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operational atmospheric chemistry monitoring missions capacity esa contract no. 17237/03/nl/gs geophysical data requirements michiel van weele, knmi – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Michiel van Weele, KNMI
  • Final presentation June 2, 2005

Overview Data Requirements
  • Objectives and Strategy to Geophysical Data
  • Relations to IGACO and other available
  • Sampling and coverage atmospheric domains
  • Spatial resolution and revisit time
  • Uncertainty
  • Measurement Strategy Ozone Layer and UV
  • Measurement Strategy Air Quality
  • Measurement Strategy Climate
  • Geophysical Data Requirements Tables
  • Summary

  • User Requirements per Theme
  • Ozone Layer and Surface UV Radiation
  • Air Quality
  • Climate
  • and per User Type / Application
  • Protocol Monitoring
  • Near-real time data use
  • Assessment
  • Objectives
  • Compile the user requirements per theme / user
    category and interpret in terms of a required set
    of observables per atmospheric domain
  • Define a measurement strategy for the optimal
    combination of satellite observations,
    ground-based / in-situ observations and use of

Strategy to Data Requirements
  • Specify for each parameter the (threshold)
    resolution and revisit time requirements per
    atmospheric domain and on the basis of the
    observed spatial and temporal variability
  • Define a measurement strategy the different role
    of satellite data, ground-based networks and
    atmospheric models for each theme/user type
  • Investigate the role of data assimilation for
    uncertainty requirements, also in relation with
    the established resolution and revisit time
    requirements and sampling/coverage
  • Define the auxiliary data requirements for the
  • Examine and try to understand differences with
    tabulated data requirements such as IGACO,
    GMES-GATO/BICEPS, ESA studies (ACECHEM, GeoTrope,
    Kyoto), Eumetsat paper on Nowcasting, and MTG

Relations to IGACO and other Requirements
  • IGACO data requirements have not been specified
    per theme/user type. Instead, distinction has
    been made in a group-1 (existing systems) and
    group-2 (next generation systems) set of
  • IGACO has four themes, CAPACITY only three. The
    fourth theme of IGACO is the oxidising capacity,
    which in Capacity has been integrated in the
    assessment of the three other themes
  • IGACO requirements are given on a per species and
    atmospheric domain basis, but the rationale
    behind each of the quantitative requirements has
    not been detailed in the IGACO report.
  • ACECHEM and GeoTrope are compilations of data
    requirements for research missions and exceed
    operational data requirements
  • Eumetsat Nowcasting position paper only contains
    requirements for lt12 hours ahead
  • MTG requirements focus on the geostationary,
    non-global perspective

Sampling and Coverage Requirements
  • The themes (Ozone Layer, Air Quality and Climate)
    are all of a global nature. The target
    requirement for satellite observations is to get
    as close as possible to global coverage with
    near-contiguous sampling.
  • Ground-based networks should be globally
  • For Air Quality additional focus is on the local,
    regional to continental scale in Europe.
    Threshold coverage for satellite data and surface
    networks contributing to Air Quality is Europe,
    including Turkey and Europes coastal waters as
    well as the closest parts of the North-Atlantic.
  • The aim of each component to an integrated system
    should be to maximize its contribution, the
    number of independent observations mainly being
    limited by any of the other data requirements on,
    e.g., uncertainty, resolution and revisit time.
  • The integrated system will allow data gaps in
    space and time, however only up to a certain
    extent. This will depend on the application.

  • Atmospheric domains

Tropics Eq. 30
Mid-latitudes 30 60
Polar region 60 Pole
80 km
35 km
20 km
16 km
12 km
6 km
2 km
  • The (assumed) uncertainty mainly determines the
    potential impact of observations in assimilation
    systems. These requirements are most quantitative
    and are leading.
  • The uncertainty requirement contains a random
    component and a systematic component. The latter
    component can only be established by long-term
    validation with independent measurements.
  • For ground-based and in-situ observations a
    representation error will contribute
    significantly to the overall uncertainty.
    Satellite observations suffer less from this
    error as long as the resolution is more or less
    comparable to the model grid size.
  • Large numbers of independent observations from
    prolonged data sets with stable retrievals and
    limited instrumental drift will help to better
    characterize random and systematic components
    (gt mission lifetime)
  • Spatio-temporal variations in (current) model
    uncertainties have not been taken into account.
    Model uncertainties are often related to
    intermittent processes and unpredictable events,
    which are often difficult to assign to certain
    locations and time periods and can not easily be
    used to relax requirements.

Spatial Resolution and Revisit Time
  • Typically the resolution and revisit time
    requirements are determined by the known
    variability of the observable in space and time
    in the different atmospheric domains. Ultimate
    threshold is to observe some of the
  • The horizontal resolution should be typically a
    factor 2-3 smaller than the error correlation
    length (ECL) used in the assimilation of the
    observable. The error correlation length is
    typically a function of altitude and determined
    by physical processes. The ECL decreases from
    several 100 kms in the middle stratosphere to
    tens of kilometers in the troposphere and even
    smaller in the PBL.
  • Vertical resolution requirements are related to
    the observed vertical gradients in the
    atmosphere. Requirements are most stringent in
    the UTLS and PBL and much less in the free
    troposphere and middle stratosphere and
  • In principle, the revisit time requirements can
    also be based on required update frequencies from
    assimilation studies on anomaly correlations.
    These correlations however mainly depend on the
    predictability of the meteorology. Revisit time
    requirements are most stringent in the PBL.

Data Requirements per Theme and User
Category Theme A Ozone Layer and Surface UV
Radiation A1. Protocol Monitoring A2. Near-real
time data use A3. Assessment Theme B Air
Quality B1. Protocol Monitoring B2. Near-real
time data use B3. Assessment Theme C
Climate C1. Protocol Monitoring C2. Near-real
time data use C3. Assessment
Measurement Strategy A1 O3/UV Protocol Monitoring
  • Role of Satellite measurements
  • Monitoring of the global total ozone spatial
    distribution (lt3 uncertainty for individual
  • Contribution to the monitoring of surface UV
    radiation by provision of information on total
    ozone, solar irradiance, surface albedo, and
    aerosol optical depth and absorption
  • Role of Surface network
  • Trends in concentrations of regulated ozone
    depleting substances (ODS)
  • Detection of ODS emissions and their trends
  • Trend in Surface UV and the attribution of UV
    changes to ozone layer changes
  • Validation of the satellite data
  • Weekly surface/column observations (O3, ODS) by
    representative surface networks
  • Auxiliary data
  • Meteorology from NWP centers including surface
    data (dynamics, clouds, snow cover)

Measurement Strategy A2 O3/UV Near-real time data
  • Role of Satellite Measurements
  • Forecasting of the Ozone layer and surface UV
    Feed polar ozone reports
  • Better representation of stratospheric transport,
    chemistry and radiation in NWP to improve (medium
    range) weather forecasts and stratospheric
    near-real time monitoring, also by improving
    retrievals of temperature gt stratospheric
    distribution of major greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O,
    O3, CH4, N2O) and aerosols
  • Further tracers (B-D circulation, ST exchange),
  • Role of surface network and in-situ operational
  • NRT validation of the satellite measurements
  • Ozone/ radiosondes NRT delivery of O3, H2O, p,
    T, wind
  • NRT delivery of (UTLS) aircraft observations of
    O3, H2O, CO, HNO3, HCl
  • Auxilary data
  • Meteorological forecast from NWP centers
    including surface data (dynamics, clouds,
    sunshine duration, snow cover)

Measurement Strategy A3 O3/UV Assessment
  • Role of Satellite measurements
  • State of ozone layer and its evolution in time
    role of dynamics, radiation, and chemistry
  • Changes in surface UV radiation globally, per
  • Distribution and trends in ODS and reservoir
  • The role of PSCs and of denitrification
  • The role of volcanic eruptions (SO2, aerosol,
    aerosol type)
  • Short-lived species can typically be derived from
    long-lived species given that the chemistry is
    sufficiently understood (some exception NO2, ClO
  • Role of Surface network
  • Validation of the satellite measurements
  • Surface UV radiation trend monitoring and
  • Concentration monitoring ODS detection of ODS
  • Auxiliary data
  • meteorology from NWP centers including surface
    data (dynamics, clouds, sunshine duration, snow

O3 / Surface UV Radiation Satellite Data
  • Observable User(s) Domain(s)
  • O3 A1, A2, A3 Stratosphere, Troposphere
  • UV solar spectrum A1, A2, A3 Top-of-Atmosphere
  • UV aerosol optical depth A1, A2, A3 Troposphere
  • UV aerosol absorption optical depth A1, A2,
    A3 Troposphere
  • Spectral UV surface albedo A1, A2, A3 Surface
  • H2O A2, A3 Stratosphere
  • N2O A2, A3 Stratosphere
  • CH4 A2, A3 Stratosphere
  • CO2 A2, A3 Stratosphere
  • HNO3 A2, A3 Stratosphere
  • Volcanic aerosol A2, A3 Stratosphere
  • CFC-11 A3 Stratosphere
  • CFC-12 A3 Stratosphere
  • HCFC-22 A3 Stratosphere
  • ClO A3 Stratosphere

Measurement Strategy B1 Air Quality Protocol
  • Role of Satellite Measurements
  • Interpolation of surface networks in the PBL
  • Boundary conditions for regional AQ models and
    tropospheric background (long-range transport)
  • Application to inverse modeling of surface
    emissions (aerosols, NO2, SO2, CO, CH2O).
    Formaldehyde is related to VOC emissions
  • Role of Surface Networks
  • EU Framework Directives (surface concentrations)
  • National Emission Ceilings (concentration
    monitoring to derive emissions)
  • Gothenburg protocol on ground-level ozone
  • Ship emissions (operational ship monitoring
    coastal waters)
  • A representative network for surface
    concentrations and emissions in Europe
  • Satellite and model validation, also by boundary
    layer profiling (LIDARS, Towers)
  • Auxiliary data
  • Meteorology from NWP Centers including surface
    data (dynamics, clouds, surface characterization)
  • Emission inventories

Measurement Strategy B2 Air Quality Near-real
time data use
  • Role of Satellite Measurements
  • Interpolation of surface network in PBL
  • Plume transport and plume dispersion on local,
    regional, continental and global scale
  • Boundary conditions to regional AQ models and
    tropospheric background levels
  • Early warnings on hazards and unpredictable
  • Role of Surface Networks
  • Local Air Quality monitoring of surface levels
  • Constraints on satellite-derived aerosol types
    and VOC emissions from HCHO
  • NRT ozone sonde data for ozone and relative
    humidity profiles
  • CH4 trend monitoring
  • Auxiliary data
  • Forecast meteorology from NWP centers including
    NRT surface / vegetation data
  • Emission inventories

Measurement Strategy B3 Air Quality Assessment
  • Role of Satellite Measurements
  • Global-scale oxidizing capacity components and
    their evolution in time (O3, CO, H2O, NOx, CH4,
    CH2O, UV, aerosols)
  • Long-range transport of pollutants tropospheric
    background levels
  • Interpolation of data from surface networks
  • input to inverse modeling of surface emissions
    (CO, NOx, SO2, CH2O)
  • Isotopes of CO to distinguish between emission
  • Role of Surface network
  • Assessment of surface concentrations and boundary
    layer pollution over Europe
  • Concentration monitoring to derive emissions on
    national levels
  • HNO3, N2O5(at night) and org. nitrates reservoir
    species to constrain acid deposition and N budget
  • Validation of satellite observations (including
    sondes, lidars, towers)
  • Auxilary data
  • Meteorology from NWP centers including surface
  • Emission inventories

Air Quality Satellite Data
  • Observable User(s) Domain(s)
  • O3 B1, B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • NO2 B1, B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • CO B1, B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • SO2 B1, B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • CH2O B1, B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • Aerosol OD B1, B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • Aerosol Type B1, B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • H2O B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • HNO3 B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • N2O5 B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • PAN / Org. nitrates B2, B3 PBL/Troposphere
  • Surface UV albedo B2, B3 Surface

Measurement Strategy C1 Climate Protocol
  • Role of Satellite Measurements
  • Concentration monitoring for inverse modeling of
    emissions of CH4, CO2, CO and NO2
  • Global concentration distributions of the
    mentioned gases, O3 and aerosols
  • Role of Surface network
  • Greenhouse gases trend monitoring (CO2, CH4, N2O,
    SF6, CF4, HFCs
  • Weekly surface concentrations and total columns
    from a representative network.
  • Validation of satellite measurements
  • Concentration monitoring for inverse modeling of
    surface emissions of CH4, CO2, CO and NO2
  • Tropospheric O3 sondes, lidar and surface data
  • Tropospheric aerosol optical depth and aerosol
    absorption optical depth
  • Trend monitoring for ozone depleting substances
    ODS with climate forcing (H)CFCs.
  • Auxiliary data
  • Meteorology from NWP centers including surface
  • Emission inventories and estimates on sinks

Measurement Strategy C2 Climate Near-real time
data use
  • Role of Satellite Measurements
  • For use in assimilation at NWP centers to improve
    on stratospheric elements
  • H2O, O3, stratospheric tracers, and information
    on aerosols and cirrus
  • Climate monitoring (delivery time weeks
  • Validation of climate and NWP models (present-day
    climate reconstructions)
  • Role of Surface network
  • NRT validation of satellite observations
  • Evolution of long-lived greenhouse gases
  • In-situ observations in the PBL of CO2
  • NRT delivery of ozone sonde / Lidar data O3,
  • Auxiliary data
  • Forecast meteorology from NWP centers including
    surface data

Measurement Strategy C3 Climate Assessment
  • Role of Satellite Measurements
  • Assessment radiative forcing and its changes over
    time, including volcanic eruptions and solar
    cycle GHGs, aerosol OD, aerosol absorption, SO2,
  • Assessment of stratospheric H2O budget and H2O
    trend monitoring
  • The role of the ozone layer evolution on climate
    change CFCs, Cly, ClO, HNO3
  • The role of the oxidizing capacity of the
    troposphere for climate change (CH4, CO, O3, H2O,
    NOx, UV)
  • The role of a changing B-D circulation on climate
    change tracers
  • Concentration monitoring for inverse modeling of
    GHG precursor emissions
  • Role of Surface network
  • Validation of satellite observations
  • Ozone sonde/LIDAR network for trends in strat.
    profiles of long-lived gases
  • Radiosonde/GPS network for H2O and T
  • Aerosol network
  • UTLS operational aircraft observations of O3,
    H2O, CO, NOx
  • Auxiliary data

Climate Satellite Data
  • Observable User(s) Domain(s)
  • CH4 C1 PBL, Troposphere
  • CO2 C1 PBL, Troposphere
  • CO C1 PBL, Troposphere
  • NO2 C1 PBL, Troposphere
  • O3 C1 PBL, Troposphere
  • Aerosol OD C1 PBL, Troposphere
  • Aerosol absorption OD C1 PBL, Troposphere
  • H2O C2, C3 Troposphere, Stratosphere
  • O3 C2, C3 Troposphere, Stratosphere
  • CH4 C2, C3 Stratosphere
  • CO2 C2, C3 Stratosphere
  • N2O C2, C3 Stratosphere
  • Aerosol optical properties C2, C3 Stratosphere
  • Cirrus optical properties C2, C3 Troposphere
  • HNO3 C3 Troposphere, Stratosphere
  • NO2 C3 Stratosphere

Data Requirements Table Format
  • A1S
  • Ozone Layer Protocol Monitoring Satellite data
  • Data product Driver
  • Height Range(s)
  • Hor. Resolution (target/threshold)
  • Vert. Resolution (target/threshold)
  • Revisit time (target /threshold)
  • Uncertainty (threshold)

Similar Tables for A1-G, A2-S, A2-G, .C3-S,
C3-G (18 Tables in total)
  • This work has drawn from several earlier
    requirement studies, but it has never been done
    before in such a comprehensive way with focus on
    atmospheric composition and for operational
  • Geophysical Data Requirements have been tabulated
    per theme and within each theme per user type
  • Per data product and product type (column,
    profile) resolution, revisit time and uncertainty
    have been tabulated, for each atmospheric domain
  • Based on the definition of drivers per
    application a measurement strategy has been
    proposed for satellites, ground-based/in-situ
    data and auxiliary data, including models
  • The tables, traceable to the user requirements,
    served as input for the analysis of
    existing/planned missions and networks, and for
    the definition of instrument requirements for new
    mission concepts
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