World War I - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation

World War I


World War I The Great War The war to end all wars 1914 1918 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:74
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 54
Provided by: Madi186
Learn more at:
Tags: plan | schlieffen | war | world


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: World War I

World War I The Great War
  • The war to end all wars
  • 1914 1918

Causes of World War IM.A.I.N. Causes of World War IM.A.I.N.
Militarism   Imperialism and nationalism led to increased production of goods and economic stability in these countries, which resulted in an arms race.  The aggressive attitude of this policy drove them into producing more weaponry, such as strong navies and armored vehicles. 
Alliance System The alliances of Europe were formed for protection against each other.  However, the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance very quickly took aggressive postures towards one another.  This is due in large part to the lack of any global organization designed to promote peace among the nations of the world. 
Imperialism European countries divided up Africa and Asia to strengthen the political and economic power of the mother country.  This resulted in competition among European countries.
Nationalism Nationalism was both a uniting force and a divisive one.  It resulted in Germany and Italy uniting into strong nations, and also caused the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. 

  • a policy of glorifying war and readying the armed
    forces for conflict
  • urged a constant buildup of weapons and troops
  • belief that quarrels b/t nations "must be settled
    not at the conference table but on the
  • Competing b/t Germany Great Britain over the
  • Germany was competing with Russia and France to
    expand their armies

  • association of nations or other groups, formed to
    advance common interests or causes
  • By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a
    system of alliances
  • The alliances made it more likely that a war
    would start likely to spread

  • Alliance System World War I
  • The Triple Alliance (Central Powers)- Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • Germany worried that France would try to retaken
    the territory of Alsace-Lorraine
  • Agreement members would help if any of them
    were attacked
  • Triple Entente - France, Britain, Russia
  • France was worried about Germany's growing
    military and industrial strength
  • Britain saw Germany as a rival to its sea power
    and for colonies in Africa
  • this was an understanding/a treaty of friendship,
    not a firm military pact

  • European Imperialism and the Balkan Crisis
  • Define Imperialism
  • All the great powers were competing for colonies
    / territory.
  • The British feared Germany in Africa.
  • The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the
  • Where are the Balkans?

The Balkans 1914

Ethnic Groups in Austria-Hungary
  • Rise of Nationalism
  • At this time nations wanted to assert their power
  • In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia,
    wanted to be free of Austrian rule

Serbias national flag
Significant Individuals
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  • Heir to the Austria-Hungary throne

Significant Individuals
  • Count Berchtold
  • Austrian Prime Minister
  • During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough
    ultimatum for Serbia

Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this
would not be to my liking
Significant Individuals
Germany must have its place in the sun The
world belongs to the strong.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Built up German army and navy
  • Aggressive foreign policy
  • Determined to make Germany a top nation
  • Distrusted by other powers

Significant Individuals
  • Bethmann Hollweg
  • German Prime Minister
  • Gave support to Austria during the July crisis
    (while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht)

The Austrian demands are moderate. Any
interference by Britain, France and Russia would
be followed by incalculable consequences
The Crisis
  • June 28, 1914
  • Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits
    Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by
  • Center of Slavic nationalism

The Crisis
  • June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand was
    assassinated in Sarajevo by members of a secret
    Serbian nationalist group-The Black Hand
  • Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.

Seal of the Black Hand group
(No Transcript)
The Crisis
Demands must be put to Serbia that would be
wholly impossible for them to accept
  • July 23, 1914 Austria-Hungary gave Serbia an
  • to cooperate in an Austro-Hungarian investigation
    of the assassination
  • OR
  • face war
  • Serbian leaders were outraged rejected their
  • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia July 28

  • The assassination of the Archduke and his wife
    became known as the spark
  • that blew the powder keg known as Europe!

(No Transcript)
Aspects of World War I
A European War
  • Both sides believed the other would back down at
    the last possible moment-pushed to the brink of
  • July 30 Czar Nicholas II (Russia) ordered
    mobilization of his troops against
    Austria-Hungary Germany
  • July 31 Germany gave Russia an ultimatum (back
    down or go to war) Germans felt they needed to
    attack first

The Schlieffen Plan
  • Germanys military plan to defeat France and
  • Go through Belgium defeat France
  • Germans thought Britain would not intervene not
    the case
  • B/c of the problems Germans retreated forget
    about the Schlieffan Plan

(No Transcript)
Why did Britain get involved?
  • Britain had alliances w/ France Russia
  • Only a friendly agreement but France Russia
    believed that Britain would fight
  • Germany hoped Britain would stay neutral but once
    Germany attacked Belgium (the Schlieffen Plan)
    over British objections, Britain declared war on
    August 4

  • Italy
  • originally part of the Triple Alliance but
    remained neutral until...
  • joined war on allied side in return for promise
    of territory in Austria and Africa
  • Germans forced to fight on 2 fronts attacks from
    Russia (Eastern Front) British/French (Western
  • Western Front years of deadlock
  • Eastern Front Russian troops poorly trained
    allowing Germans to capture/kill many
  • Began the war of attrition-each side trying to
    wear down the other
  • Most of World War I was a stalemate (a situation
    in which no progress can be made or no
    advancement is possible deadlock)

(No Transcript)
Trench Warfare
  • The conditions of trench warfare were brutal
    trench-foot, disease, lice, and inadequate
    supplies made fighting difficult. 
  • Trench warfare - instead of a quick victory,
    battle became a war of gradual decline
  • both sides were only able to move a few miles in
    a battle

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
  • The machine gun, the tank, the airplane, the
    submarine, and the use of poison gas drastically
    changed the face of modern war, and resulted in
    large numbers of casualties.

Technological Advances in Warfare
Invention Description Use in Warfare
Automatic Machine Mounted rifle that fires continuous stream of bullets Few gunners can mow down more enemy
Tank Armored tracked vehicle with large gun Protect troops as they advance through enemy lines
Submarine Underwater ship armed with torpedoes Used by Germany to destroy Allied ships.
Airplane One or two seat propeller planes with machine guns or bombs Air combat and observation
Poison Gas Gas Mask Gases that cause choking, blinding, severe skin blisters gas masks protect against these attacks Used against enemy trenches, mass killing and wounding gas masks lessen importance of chemical weapons
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Russian Retreat
  • Russia, the least industrialized European
    country, didnt have resources skills to fight
    this modern conflict
  • Russian military effort cont to fall until it
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 3, 1918
  • peace treaty
  • between Russia and the Central Powers, marking
    Russia's exit from World War I

American Reaction to WWI
  • Americans felt that it was a European War
  • President Woodrow Wilson (US President during
    WWI, formulator of the Treaty of Versailles, 14
    Points Speech) ended diplomatic ties w/ Germany
  • Germans didnt want the US to enter the war but
    still wanted to resume their unrestricted
    submarine warfare
  • After 4 US ships were sunk by Germans plus
    Zimmerman Telegram-Congress declared war in April
    6, 1917 leading to a favor an Allied Victory

  • Zimmerman Telegram
  • January 1917
  • British cryptographers deciphered a telegram from
    German Foreign Minister (Zimmermann) to Mexico,
    which offered United States territory to Mexico
    if they joined the side of the German cause
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
  • May 7, 1915
  • the ship departed New York City bound for
  • It is said, that unknown to her passengers almost
    all her hidden cargo consisted of munitions
    contraband for the British war effort
  • 1119 died - 114 Americans

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
  • 1. According to this telegram, what did the
    German government decide to begin on February 1,
  • 2. What did Zimmerman propose if the United
    States went to war with Germany during World War

Unrestricted submarine warfare
Sinking of the Lusitania- May 7, 1915
US Enters the War
Zimmerman telegram
1. What two countries are being represented in
this political cartoon?2. What is the overall
tone of this political cartoon?3. What is the
purpose of the Zimmerman telegram?
End of the War
The Armistice - November 11, 1918 - A
truce-cease fire
The Paris Peace Conference
  • The Fourteen Points (5 key ideas are
    listed)-speech by Pres. Wilson, January 8, 1918
  • self-determination - nations should have the
    right to establish their own governments, free of
    foreign control
  • peace without victory - Allies should treat
    their former enemies generously
  • disarmament - wanted nations of the world to
    disarm put an end to militarism
  • fair treatment of colonial peoples - wanted
    imperial nations to look out for the welfare of
    their colonies
  • League of Nations - international organization
    meant to help large and small nations settle

The Paris Peace Conference
  • Obstacles
  • stiff opposition by allies, especially France
  • difficulty of self-determination
  • secret treaties on how to share the spoils of war

Separate peace treaties
  • peace settlement made in Paris consisted of five
    separate treaties one with each defeated states
    (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the
    Ottoman Empire)
  • Treaty of Versailles - settlement with Germany

Treaty of Versailles
  • Forced Germany to
  • 1. accept guilt for war
  • 2. loss of territory-to Poland France lost
    control of overseas colonies
  • pay reparations - 33 Billion
  • Limited the German military
  • 60 countries joined the League of Nations
  • Creation of new states

Allied Leaders Meet at Peace Conference (l to r)
Prime Minister Lloyd George of Great Britain,
Prime Minister Orlando of Italy, Premier
Clemenceau of France ,and President Wilson of the
United States
The Treaty of Versailles
(No Transcript)
Controversy over the treaty
  • many felt that it was not fair
  • the German government had been toppled and new
    democratic government had to carry out the parts
    of the treaty
  • Defenders of the treaty said that German economy
    was fine and recovering

New States
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Yugoslavia
  • Italy and Romania gained land from the old empire
  • Hungary - became a separate nation
  • new Austria - was forbidden to united with Germany

Europe 1919-After WWI
What was the League of Nations and why did it
  • International cooperative organization - more
    than 60 countries joined
  • Established to prevent future wars
  • United States not a member Congress didnt want
    to join b/c felt they would be dragged into
    European conflicts
  • Failure of League because it did not have power
    to enforce its decisions

The Legacy of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Ottoman Turks were forced to give up almost all
    their former empire and the middle east was
    divided into what is known as a Mandate System
  • Mandate System refers to a legal status for
    certain territories transferred from the control
    of one country to another

Why was the mandate system created?
  • The mandate system - the system was created to
    administer the colonies of defeated powers on a
    temporary basis -"to authorize a power to control
    a certain territory for some purpose according
    the League of Nations 1919
  • France and Great Britain became mandatory powers
    in the Middle East.

What were the outcomes and global effects of
World War I?
  • WWI was the first total war
  • People on the home front has to sacrifice for the
    war effort
  • Govt took more control over the economy
  • Women took jobs closer to getting the right to
  • Colonies participation in the war increased
    their demand for independence
  • End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and
    Austro-Hungarian empires
  • Enormous cost of the war in lives, property
    social disruption

(No Transcript)