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The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis:

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Chapter 26 The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis:


1
  • Chapter 26
  • The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis
  • War and Revolution

2
The Road to World War I
  • Nationalism and Internal Dissent
  • Nationalism
  • Liberals claimed that creation of national states
    would bring peace
  • Led to competition instead of cooperation
  • Brinkmanship
  • Internal dissent
  • Ethnic tensions
  • Growing power of Socialist labor movements
  • Use of war to divert revolutionary tide at home
  • Militarism
  • Conscription and growing armaments
  • Influence of military leaders
  • Military plans

3
International Rivalry and the Coming of War
  • New Alliances
  • Triple Alliance, 1882 Germany, Austria, Italy
  • Reinsurance Treaty between Russia and Germany,
    1887
  • Dismissal of Bismarck, 1890 and Wilhelms lapse
  • Military alliance of France and Russia, 1894
  • New Directions and New Crises
  • Entente Cordiale, 1904
  • Emperor William IIs place in the sun and the
    Moroccan Crisis
  • Triple Entente, 1907 Britain, France, Russia
  • Triple Alliance, 1907 Germany, Austria-Hungary,
    Italy

4
Crisis in the Balkans, 1908-1913
  • Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908 as
    allowed by Berlin Conference and San Stefano
    revision
  • Serbian protest, Russian support of Serbia
  • Balkan Wars, 1912-1913
  • Serbias Ambitions
  • Russian support of Serbia
  • Austria-Hungarys determination to limit Serb
    ambition

5
The Balkans, 1878
6
Map 25.1 Europe in 1914
7
The Road to World War I
  • The Outbreak of War The Summer of 1914
  • The effects of the Balkan Wars prior to 1914
  • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and
    wife Sophia, June 28, 1914 by 18-yr. old Gavrilo
    Princip of Black Hand Society
  • Germanys Chancellor Theobald von
    Bethmann-Hollweg gives full support to Austria
    (Blank Cheque)
  • Russian mobilization
  • Schlieffen Plan requires march through neutral
    Belgium to get to France

Im gonna git you sucka!
8
The Schlieffen Plan aka oops, we pissed off the
Brits!
9
The War 1914-195 Illusions Stalemate
  • European attitudes toward the beginning of war
    and the war craze
  • Failure of the Schlieffen Plan
  • First Battle of the Marne, September 6-10, 1914
  • Russian Failures
  • Battle of Tannenberg, August 30, 1914
  • Battle of Masurian Lakes, September 15, 1914
  • Austrian Failures
  • Galicia and Serbia trouble with the Russians
  • Germans come to Austrias aid

10
Battle Scene in Northern France
11
The War 1916-1917 The Great Slaughter
  • Trench warfare
  • No-mans land
  • Softening up the enemy
  • Battle of Verdun, 70,000 lost (German offensive)
  • Battle of the Somme, 1916 (Allied offensive)
  • Heaviest one-day loss in World War I
  • 300,000 lost
  • To draw German soldiers from Verdun

12
Trench Warfare in France
13
Trench Warfare
  • Trench Warfare in Color
  • From The Somme (2005)
  • Trench Life Hell Live and let live
  • Trench Magazines B.E.F. Times

14
Map 25. 2 The Western Front, 1914-1918
15
Map 25.3 The Eastern Front, 1914-1918
16
The Widening of the War
  • Both sides attempt to tip the scales in their
    favor by gaining new allies
  • August 1914 Ottoman Empire enters the war for
    Central Powers
  • Battle of Gallipoli, April 1915
  • ANZAC Troops and Waltzing Matilda
  • May 1915 Italy enters the war against
    Austria-Hungary
  • September 1915 Bulgaria enters the war on the
    side of the Central Powers
  • Middle East
  • Lawrence of Arabia (1888-1935) Arab princes vs.
    Ottoman forces

17
The Widening of the War
  • April 1917 Entry of the United States
  • The United States tried to remain neutral
  • Naval Conflict between Germany and Britain
  • Sinking of the Lusitania, May 7, 1915
  • Return to unrestricted submarine warfare, January
    1917
  • United States enters the war, April 6, 1917
  • Bolshevik Revolution, 1917
  • Italian defeat
  • Failure of Western front offensives
  • Both sides were exhausted!

18
A New Kind of Warfare
  • Air Power
  • 1915 first use of airplanes on the battle-front
  • German use of zeppelins
  • Tanks
  • 1916 first use of tanks on the battlefield
  • Early tanks ineffective
  • 1918 British Mark V first effective tank

19
The Home Front The Impact of Total War
  • Government Centralization
  • Conscription
  • Effects on Economies
  • Public Order and Public Opinion
  • Dealing with unrest
  • Strikes
  • Irish Revolt 4/1916
  • Defense of the Realm Act (DORA)
  • Propaganda
  • Social Impact of Total War
  • Labor benefits prestige for trade unions
  • New roles for women
  • Male concern over wages
  • Women began to demand equal pay
  • Gains for women

20
The Last Year of the War
  • Withdrawal of Russia gives Germany hope
  • Ludendorff launches last German offensive, March
    21-July 18, 1918
  • Allied counterattack, Second Battle of the Marne,
    July 18, 1918
  • General Ludendorff informs German leaders that
    the war is lost
  • William II abdicates, November 9, 1918
  • German soldiers, workers revolt
  • Republic established under Ebert
  • Armistice, November 11, 1918
  • The Casualties of the War
  • 8 to 9 million soldiers killed, 22 million wounded

21
Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and
Austria-Hungary
  • Revolution in Germany
  • Division of German Socialists
  • Formation of two governments
  • Failure of radicals to achieve control
  • Revolution in Austria
  • Ethnic upheaval
  • Formation of independent republics

22
The Peace Settlement
  • Palace of Versailles, January 1919, 27 Allied
    nations Eternal Peace
  • Lenin and the secret treaties
  • Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points
  • Pragmatism of other states
  • Lloyd George determined to make Germany pay
  • Georges Clemenceau of France concerned with his
    nations security
  • Concern over the spread of Bolshevism
  • January 25, 1919, the principle of the League of
    Nations adopted

23
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Five separate treaties (Germany, Austria,
    Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire)
  • The most important was the Treaty of Versailles,
    June 18, 1919
  • Article 231, War Guilt Clause
  • 100,000 man army
  • Loss of Alsace and Lorraine
  • Sections of Prussia to the new Polish state
  • German charges of a dictated peace

24
The Other Peace Treaties
  • German and Russian Empires lost territory in
    eastern Europe
  • New nation-states Finland, Latvia, Estonia,
    Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and
    Hungary
  • Romania acquired additional lands from Russia,
    Hungary, and Bulgaria
  • Yugoslavia multinational powder keg
  • Compromises will lead to future problems
  • Minorities in every eastern European states
  • Ottoman Empire dismembered
  • Promises of independence of Arab states in the
    Middle East
  • Mandates
  • France Lebanon and Syria
  • Britain Iraq and Palestine
  • United States Senate rejects the Versailles Peace
    Treaty

25
Map 25.5 Europe in 1919
26
The Middle East in 1919
27
Timeline
28
The Russian Revolution
  • By 1900 the fourth largest producer of steel
  • Count Sergei Witte Minister of FInance
  • Development of working class
  • Development of socialist parties
  • Marxist Social Democratic Party, Minsk, 1898
  • Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
  • General strike, October 1905
  • Bloody Sunday at the Winter Palace
  • Nicholas II granted civil liberties and a
    legislative body, Duma
  • Voting and Land Reforms of Prime Minister Peter
    Stolypin
  • Stolypins assassination by leftor right?
  • Curtailment of power of the Duma, 1907 

29
The Russian Revolution
  • War and Discontent
  • Nicholas II was an autocratic ruler
  • Russia not prepared for war
  • Government suspicion of war enthusiasm
  • Influence of Rasputin

30
The Russian Revolution
  • The March Revolution
  • Problems in St. Petersburg
  • March of the women, March 8, 1917
  • Calls for a general strike
  • Soldiers join the marchers
  • Provisional Government takes control 3/12/1917
  • Tsar abdicates 3/15/1917
  • Alexander Kerensky (1881-1970)- Mensheviks
  • Tried to carry on the war
  • Soviets sprang up
  • Bolsheviks under the leadership of Vladimir
    Ulianov, 1870-1924
  • Sent back to Russia in a sealed train by the
    Germans
  • April Theses
  • Peace, land and bread All power to Soviets

31
Map The Russian Revolution
32
Russian Revolution (cont)
  • The Bolshevik Revolution
  • Bolsheviks control Petrograd and Moscow soviets
  • Army Order 1
  • Kerensky vs. KornilovBolsheviks empowered!
  • Collapse of Provisional Government, November 6-7,
    1917
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918 Russia
    exits WWI
  • Civil War
  • Bolshevik (Red) army and Anti-Bolshevik (White)
    army
  • Murder of the Tsar and his family (July 16, 1918)
  • Disunity among the white army
  • Role of Trotsky as War Commissar
  • Communists and War communism
  • Invasion of allied troops
  • 1921 Communist victory

33
Discussion Questions
  • Why were so many Europeans eager for war in 1914?
    Did Europes governments share their enthusiasm?
  • What was total war? How did European
    governments meet the challenge of total
    mobilization?
  • Why were so many people in the United States
    reluctant to get involved in World War I? Why did
    Woodrow Wilson see U.S. involvement as a
    necessity?
  • Describe the goals of the major participants at
    the peace talks. How were these goals
    incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles?

34
Web Links
  • World War I Trenches on the Web
  • The First World War A Multimedia History
  • World War I Document Archive
  • The Russian Revolution
  • The Empire That Was Russia
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