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Chapter 3 Perception and Learning

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Chapter 3 Perception and Learning Semester 322, Spring 2012 Instructor: Dr Nailah Ayub – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 Perception and Learning


1
Chapter 3 Perception and Learning
  • Semester 322, Spring 2012
  • Instructor Dr Nailah Ayub

2
Social Perception
  • Process of combining, integrating, and
    interpreting information to gain an understanding
  • Process by which people judge and understand
    people and things with which they come into
    contact
  • Combine various knowledge into a meaningful
    picture (the more the knowledge, the better
    equipped one is)
  • Automatic and almost always happening

3
Social Identity
  • Defining characteristic of an individual
  • Personal identity
  • Social identity

4
Social Identity Theory
  • How we perceive in terms of personal or social
    identity
  • Based on our uniqueness in a group
  • Identity is pronounced within a particular
    situation
  • People naturally want to be seen positively and
    so they identify with a group perceived to have
    positive characteristics
  • we focus on differences from others- and see
    others as more (Exaggeratedly) negatively

5
Attribution Process
  • Process of judging underlying causes of others
    behavior
  • We attempt to get at least two types of
    information
  • What is someone really like? (traits)
  • What accounted for ones action?
  • What is someone really like The judgments we
    make about someone is like based on what we have
    observed about him/her are known as correspondent
    inferences

6
Attribution Process
  • Correspondent Inferences Figure 3.3
  • Challenges for accuracy
  • Behavior may be shaped by external forces
  • People tend to conceal traits (disguise the
    negatives)

7
Making accurate correspondent inferences
  • Focus on behaviors in situations in which they do
    not have to behave in a socially acceptable
    manner
  • Focus on behavior for which there appears to be
    only a single logical explanation
  • Causal attribution of RESPONSIBILITY
  • Internal causes of behavior
  • External causes of behavior

8
Kelleys Theory of Causal Attribution
  • Consensus extent to which other people behave in
    the same manner as the person being judged
  • Consistency extent to which the person judged
    acts the same way at other times.
  • Distinctiveness extent to which a person behaves
    in the same manner in other contexts.
  • Externally caused behavior- high consensus, high
    consistency, high distinctiveness
  • Internally caused behavior- low consensus, high
    consistency, low distinctiveness

9
Causal Attribution (Kelleys theory)

10
Perceptual Biases- Systematic errors in
perceptions
  • Fundamental Attribution Error explain others
    behavior in terms of internal causes rather than
    external causes.
  • The Halo Effect maintain persistency in viewing
    things the same way once an impression is formed
  • Team Halo Effect tendency to credit teams for
    their success but not to hold them accountable
    for failures
  • Similar-to-Me Effect If you are like me, you
    must be good
  • Selective Perception tendency to focus on
    certain aspects of environment and ignore others

11
Perceptual Biases
Halo Effect
12
Perceptual Biases
  • First Impression Error- confirm ones
    expectations (halo effect?)

13
Perceptual Biases
  • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Perceptions influence
    reality
  • Pygmalion effect holding high expectations tend
    to improve performance
  • Golem effect holding low expectations lowers
    performance

14
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15
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16
Perceptual Biases
  • Stereotyping belief that all members share
    similar traits and will behave in the same way
  • Mental shortcuts efficient
  • Danger of stereotyping
  • Negative organizational impact- Inaccurate
    information
  • Negative individual impact- Stereotype threat

17
Perceptions Organizational Applications
  • Rebound Effect making information
    hyper-accessible
  • Impression Management Efforts to improve how one
    appears

18
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19
Perceptions Organizational Applications
  • Performance Appraisal formal judgments about job
    performance
  • Inherently biased process- initial expectations
    similar-to-me effect internal attribution
  • Corporate Image Impression Management by
    organizations
  • Positive image favored by consumers avoids
    boycotts
  • Attracts best employee candidates
  • Communicating corporate images
  • news from other people
  • Proactive steps recruitment ads annual reports

20
Part 2 Learning
  • A relatively permanent change
  • As a result of experience
  • Through continued contact with the world around
  • Learning cannot be observed directly
  • Several different kinds of learning
  • Operant conditioning
  • Observational learning

21
Operant/Instrumental Conditioning
  • Skinner connections between actions and
    consequences
  • Behavior produces consequences and we repeat
    behavior depending on those consequences,
    strengthen the desirable and weaken the
    undesirable (Law of Effect)

Figure 3.12
22
Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcement Contingencies Behavior is repeated
    for desirable outcomes that are associated with
    the behavior

Table 3.4
23
Reinforcement Schedules Administering Rewards
  • Schedules
  • Continuous reinforcement
  • Partial reinforcement (intermittent)
  • Interval
  • Fixed interval schedules
  • Variable interval schedules
  • Ratio
  • Fixed ratio schedules
  • Variable ratio schedules

24
Observational Learning
Systematically observing others- Vicarious
learning Person whose behavior is imitated is the
model Process (Steps) of observational learning
25
Training- Developing Job Skills
  • Training Systematically acquire and improve the
    job-related skills.
  • Varieties of Training
  • Classroom Training Instructor and opportunities
    to practice
  • Apprenticeship Programs Classroom and on-the-job
    training over a long period of time
  • Cross-Cultural Training Systematic way of
    preparing for work in another country
  • Corporate Universities Centers for companys
    training needs on a full-time basis
  • Executive Training Programs Systematically
    develop top leaders by in-house training with
    outside experts or going out.
  • E-Training Disseminating information online
  • Benefits flexibility, speed and efficiency,
    reduced cost
  • Problems Costly to produce self-paced materials,
    loss of social aspect of learning- the one-on-one
    experience

26
Keys to Effective Training
  • Participation active involvement
  • Repetition practice and repeat
  • Transfer of Training generalize and apply
  • Feedback knowledge of results/outcomes

27
Organizational Behavior Management
  • OB Management- OB Mod
  • Problems of absenteeism, lateness, theft,
    substance abuse
  • Improve output, reduced quality-related errors,
    reduced grievances and time lost due to accident,
    and happier workforce
  • Discipline Eliminating undesirable behavior
  • Systematic administration of punishment
  • Disciplinary Practices- Progressive Discipline
    (gradually increasing severity)

28
Disciplinary Measures Continuum

29
Effective Discipline
  • Deliver Punishment Immediately After Undesirable
    Response.
  • Give Moderate Levels of Punishment.
  • Punish Undesirable Behavior, Not Person.
  • Use Punishment Consistently Across Occasions.
  • Punish Everyone Equally for Same Infraction.
  • Clearly Communicate Reasons for Punishment.
  • Do Not Follow Punishment with Noncontingent
    Rewards.
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