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Unit 4: Cell Structure

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Title: Unit 4: Cell Structure


1
Unit 4 Cell Structure Function
http//koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html
2
Discovery of Cells
  • Robert Hooke (1600s) discovered little
    chambers (cells) in cork plant
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1600s)used microscope to
    view living things in pond water. Saw things
    swimming around!

3
Discovery of Cells, cont.
  • Matthias Schleiden (1838) concluded plants made
    of cells
  • Thoedor Schwann (1839) concluded all animals
    made of cells

4
Cell Theory
  • 1. All living things are made up of cells.
  • 2. Cells are the smallest working units of all
    living things.
  • 3. All cells come from p_____________ cells
    through cell division.

5
Definition of Cell
  • A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of
    performing life functions.

6
Examples of Cells
Amoeba Proteus
Plant Stem
Bacteria
Red Blood Cell
Nerve Cell
7
Two Types of Cells
  • Prokaryotic
  • pro- means before (like pre)
  • karyon means nut or kernel
  • No n______________
  • Older life forms are prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotic
  • eu- means true karyon kernel
  • Has nucleus
  • newer life forms are prokaryotic

8
Prokaryotic Cells
  • Do not have o___________ surrounded by membranes
  • V. few internal structures
  • All prokaryotes are
  • one-celled organisms
  • B___________

http//library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_
cells.html
9
Eukaryotic Cells
  • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes
  • Most living organisms are eukaryotic
  • Plants, animals, f_____, algae

Plant
Animal
http//library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_c
ells.html
10
Typical Animal Cell
http//web.jjay.cuny.edu/acarpi/NSC/images/cell.g
if
11
Typical Plant Cell
http//waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif
12
Eukaryotic Cell Parts
  • Organelles

13
Surrounding the Cell
14
Cell Membrane
  • Outer membrane of cell that controls m______
  • in and out of the cell
  • Double layers of fat phospholipid bilayer

What part of this word tells you that the cell
membrane is made of fats?
http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
15
Cell Wall
  • Most commonly found in
  • plant cells
  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • S_____ p_____ cells
  • Made of carbohydrate

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
16
Inside the Cell
17
Nucleus
  • Directs cell activities
  • Separated from c_______ by nuclear membrane
  • Contains genetic material - DNA

18
Nuclear Membrane
  • Surrounds nucleus
  • Made of t____ layers
  • Openings allow material to enter and leave
    nucleus

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
19
Chromatin
  • Form DNA takes most of the time.
  • Like spaghetti
  • Made of DNA wrapped up w/p_______.

20
Chromosomes
  • In nucleus
  • DNA wrapped up tight by proteins called
    histones
  • Contain instructions for traits characteristics

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
21
Nucleolus
  • Inside nucleus
  • Contains RNA to build proteins

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
22
Cytoplasm
  • Gel-like mixture
  • Surrounded by cell membrane
  • Contains hereditary material in prokaryotes

23
Ribosomes
  • Each cell contains thousands
  • Make proteins
  • Found on e___________ r________ floating in the
    cytoplasm

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Moves materials around in cell
  • Smooth type
  • lacks ribosomes
  • Located in organisms that produce _____ like
    _____
  • Rough type (pictured)
  • R_____ are embedded in surface
  • Located in organs responsible for producing
    proteins, like the ________

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
25
Mitochondria
  • Produces energy through chemical reactions by
    breaking down f___ c_________.
  • Also known as the powerhouse of the cell
  • Controls level of water and other materials in
    cell
  • Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and
    carbohydrates

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
26
Golgi Bodies
  • Protein 'packaging plant'
  • Move materials within the cell
  • Move materials out of the cell

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
27
Lysosome
  • Digestive factory' for proteins, fats, and
    carbohydrates
  • Transports undigested material to c___ m_______
    for removal
  • The cell will break down if lysosome breaks!

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
28
Vacuoles
  • Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and
    waste removal
  • Contains water solution
  • Help plants maintain s______

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
29
Chloroplast
  • Usually found in plant cells (not in animal)
  • Contains green chlorophyll
  • Where p__________ takes place

http//library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htm
l
30
Centrioles
  • Used during animal cell division (not present in
    plant most other cells)

31
Flagellum
  • Is a whiplike structure that extends outside the
    cell.
  • Is used for movement.

32
Cilia
  • Small, hairlike projections that extend outside
    the cell
  • For m_______ capturing food

33
Prokaryotic Cells
  • Ribosomes
  • DNA or RNA
  • cytoplasm

34
Cell Boundaries
  • Cell Membrane
  • 1. Controls what goes in out
  • 2. Support protection
  • Cell Wall
  • 1. Support protection

35
Diffusion through Cell Boundaries
  • Every cell lives in a liquid environment
  • Membrane controls movement of dissolved molecules
    back forth (in out of cell)
  • (Remember a solution contains a
  • Solvent the substance that dissolves the other
    stuff (often water)
  • Solute the substance that gets dissolved (salt,
    sugar, ions, etc.)

36
Concentration of Solutions
  • The greater the ratio of solute to solvent, the
    higher the concentration.
  • Ex
  • Solution 1 dissolve 5 g of salt in 1L of water.
    Concentration 5g/L
  • Solution 2 dissolve 10 g of salt in 1L of
    water. Concentration10g/L

This solution has a higher salt concentration
37
Diffusion
  • In solution, particles move constantly, colliding
    spreading out.
  • Diffusion is the movement of particles from area
    of greater to lesser concentration (b/c of random
    motion.)
  • Requires no energy to move substances across a
    membrane (b/c moved by random motion)

38
Isotonic
  • When solute concentration is equal throughout the
    solution

39
OsmosisVideo
  • The diffusion of water through a membrane
  • Some molecules are too large to move through a
    membrane

40
How Osmosis Workssee Fig 7-15 on p 185
  • If there is a selectively permeable membrane
    separating 2 solutions w/differing concentrations
    of solute,
  • Water will move from the side where it is in
    greater concentration to where it is in lesser
    concentration. (R to L in picture)

41
Concentration of Solutions
  • Isotonic when the concentration of particles is
    the same on both sides of membrane
  • Hypertonic above strength- the stronger of the
    2 solutions (L side)
  • Hypotonic below strength- the less
    concentrated of the 2 solutions (R side)

42
How Osmosis Works in Cellssee p 186 of text, Fig
7-16
  • Isotonic Cell maintains its shape
  • Hypertonic
  • Hypotonic
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