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Stress

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Stress & Divorce Diathesis-Stress Model Diathesis = predisposing vulnerabilities Stress = environmental factors/stessors that can contribute to the development of a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stress


1
Stress Divorce
  • Diathesis-Stress Model
  • Diathesis predisposing vulnerabilities
  • Stress environmental factors/stessors that can
    contribute to the development of a disorder

2
Diathesis stress heuristic
  • Heuristic aid to learning
  • 100 units to become schizophrenic
  • Units come from 2 sources
  • Individual (diathesis)
  • environment

3
Heuristic cont
  • stressors can have cumulative effect
  • Stressors in childhood are often grouped together
  • Implies that anyone may develop a disorder

4
Genetic Studies
  • Twin studies
  • Double-whammy effect
  • Adopted children

5
Childhood stressors
  • Mandatory school attendance
  • Required for all children
  • Majority of referrals
  • Age 6 peak for referrals
  • What makes school a stressor?

6
Implications
  1. Child referrals often involve school-related
    difficulties
  2. Child interventions may need to take place in
    school
  3. Clinicians may need to mediate
  4. School environments are not the same
  5. Need to know about legislation

7
Marital conflict and divorce
  • Possible stresses associated with divorce

8
Problems assoc. with divorce
  1. Increases in aggressive and noncompliant behavior
    (boys)
  2. Girls findings less clear. May have delayed
    problems
  3. Gender differences WHY?
  4. Marital conflict is key, not just parental
    separation

9
Developmental status divorce
  • Preschoolers
  • Early school age
  • Older school age
  • Adolescents
  • remarriage

10
Child characteristics that may impact adjustment
  • Temperament
  • Marital precursors
  • Block et al. study
  • Longitudinal study
  • Assessed kids at ages 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 14
  • Interviewed mothers
  • Collected measures from teachers
  • Compared divorced and intact families at age 14
  • Cause effect???

11
Cause Effect
  • Recent Gottman study
  • Babies marital conflict
  • Possible hypotheses

12
Hetherington et al. (1988)
  • What factors make a difference in divorce/marital
    transitions and child adjustment?
  • Individual risk vulnerability
  • Child characteristics
  • Adult characteristics
  • Family composition
  • Parental stress and strain
  • Family process

13
What to say to children
  • Set aside time to meet as family, tell together
    to reduce blame.
  • Tell child it is not their fault.
  • Tell child it is final (avoid false hopes)
  • Provide reassurance
  • Basic needs
  • Continuing relationship with both parents,
    siblings, etc.

14
How to help children through divorce
  • Both parents stay involved
  • Stop fighting get along
  • Support time with each parent
  • Communicate directly between parents
  • Say nice things about other parent
  • Self-care/address own mental health issues

15
Tasks for children of divorce
  1. Acknowledge marital disruption
  2. Regain sense of direction and freedom to maintain
    routine
  3. Deal with loss and feelings of rejection
  4. Forgive parents, work through anger
  5. Accept permanence of divorce
  6. Resolve relationship issues
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