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Title: Planning and Analysis as Essential Components of Institutional and Programmatic Accreditation


1
Planning and Analysis as Essential Componentsof
Institutional and Programmatic Accreditation
  • Elizabeth Sibolski
  • Executive Associate Director
  • Middle States Commission on Higher Education
  • Michael F. Middaugh
  • Assistant Vice President for Institutional
    Research and Planning
  • University of Delaware

2
From the Perspective of the Accrediting Agency
  • Beth Sibolski
  • Executive Associate Director
  • Middle States Commission on Higher Education

3
The nicest thing about not planning is that
failure comes as a complete surprise and is not
preceded by a period of worry and
depression.John Preston, Boston
CollegeWhatever failures I have known,
whatever errors I have committed, whatever
follies I have witnessed in private and public
life have been the consequence of action without
thought.Bernard M. Baruch
4
  • Regional and professional accreditation agencies
    across the United States are explicitly requiring
    demonstrable evidence of planning processes that
    are systematic, and that are rooted in
    quantitative and qualitative information.

5
Middle States Accreditation StandardsExpectations
Assessment Planning
  • It is the Commissions intent, through the
    self-study process, to prompt institutions to
    reflect on those assessment activities currently
    in place (both for institutional effectiveness
    and student learning), to consider how these
    assessment activities inform institutional
    planning, and to determine how to improve the
    effectiveness and integration of planning and
    assessment.
  • From Designs for Excellence in Higher Education

6
MSCHE Linked Accreditation StandardsStandard
14 Student Learning Outcomes
  • Assessment of student learning demonstrates that
    the institutions students have knowledge,
    skills, and competencies consistent with
    institutional goals and that students at
    graduation have achieved appropriate higher
    education goals.

7
Selected Fundamental Elements forMSCHE Standard
14
  • Articulated expectations for student learning (at
    institutional, program, and course levels)
  • Plan describing learning activities undertaken by
    the institution, including methods used to
    validate learning goals
  • Evidence that student learning assessment is used
    to improve teaching and learning
  • Documented use of student learning assessment
    information as part of institutional assessment

8
MSCHE Linked Accreditation StandardsStandard 7
Institutional Assessment
  • The institution has developed and implemented an
    assessment plan and process that evaluates its
    overall effectiveness in achieving its mission
    and goals implementing planning, resource
    allocation, and institutional renewal processes
    using institutional resources efficiently
    providing leadership and governance providing
    administrative structures and services
    demonstrating institutional integrity and
    assuring that institutional processes and
    resources support appropriate learning and other
    outcomes for its students and graduates.

9
Selected Fundamental Elements forMSCHE Standard 7
  • Written assessment plan and process that meets
    certain criteria
  • Use of assessment results to improve and gain
    efficiencies in administrative services and
    processes
  • Written institutional strategic plan that
    reflects consideration of data from assessment

10
MSCHE Linked Accreditation StandardsStandard 2
Planning, Resource Allocationand Institutional
Renewal
  • An institution conducts ongoing planning and
    resource allocation based on its mission and
    utilizes the results of its assessment activities
    for institutional renewal. Implementation and
    subsequent evaluation of the success of the
    strategic plan and resource allocation support
    the development and change necessary to improve
    and to maintain quality.

11
Selected Fundamental Elements forMSCHE Standard 2
  • Clearly stated goals and objectivesused for
    planning and resource allocation at the
    institutional and unit levels
  • Planning and improvement processes that are
    clearly communicated, provide for constituent
    participation, and incorporate the use of
    assessment results
  • Objectives for improvement that are clearly
    stated, reflect conclusions drawn from assessment
    results, and are linked to mission and goal
    achievement
  • Assignment of responsibility for improvement and
    assurance of accountability

12
The Higher Learning CommissionSelected Criteria
for Accreditation
  • Criterion One Mission and Integrity The
    organization operates with integrity to ensure
    the fulfillment of its mission through structures
    and processes that involve the board,
    administration, faculty, staff, and students.
  • Core Component 1a The organizations mission
    documents are clear and articulate publicly the
    organizations commitments.

13
Higher Learning CommissionSelected Criteria for
Accreditation Continued
  • Criterion Two Preparing for the Future The
    organizations allocation of resources and its
    processes for evaluation and planning demonstrate
    its capacity to fulfill its mission, improve the
    quality of its education, and respond to future
    challenges and opportunities.
  • Core Component 2b The organizations resource
    base supports its educational programs and its
    plans for maintaining and strengthening their
    quality in the future

14
Higher Learning CommissionSelected Criteria for
Accreditation Continued
  • Criterion Two Continued
  • Core Component 2c The organizations ongoing
    evaluation and assessment processes provide
    reliable evidence of institutional effectiveness
    that clearly informs strategies for continuous
    improvement.
  • Core Component 2d All levels of planning align
    with the organizations mission, thereby
    enhancing its capacity to fulfill that mission.

15
Higher Learning CommissionSelected Criteria for
Accreditation Continued
  • Criterion Three Student Learning and Effective
    Teaching The organization provides evidence of
    student learning and teaching effectiveness that
    demonstrates it is fulfilling its educational
    mission.
  • Core Component 3a The organizations goals for
    student learning outcomes are clearly stated for
    each educational program and make effective
    assessment possible.

16
Southern Association of Colleges and
SchoolsSelected Core Requirements
  • 2.4 a clearly defined and published mission
    statement specific to the institution and
    appropriate to an institution of higher
    education, addressing teaching and learning and,
    where applicable, research and public service.
  • 2.5 ongoing, integrated, and institution-wide
    research-based planning and evaluation processes
    that incorporate a systematic review of programs
    and services that (a) results in continuing
    improvement, and (b) demonstrates that the
    institution is effectively accomplishing its
    mission.

17
Southern Association of Colleges and
SchoolsSelected Core Requirements Continued
  • 2.12 The institution has developed an acceptable
    Quality Enhancement Plan and demonstrates that
    the plan is part of an ongoing planning and
    evaluation process.

18
Western Association of Schools and
CollegesSelected Accreditation Standards and
Criteria
  • Standard 1 Defining Institutional Purposes and
    Ensuring Educational Objectives
  • Criteria 1.1 formally approved statements of
    purpose and operational practices are
    appropriateand clearly define its essential
    values and character.
  • Criteria 1.2 Educational objectives are clearly
    recognized throughout the institution and are
    consistent with stated purposes. The institution
    has developed indicators and evidence to
    ascertain the level of attainment of its purposes
    and educational objectives.

19
Western Association of Schools and
CollegesSelected Accreditation Standards and
Criteria Continued
  • Standard 2 Achieving Educational Objectives
    Through Core Functions
  • Criteria 2.7 In order to improve program
    currency and effectiveness, all programs offered
    by the institution are subject to review,
    including analyses of the achievement of the
    programs learning objectives and outcomes
  • Criteria 2.10 the institution regularly
    identifies the characteristics of its students
    and assesses their needs, experiences, and levels
    of satisfaction.

20
Western Association of Schools and
CollegesSelected Accreditation Standards and
Criteria Continued
  • Standard 4 Creating an Organization Committed to
    Learning and Improvement
  • Criteria 4.1 The institution periodically
    engagesin institutional reflection and planning
    processes which assess its strategic position,
    articulate priorities, examine the alignment of
    its purposes, core functions and resources, and
    define the future direction of the institution.
    The institution monitors the effectiveness of the
    implementation of its plans and revises them as
    appropriate.

21
Western Association of Schools and
CollegesSelected Accreditation Standards and
Criteria Continued
  • Standard 4 Continued
  • Criteria 4.3 Planning processes are informed by
    appropriately defined and analyzed quantitative
    and qualitative data, and include consideration
    of evidence of educational effectiveness,
    including student learning.
  • Criteria 4.5 Institutional research addresses
    strategic data needs, is disseminated in a timely
    manner, and is incorporated in institutional
    review and decision-making processes

22
Standards for All Regions Have Similarities
  • Middle States Commission on Higher Education
    www.msche.org
  • New England Association of Schools and Colleges
    www.neasc.org
  • North Central Association of Colleges and Schools
    www.ncahigherlearningcommission.org
  • Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities
    www.nwccu.org
  • Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
    www.sacscoc.org
  • Western Association of Colleges and Schools
    www.wascweb.org

23
Central Threads Running Through All Accreditation
Requirements
  • Planning must be systematic
  • Planning must be rooted in an institutions
    mission
  • Planning must be predicated on analytical and
    evaluative information
  • Planning must be used for institutional
    decisions, including resource allocation

24
End Result
  • Institutions must plan effectively in order to be
    effective.
  • Where that is the case, the accreditation process
    is an affirmation of the evidence of that
    effectiveness.

25
In thinking about what good planning is, it is
useful to begin the discussion by describing what
it is notGeorge Keller, Academic Strategy the
Management Revolution in American Higher
Education, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.
  • Strategic Planning is not
  • The production of a blueprint.
  • A set of platitudes.
  • The personal vision of a president or board of
    trustees.
  • A collection of departmental plans, compiled and
    edited.

26
Strategic Planning is not
  • Done by planners.
  • A substitution of numbers for important
    intangibles.
  • A form of surrender to market conditions and
    trends.
  • Something done on an annual retreat.
  • A way of eliminating risks.
  • An attempt to read tea leaves and outwit the
    future.

27
Strategic Planning IS
  • Academic strategic decision-making means that a
    college or university and its leaders are active
    rather than passive about their position in
    history.
  • Strategic planning looks outward and is focused
    on keeping the institution in step with the
    changing environment.
  • Academic strategy making is competitive,
    recognizing that higher education is subject to
    economic market conditions and to incredibly
    strong competition.
  • Strategic planning concentrates on decisions, not
    on documented plans, analyses, forecasts, and
    goals.

28
Strategic Planning IS
  • Strategy making is a blend of rational and
    economic analysis, political maneuvering, and
    psychological interplay. It is therefore
    participatory and highly tolerant of controversy.
  • Strategic planning concentrates on the fate of
    the institution above everything else.

29
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30
Mission Statements
  • A good mission statement is a carefully reasoned
    analysis of what an institution aspires to be,
    and the core values that it embraces.
  • It avoids cliché language, e.g., Students and
    faculty will interact in a rich intellectual
    environment in which each individual has the
    opportunity to achieve their full potential.
    Noble sentiment, but says nothing about the
    institutions purposes and priorities.
  • Mission must speak to central institutional
    issues, e.g., desired balance between
    undergraduate and graduate education relative
    emphasis on teaching, research, and service,
    respectively and so on.

31
Mission Statements Continued
  • Mission statements are characterized by a sense
    of vision that, while not immutable, nonetheless
    represents a long-term statement of institutional
    values and direction around which human and
    fiscal resource allocation decisions can be made.
  • While cognizant of the institutions ever
    changing external environment, mission statements
    are not whimsical, morphing with each new market
    trend that emerges.
  • The mission statement provides a clear sense of
    direction around which action-oriented goal
    statements and measurable planning objectives can
    be developed.

32
Planning Goals
  • Goal statements are derived from the
    institutional mission, and help to define policy.
  • For example, the mission statement might say that
    The University affirms its historic mission of
    providing the highest quality education for its
    undergraduate students, while maintaining
    excellence in selected graduate programs.
  • The mission statement is underscoring the primacy
    of undergraduate instruction in the curriculum.
    The question for planners is how to provide that
    high quality undergraduate instruction.

33
Planning Goals Continued
  • The how translates into specific,
    action-oriented planning goals aimed at moving
    the institution toward a fuller realization of
    its mission.
  • Possible goal related to the undergraduate
    education mission statement The University will
    continue to attract and retain the most
    academically talented and diverse undergraduate
    students, and support their intellectual,
    cultural, and ethical development as citizens and
    scholars.
  • Action verbs such as attract, retain, and
    support elevate the goal statement to policy
    level. How do we know that policy is being
    carried out? Measurable planning objectives.

34
Planning Objectives
  • Planning objectives provide empirical
    evidence of the extent to which planning goals
    are being achieved. Consider the following
    planning objectives as they relate to our goal to
    attract, retain, and support academically
    talented and diverse students.
  • Retain a freshman admissions target of 3200 to
    3400 students annually, with an admissions
    profile for academic year 2007 of 23,000
    applications, a 40 percent admit rate, and a
    yield rate in excess of 35 percent.
  • Improve the alignment of undergraduate enrollment
    distribution and instructional resource
    distribution across the disciplines, especially
    with respect to faculty.

35
Planning Objectives Continued
  • Maintain a freshman-to-sophomore retention rate
    above the national average for highly selective
    institutions, and seek to achieve a consistent
    rate of 90 percent or higher.
  • Maintain a graduation rate above the national
    average for highly selective institutions, and
    seek to achieve a consistent six-year rate of 75
    percent or higher.
  • Increase minority and international enrollment,
    with retention and graduation rates for those
    populations consistent with the university-wide
    averages for all students.

36
Planning Objectives Continued
  • The defining characteristic for any good planning
    objective is that it must be measurable.
  • Colleges or universities embarking on any
    planning process long range, strategic,
    tactical require a systematic institutional
    research capability.
  • While smaller institutions may not have an office
    of institutional research, per se, they must
    nonetheless have the capability of quantitatively
    and qualitatively assessing the extent to which
    planning objectives are being implemented,
    planning goals are being achieved, and the
    institutions mission is being realized.

37
Planning at a college or university is
comprehensive process, integrating and
synthesizing a broad range of planning goals and
objectives that are derived from the overarching
umbrella of the institutions mission. It is not
unusual for a campus plan to be an extensive
document, with goals and objectives grouped under
headings such as
  • Admissions
  • Academic Support Services
  • Program and Curriculum
  • Faculty
  • Research and Public Service
  • Student Services
  • Administration
  • Governance
  • Physical Plant Equipment
  • Finances

38
A Little Background Information on What
Constitutes Good Planning
  • Michael F. Middaugh
  • Assistant Vice President Institutional Research
    Planning
  • University of Delaware

39
In the Final Analysis, Planning is Directed at
Answering Four Basic Questions
  1. Who are the markets we are trying to serve?
  2. What services must be in place to fully serve
    those markets?
  3. What is the institutional branding that will
    enable our college or university to appeal to
    those markets?
  4. How will we know if we are successful in serving
    those markets?

40
Who are the markets we are trying to serve?
  • Largely Dictated by Mission
  • Baccalaureate Colleges Primarily undergraduate
    students (what kinds?)
  • Masters Institutions Undergraduate students,
    selected graduate students, targeted
    state/community partnerships
  • Doctoral Universities Undergraduate students,
    graduate students, research/public service
    contractors/grantors, broad range of regional,
    national, international partnerships
  • Community Colleges Matriculated undergraduate
    students, occasional students with specific
    training needs, general interest students, local
    businesses, county government

41
Lets Look at Some Examples
  • http//www.amherst.edu/about_amh/philosophy/
  • http//www.rhodes.edu/AboutRhodes/RhodesVision/ind
    ex.cfm
  • http//www.wcupa.edu/_INFORMATION/FACTS.WCU/missio
    n.htm
  • http//www.iastate.edu/president/plan/2005/missio
    n.html
  • http//www.johnco.cc.ks.us/home/site/welcome/tocab
    outjccc/strategic_plan

42
What services must be in place to fully serve
those markets?Dictated by Markets
  • Academic Support Services (Library, computing,
    advising, tutoring, etc.)
  • Student Support Services (Residence life,
    counseling, health services, student center,
    recreation services, etc.)
  • Institutional Support Services (General
    administrative support, sponsored research,
    extension office, alumni/governmental relations,
    etc.)

43
Lets Look at Some Examples
  • http//www.amherst.edu/dos/acadsupport.html
  • http//www.devalcol.edu/academics/counseling/servi
    ces_choices.html
  • http//www.devalcol.edu/academics/counseling/servi
    ces_act101.html
  • http//life.ugs.udel.edu//

44
What is the institutional branding that will
enable ourcollege or university to appeal to
those markets?Market Specific
  • University of Delaware A Teaching University
  • Trenton State College The College of New
    Jersey
  • University of Phoenix The University for
    Working Adults

45
What is the institutional branding that will
enable ourcollege or university to appeal to
those markets?Market Specific
  • http//www.udel.edu/admissions/viewbook/explore/te
    achers.html
  • http//www.tcnj.edu/7Eccr/about/history.html
  • http//www.phoenix.edu/

46
How will we know if we are successful in serving
those markets?Middle States Assessment Standards
  • Standard 7 The institution has developed and
    implemented an assessment plan and process that
    evaluates its overall effectiveness in achieving
    its mission and goals implementing planning,
    resource allocation, and institutional renewal
    processes enhancing institutional integrity and
    assuring that institutional processes and
    resources support appropriate learning and other
    outcomes for its students and graduates
  • Standard14 Assessment of student learning
    demonstrates that the institutions students have
    knowledge, skills, and competencies consistent
    with institutional goals and that students at
    graduation have achieved appropriate higher
    education goals.

47
Strategic Planning
  • As important as long-range planning is in setting
    a comprehensive direction for institutional
    decisions and resource allocations, the very
    magnitude of a long range plan is limiting.
  • Simply put, there are insufficient resources at
    any one point in time to fund all of the goals
    and objectives typically articulated in a long
    range plan.
  • Institutions are forced to prioritize those goals
    and objectives that are of immediate importance,
    and to allocate resources accordingly. In other
    words, they must think and behave strategically.

48
Case Study University of Delaware
  • In 1987, the University embarked on a
    comprehensive, long-range planning process,
    termed Project Vision. Over a period of 18
    months, the campus developed a planning document
    with a broad spectrum of planning goals and
    measurable objectives embracing all aspects of
    University operations.
  • In Fall of 1988, the President who initiated
    Project Vision suddenly resigned. At the same
    time, the Delaware economy along with that of the
    entire mid-Atlantic region was plunging into deep
    recession

49
Case Study University of Delaware
  • Rather than let 18 months of planning activity go
    for naught even though resources would be
    scarce for the foreseeable future a panel of
    distinguished senior faculty was assembled to
    review the Project Vision planning document and
    to cull out those goals and objectives that were
    clearly consistent with, and essential to
    furthering the University mission.
  • The resulting document, Focused Vision, was
    economical when compared with its progenitor,
    both in terms of words and resource requirements.
    However, the economy would still clearly
    preclude anything even remotely approaching
    implementation.
  • In 1990, the University hired its 25th President,
    David P. Roselle.

50
Case Study University of Delaware
  • In order to maintain planning momentum, the
    President consulted with his senior staff, the
    faculty, and appropriate constituencies across
    campus to determine those areas that required
    immediate attention.
  • From these consultations, the President
    articulated four strategic initiatives that would
    constitute the focus of decision-making and
    resource allocation activity in the immediate
    future. Those initiatives were competitive
    compensation for faculty and staff enhanced
    access to the University for undergraduates
    through expanded availability of financial aid a
    more student-centered campus environment and
    renovation and rehabilitation of campus
    facilities.

51
Case Study University of Delaware
  • These priorities were not a wish list. They
    grew out of a careful examination of empirical
    data provided by the Universitys Office of
    Institutional Research and Planning and other
    data sources. Consider the following
  • When compared with the 24 Category Doctoral I
    universities in the states contiguous to
    Delaware, and the District of Columbia, in 1991
    the average salary for all three major faculty
    ranks at the University of Delaware ranked near
    the bottom of the list.
  • The Student College Selection Survey indicated
    that students were receiving offers of more aid
    from admissions competitors, and that the aid
    packages had more grants and fewer loans than
    University aid packages. Not surprising, the
    University was at a competitive disadvantage for
    academically talented students.

52
Case Study University of Delaware
  • University scores on the ACT Student Opinion
    Survey suggested that the institution had
    considerable room for improvement with respect to
    student satisfaction with programs and services,
    and with a number of areas in student life.
  • The University was looking at in excess of 200
    million in deferred maintenance to its buildings
    and grounds.
  • Note The ability to use an institutional
    research capability to quantitatively and
    qualitatively assess where a college or
    university is with respect to all aspects of its
    operations is the only way to chart where the
    institution needs to go, and how to get there.

53
Case Study University of Delaware
  • A critical factor in moving forward with these
    initiatives was getting the campus to understand
    that the economy was in recession and that there
    would be no immediate or massive infusions of new
    resources.
  • Colleges and universities have multiple revenue
    streams tuition, state appropriation in the
    case of public institutions, contracts and
    grants, gifts, etc. While growing revenue
    streams is an important strategic initiative, so
    too is the commitment to not balance budgets on
    the backs of students through inordinately large
    tuition increases.
  • Resource reallocation would be the primary source
    of funding the four strategic initiatives, and it
    was critical that the campus understand from
    where funds were reallocated, and why.

54
The University went on public record in 1991
  • Average total compensation for faculty at each
    academic rank would be at or above the median
    within five years for the 24 Category I Doctoral
    Universities identified as salary peers.
  • Total undergraduate financial aid from all
    sources would increase by 100 percent within five
    years.
  • Student satisfaction with programs and services
    at the University, as measured through the ACT
    Student Opinion Survey would demonstrate
    significant gains within five years.
  • The University would commit itself to a policy of
    annually setting aside at least 2 percent of the
    replacement value of the physical plant, to be
    used for facilities renovation and rehabilitation.

55
Results - Salaries
56
Results Financial Aid
57
Results Student Satisfaction
58
Results - Facilities
  • By 2000, the University had renovated every
    classroom in its entire building inventory,
    retrofitting most with state-of-the-art teaching
    technology.
  • An aggressive program of fundraising enabled not
    only the aforementioned renovation and
    rehabilitation, but also the construction of
    several new classroom and student services
    buildings.
  • The University is now on a cycle of planned
    maintenance, as opposed to deferred maintenance.

59
Results From an Accreditation Perspective
  • The University of Delaware has every reason
    to take enormous pride in what it has
    accomplished over the past 10 years. A decade
    ago, it was coming out of a period of
    considerable turmoil. Today, the University is
    seen as a national model for the integration of
    information technology in every aspect of
    university life teaching and learning, research
    and service, academic support, and campus
    administration. It has created a physical plant
    that has few, if any, peers among public
    universities and would be the envy of most
    private colleges. These substantial achievements
    could not have happened without extraordinary
    leadership from the senior administration.
  • Better than almost any university we are
    familiar with, Delaware has a clear sense of what
    it wants to be, namely, a university that offers
    high quality undergraduate education with
    targeted areas of excellence in graduate
    education and research.
  • " The review team was enormously impressed by
    the high level of morale that pervades the
    faculty, staff, and students. Almost without
    exception, the people we spoke to take great
    pride in being part of the University.
  • Middle States Evaluation Team, 2001


60
Analytical Tools and Strategies in Support of
Planning
61
It is Useful to Develop a Systematic Program of
Institutional Research that is Clearly Designed
to Support Planning and Assessment
  • Accreditation standards often provide a useful
    framework for organizing a program of
    institutional research.
  • The institutional research program will embrace
    tools such as standard production reports,
    in-house and commercially prepared data
    collection instrument, internal and externally
    supported benchmarking studies, and above all a
    creative approach to developing analytical
    reports.
  • Good institutional research requires imagination
    and a willingness to take chances.

62
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63
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64
Institutional Research is Essential for
Planningand Institutional Self Study
  • A good program of Institutional research is
    systematic, comprehensive, and proactive.
  • The institutional research office cannot wait for
    senior administration to request information
    concerning a specific issue by then, the issue
    is likely a major problem.
  • Similarly, institutional research cannot wait for
    the decennial re-accreditation self-study to
    provide an introspective analysis of the college
    and its environment.

65
Institutional Research in Support of Assessment
  • Many of the Analyses Already Discussed Can be
    Viewed as Supporting Assessment of Student
    Outcomes and Institutional Effectiveness
  • Cognitive Outcomes Assessment at the University
    of Delaware is Viewed Primarily as a Faculty
    Domain. We provide technical assistance (survey
    design, statistical samples, etc.) in support of
    faculty assessment initiatives.
  • Institutional Research Does Conduct On-Going
    Analyses That Support Assessment at Institutional
    Level, e.g., Career Plans Analysis, College
    Student Experiences Survey, National Survey of
    Student Engagement, Alumni Surveys, etc.

66
Central Threads Running Through All Accreditation
Requirements
  • Planning must be systematic
  • Planning must be rooted in an institutions
    mission
  • Planning must be predicated on analytical and
    evaluative information
  • Planning must be used for institutional
    decisions, especially resource allocation

67
End Result
  • Institutions must plan effectively in order to be
    effective.
  • Where that is the case, the accreditation process
    is nothing more than a simple affirmation of the
    evidence of that effectiveness.

68
In the Final Analysis, Planning is Directed at
Answering Four Basic Questions
  1. Who are the markets we are trying to serve?
  2. What services must be in place to fully serve
    those markets?
  3. What is the institutional branding that will
    enable our college or university to appeal to
    those markets?
  4. How will we know if we are successful in serving
    those markets?

69
dave.hollowell_at_udel.eduesibolski_at_msche.orgmiddau
gh_at_udel.edu
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