of
  • Battle Of Argonne Forest- Marshall Ferdinand
    Foch, Supreme Allied Commander- American troops
    drove the Germans back at Saint Mihiel.
  • General John J. Pershing- attacked the Germans at
    Meuse River and the Argonne Forest American
    troops had shattered the German defenses.
    Introduction of the Browning Automatic Rifle
  • During this offensive the plight of THE LOST
    BATTALION occurred.

Meuse-Argonne forest
The Lost Battalion
The Lost Battalion had pushed through the German
lines. It had isolated itself (though it didnt
know it) because of the inability of its
comrades (French and American units). End result
Phone communication broke down / Carrier
Pigeons delivered coordinates to HQ that had been
written wrong FRIENDLY FIRE erupted! Finally
Cher-Ami delivered the correct coordinates even
though she was shot (lost an eye and a leg).
Americans were saved!
  • A WW I Carrier Pigeon (part of the Signal
    Corps) saved over 200 lives (the Lost Battalion)
  • isolated by German forces during World War I
    after an American attack in the Argonne Forest in
    October 1918.

Nearing the end of world war i
  • By 1918 there were strikes and demonstrations in
    Berlin and other cities protesting about the
    effects of the war on the population. The British
    naval blockade of German ports meant that
    thousands of people were starving. Socialists
    were waiting for the chance to seize Germany as
    they had in Russia.
  • In October 1918 Ludendorff resigned and the
    German navy mutinied. The end was near. Kaiser
    Wilhelm II abdicated on November 9th 1918.

Ferdinand Foch
  • Ferdinand Foch of France
  • Supreme Allied Commander during World War I.
  • Commander of all Allied forces.
  • Big change coming in WWII Dwight D. Eisenhower
    (American) Commander of Allies

World War I
  • American Heroes- Alvin York- at the Battle of
    Argonne Forest- took a German fortified hill
    killed between 9-25 Germans. He received the
    medal of honor.
  • Eddie Rickenbacker- commander of the 94th Aero
    Squadron- he fought in 134 air battles and shot
    down 26 aircraft- top American pilot. In one
    battle he single handedly fought 7 enemy

Eddie Rickenbacker
World War I
  • War Treaty of Versailles- 27 countries traveled
    to France. The Big Four were there
  • President Wilson- United States
  • British Prime Minister- David Lloyd George
  • French Premier- Georges Clemenceau
  • Italian Prime Minister- Vittorio Orlando
  • Representatives from Russia were not invited. The
    Big Four held power and they dictated the peace

World War I
  • Woodrow Wilson- Peace Plan- 14 Points
  • His peace plan was based on 2 principles
  • 1. National self-determination (self-government)
  • 2. Collective Security (League of Nations)
  • He believed that all peoples shall have justice.
    Wilson wanted to eliminate war through free
    trade, freedom of the seas, disarmament, and open
  • The 14th POINT was his LEAGUE OF NATIONS- all
    nations would come together pledging respect and
    protection of open anothers territories. This he
    hoped would preserve peace.

World War I
  • The other leaders of the world wanted to punish
    the Germans. The Treaty of Versailles blamed
    Germany for the war. When Germany sign the
    agreement they acknowledged that they were guilty
    ( known as the War Guilt Clause). Germany was
    then responsible for
  • A. Pay Reparations- monetary compensation to
    world countries. 33 billion . Germany had no
  • B. No military Germany would have no military.
    The Big Four agreed to disarm Germany.
  • C. Some of Germany was taken land- the country
    was split in two. By leaving a large number of
    Germans living outside Germany , the Treaty of
    Versailles led to many other problems.
  • How was the Treaty of Versailles a major cause of
    World War II?

Treaty of versailles
  • General Clauses
  • The establishment of the League of Nations
  • War Guilt clause Germany to accept blame for
    starting the war.
  • Financial Clauses
  • Reparations Germany was to pay for the damage
    caused by the war. The figure of 6,600 million
    was set some time after the signing of the

Treaty of Versailles
  • Military Clauses
  • Army was to be reduced to 100,000 men and no
    tanks were allowed
  • Navy Germany was only allowed 6 ships and no
  • Airforce Germany was not allowed an airforce
  • Rhineland The Rhineland area was to be kept
    free of German military personnel and weapons

Treaty of Versailles
  • Territorial Clauses
  • Anschluss Germany was not allowed to unite with
  • Land Germany lost land to a number of other
    countries. Alsace-Lorraine was returned to
    France, Eupen and Malmedy were given to Belgium,
    North Schleswig was given to Denmark. Land was
    also taken from Germany and given to
    Czechoslovakia and Poland. The League of Nations
    took control of Germanys colonies.

World War I
  • President Wilson was confident that the American
    people would be in favor of the League of
    Nations. Wilson needed 2/3 vote by the Senate to
    ratify the treaty- opposition of the Senate
    focused on the League of Nations- may cause
    entangling alliances
  • To overcome Senate opposition (Henry Cabot Lodge
    of MASS) Wilson took his case to the people. On
    Sept. 25, 1919 Wilson collapsed from physical
    strain and had a stroke. The Senate refused to
    ratify the Treaty of Versailles.

World War I
  • After the war inflation led to strikes-
    factories laid off workers because the need for
    war materials/ weapons were now down. Strikes in
    the steel industry/ in Boston 75 of policemen
    walked off the job. Racial unrest was prevalent
    in cities like Detroit, MI / Chicago, IL / and
    East St. Louis, IL.
  • In 1919 25 racial riots occurred African
    Americans could not find jobs- soldiers who came
    home from war found the job market was

RED SCARE in America
  • Because of all the unrest in America, the
    Department of Justice began to arrest and deport
    suspected anarchists, radical leftists, potential
  • RED SCARE- COMMUNISM REDS- government is
    afraid they might seize power. Bombings occurred
    8 bombs in 8 cities went off in 1919.
  • Palmer (Attorney General of the US) issued Raids
    (teachers, actors, immigrants, anyone who was
    suspicious) -- formation of FBI mail bombs

Bombing Red Scare
World War I
  • Hardings slogan struck a cord with voters and he
    won by a landslide- over 7 million votes.