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Unit Ten: The Jacksonian Era


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Title: Unit Ten: The Jacksonian Era

Unit Ten The Jacksonian Era
  • Jacksonian Democracy

Indian Relations
  • Another topic during Jacksons first term was
    Indian relations in the lands East of the
    Mississippi, mostly in the South.
  • In the South the last tribes still there were the
    Five Civilized Tribes (had assimilated white
    culture) Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Cherokee,
    and Seminoles.
  • The Southern states though wanted Indian lands to
    make fields to grow cotton, so they established
    Indian Removal laws to kick them off their

Five Civilized Tribes
The Indians fight back
  • In 1830 Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act
    which allocated money for the President to use to
    voluntarily remove Indians west of the
    Mississippi to the Great American Desert
    (Oklahoma Territory)
  • Some left willingly as the Choctaws with the
    Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, others did not.
  • This law led to conflict in Illinois with the
    Black Hawk War and in Florida with the Second
    Seminole War.
  • The Cherokees of Georgia decided to use the court
    systems to fight back.

The Indians fight back
  • The Cherokees were the most assimilated tribe
    with their own written language developed by
  • The Cherokees first sued Georgia in Cherokee
    Nation v. Georgia, but the Supreme Court ruled
    that they could not sue because they were not
    U.S. citizens but rather Domestic Dependants of
    the Federal government.
  • In the second case of Worcester v. Georgia, the
    Supreme Court said Georgia did not have the right
    to remove, only Federal government through a

The Indians fight back
  • In response to John Marshalls decision Jackson
    said, Marshalls made his decision, now let him
    enforce it.
  • In 1838 the remaining Cherokees about 15,000 were
    rounded up by General Winfield Scott and forced
    to move to the Oklahoma Territory in an event
    known as the Trail of Tears, due to 1/3 dying on
    the way.
  • Jacksons Indian policy disliked by missionaries
    like Jeremiah Evarts and Frontiersman like David
    Crockett, were agreed with by a majority of
    Americans, even some calling for the ethnic
    cleansing (genocide) of the entire savage race

Trail of Tears
Bank War
  • The last big issue of Jacksons first term was
    the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United
    States (BUS).
  • Jackson believed the BUS headed by Nicolas Biddle
    was a corrupt institution (the monster) using
    public funds to purchase Congressional votes and
    direct American policy and did not like the use
    of bank notes but rather wanted only specie.
  • When the BUS applied for recharter in 1832
    Jackson vetoed the bill, which many Americans
    agreed with due to general anger with the BUS.

Election of 1832
  • In the Election of 1832 Jackson ran for a second
    term for the Democrats against the National
    Republican candidate Henry Clay and won with a
    large margin.
  • The election did have the first third party
    candidate William Wirt from the Anti- Masonic
  • To Jackson this was a mandate from the people
    that they liked him and his policies.
  • Jackson wanted to end the bank, but did not want
    to wait until 1836 for its charter to end, so he
    came up with an idea to kill it.

Kill the BUS
  • To kill the BUS Jackson came up with the plan to
    move all the Governments (Public) money from the
    BUS, thus ending its ability to loan or do much
    of anything.
  • Jackson moved all the Publics money into
    different state banks (Pet Banks) with the
    consent of the Secretary of the Treasury Roger
    Taney. (Jackson fired two previous Secretaries
    because they would not do it)
  • To Force Jackson to recharter the BUS, Biddle cut
    credit and interest rates shot up causing an
    economic recession called Biddles Panic.
    (Biddle did finally give in to Jackson)

Economic Issues
  • In 1835 Jackson completed paid off the National
    debt (only time in U.S. history it happened) and
    passed surplus money on to the states.
  • This caused an economic boom, but it was growing
    to quickly and to slow it down Jackson issued the
    Specie Circular (stated that Public lands could
    only be purchased with silver or gold).
  • The demand for specie, Jacksons fiscal policies,
    and the death of the BUS in 1836 caused a huge
    Panic in 1837 causing further division in the
    nation. Even though Jackson was right about many
    things about the BUS, it was a stabilizing force
    on the economy and should have been reformed not

The Bank War
Nicholas Biddle
Jacksonian Diplomacy
  • Andrew Jackson believed in a strong arm type of
    diplomacy and that American interests should come
    before all other.
  • In 1830 Jackson reopened trade with the West
    Indies which was a much needed trade region.
  • In 1831 Jackson opened a quarrel with France over
    payments owed to American shippers during the
    Napoleonic Wars, which the French chose not pay.

Jacksonian Diplomacy
  • Jackson then urged the seizure of French property
    in the U.S. to pay the shippers which led to the
    cutting off of trade relations and the fear of
  • In 1835 France agreed to pay the money if Jackson
    was to apologize, which he did not because he was
    backed by the American people Hurrah for
    Jackson, No apologizes Jackson only said he did
    not intend to insult the French which they took
    and paid the payments.

Election of 1836
  • Jackson was the first President to have an
    assassination attempt on his life, not once but
    twice Robert B. Randolph (only hit Jackson) and
    Richard Lawrence (had two pistols misfire)
  • In 1836 Jackson was tired (70yrs old) and refused
    to run again retiring to his home the Hermitage.
  • Jackson left a lasting legacy of what was termed
    the rise of the common man in America.

Andrew Jackson
Click to see
a YouTube
on the Hermitage
The Hermitage
Richard Lawrence Attempt 1835
Jackson 1844
Jacksons Tomb
Election of 1836
  • In the Election of 1836 Jacksons hand picked
    predecessor Martin Van Buren was chosen to run on
    the Democratic ticket.
  • Van Buren ran against three candidates from a new
    party called the Whig Party (National Republicans
    and Anti-Jacksons).
  • The Whig Party formed from the thought
    that Jackson was trying to make himself
    an elected king in America, hence Whigs.
    (King Andrew I)
  • Van Buren easily beat Daniel Webster,
    Hugh White, Willie Magnum, and William Henry
    Harrison to win the Presidency.

Election of 1836
Martin Van Buren Little Magician
William Henry Harrison
Daniel Webster
Hugh White
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