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Informal and Formal Groups

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Title: Informal and Formal Groups


1
LESSON 11
2
Informal and Formal Groups
  • DR. MARIO A. FETALVER, JR.
  • Professor

3
Group Dynamics
  • What is group dynamics?
  • the social process by which people interact
    face-to- face in small group.
  • comes from the Greek word meaning force
  • refers to the study of forces operating within a
    group

4
  • Two important Historical Landmarks to understand
    the small groups
  • Research of Elton Mayo
  • Showed that workers tend to established informal
    groups that affect job satisfaction and
    effectiveness.

5
  • Experiment in the 1930 of Kurt Lewin
  • showed that the diff. kinds of leadership
    produced diff. responses in groups

6
Types of Groups
  • Formal Groups established by the organization
    and have a public identity and goal to achieve.

7
  • 2. Informal groups which emerge on the basis of
    common interest, proximity, and friendships.

8
Roles of Informal Leaders
  • may help socialize new members into the
    organization, and they may be called upon by the
    group to perform the more complex tasks.
  • plays several useful roles for a work unit.

9
  • will likely play a dominant role in applying
    various forms and degrees of punishment to the
    individual to induce the desired behavior in the
    future.

10
  • often engages in a range of behaviors to help
    build and sustain the informal groups level of
    cohesiveness.

11
Formal Groups
  • Committees is a specific type of group meeting
    in which members in their group role have been
    delegated the authority to handle the problem at
    hand.

12
Structured Approaches
  • Brainstorming
  • is a popular method for encouraging creative
    thinking in groups of about eight people. It is
    built around four basic guidelines for
    participants
  • .

13
  • Generates as many ideas as possible.
  • Be creative, freewheeling, and imaginative
  • Build upon (piggyback), extend, or combine
    earlier ideas.
  • Withhold criticism of others ideas.

14
  • Two main underlie brainstorming.
  • 1. Deferred judgment by which all ideas even
    unusual and impractical ones are encouraged
    without criticism or evaluation. Ideas are
    recorded by a group member as fast as they
    suggested they are evaluated for usefulness at a
    later time. The purpose of deferred judgment is
    to separate idea creation from idea censorship.

15
  • This principle encourages people to propose bold,
    unique ideas without worrying about what others
    think of them. The second principle is that
    quantity breeds quality. As more ideas come
    forth, eventually higher-quality ones will be
    developed.

16
  • 2.Electronic brainstorming in this process,
    group members sit at personal computer terminals
    sometimes in scattered location and receive a
    question, an issue, or a request for establishing
    priorities. In response, they type in their own
    ideas as they arise .

17
  • .
  • B. Nominal Group Technique exists in name only,
    with members having minimal interaction prior to
    producing a decision.

18
Steps
  • Individuals are brought together and presented
    with problem.
  • They develop solutions independently, often
    writing them on cards.

19
Steps
  • 3. Their ideas are shared with others in a
    structured format ( a round robin) process that
    ensures all members get the opportunity to
    present their ideas.
  • 4. Brief time is allotted so that questions can
    be asked but only for clarification

20
  • 5. Group members individually designate their
    preferences for the best alternatives by secret
    ballot.
  • 6. The group decision is announced.

21
C. Delphi Decision Making
  • a panel of relevant people is chosen to address
    an issue. Members are selected because they are
    experts or have relevant information to share and
    the time available to do so. A series of
    questionnaires are sequentially distributed to
    the respondent, who do not need to meet
    face-to-face. All responses typically are in
    writing. Panelists may be asked to identify
    future problems, project market trends, or
    predict

22
  • a future state of affairs. Explanations of their
    conclusions also can be shared. Replies are
    gathered from all participants, summarized, and
    fed back to the members for their review. Then
    the participants are asked to make another
    decision, on the basis of new information. The
    process may be repeated several times until the
    responses converge satisfactorily and a final
    report is prepared.

23
D. Dialect Decision Methods
  • groups converge too quickly one alternative while
    overlooking others. Their incomplete evaluation
    of options may reflect either the participants
    dislike of meetings or their lack of willingness
    to raise and confront tough Some face-to-face
    decision-making issues.

24
  • Potential Outcomes of Formal Groups Process
  • Support for Decisions
  • Quality of Decisions
  • Individual Development

25
Figure121.1 Differences between Informal and
Formal Organizations
  • Basis of Comparison Informal Organization
    Formal Organization
  • General Nature Unofficial
    Official
  • Major Concepts Power and Politic
    Authority and Responsibility

  • Primary focus Person
    Position
  • Source of leader power Given by group
    Delegated by management
  • Guidelines for behavior Norms
    Rules and policies
  • Source of control Sanctions
    Rewards and penalties

26
Systems View of Effective Committees
Inputs
Processes
Outcomes
Size
Leadership roles
Support
Composition
Group structures
Quality
Agendas
FEEDBACK
27
TASK AND Social Leadership
Task Roles
Social Roles
Define a problem or goal for the
group. Request facts, ideas or opinions from
members. Provide facts, ideas or
opinions. Clarify a confused situations give
examples provide structure.
support the contributions of others, encourage
them by organization sense the mood of the
group and help ,members become aware of
it. reduce the tension and reconcile
disagreements modify your position, admit an
error
28
summarize the discussion determine whether
agree- ment has been reached check for
con- sensus. test for ethicality
facilitate participation of all
members. evaluate the groups
effectiveness. deal team stress.
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