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Summary of Teacher Motivation Working Group Webinars May 2013 December 2014 CIES Teacher Motivation Evidence Application Workshop, March 8 2015 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Summary%20of%20Teacher%20Motivation%20Working%20Group%20Webinars%20May%202013%20


1
Summary of Teacher Motivation Working Group
Webinars May 2013 December 2014
  • CIES Teacher Motivation Evidence Application
    Workshop, March 8 2015

2
Save the Children Teacher Motivation Draft
Framework of Analysis
  • A Working Framework from Literature Review,
    Interviews, and Save the Children Country Office
    Survey
  • Jarret Guajardo Save the Children US May 17 2013

3
Existing Theoretical Frameworks Hierarchies,
Continuums, and Dimensions
  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (1943)
  • Beebys Hierarchy of
  • Teacher Development (1966)
  • Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene Theory (1966)
  • Long-term impact of motivators achievement,
    recognition, the work itself, responsibility and
    advancement
  • Extrinsic and Intrinsic factors
  • (Deci et al 1999, Benabou and Tirole 2000,
    Bandura 1962, Locke 1976, Guarino, Santibañez,
    Daley 2006)

4
Draft Framework of Analysis Stretching Teacher
Motivation Thin
5
Draft Framework of Analysis Reinforcing Teacher
Motivation
6
Findings from Country Office Survey
  • Motivation potentially biggest problem in Africa,
    smallest in Asia (but a problem almost
    everywhere)
  • Consequences low student performance, poor
    preparation, failure to motivate/connect with
    students
  • Challenges large class sizes, lack of quality
    materials, remote deployment, heterogeneous
    classes
  • And in Africa, multiple shifts
  • Teachers are safe and feel like they belong, but
    their basic needs are not being met. Self esteem
    and self-actualization results are mixed

7
Teacher Motivation Situation Analysis Country
Scorecard
Country Workload Remuneration Recognition Accountability Career Development Institutional Environment Voice Resources
Sahel/ Mali 44 33 86 50 58 33 50 0
Uganda 13 33 71 50 58 56 13 0
Malawi 50 42 57 100 33 44 38 0
Mozambique 44 50 57 100 50 67 25 0
Ethiopia 25 33 29 25 33 56 38 0
Egypt 63 58 57 75 92 67 50 100
8
Social Accountability in Education
  • Jeff Hall World Vision International
  • Andrew Zeitlin Georgetown University Public
    Policy Institute and IGC Rwanda
  • December 20 2013

9
World Visions Citizen Voice and Action
  • A social accountability approach designed to
    improve relationships between communities and
    government to improve service delivery
  • Three stages 1. Enabling Citizen Engagement, 2.
    Engagement via Community Gathering 3. Action
    Plan
  • In Zambia, stakeholders attributed the posting of
    additional teachers, additional desks,
    construction of staff houses, and increase in
    enrolments to CVA
  • The CVA process tends to connect well-meaning
    service providers, best government officials, and
    communities in alliances. These alliances
    marginalize those who are underperforming and
    exert pressure on higher levels for change.

10
Mechanisms of Community-Based Monitoring (Abigail
Barr, Frederick Mugisha, Pieter Serneels)
  • Tested two designs Standard and Participatory (3
    arm study in 100 schools)
  • Measurement
  • School monitoring scorecard
  • teacher absenteeism
  • learning outcomes through govt tests,
  • VCM game to measure peoples willingness to
    contribute to public goods
  • Results
  • .19 sd impact on learning outcomes for
    participatory scorecard, .08 (insignificant)
    impact from standard scorecard
  • Teacher absenteeism 13 percentage point
    increase (participatory) versus 9 (standard)
  • Pupil attendance 9 percentage point increase
    (participatory) versus 4 (standard)
  • Hypothesis Participatory scorecards solved a
    collective action problem

11
Designing Delegated Monitoring (Jacobus Cilliers,
Ibrahim Kasirye, Clare Leaver, and Pieter
Serneels)
  • Tested Java-based platform to track teacher
    attendance
  • Varied two dimensions The monitoring agent
    (either parents on SMC or headteachers/deputies)
    and stakes (information only or portion of
    teachers salaries)
  • Results
  • Headteachers did a good job managing incentives,
    more teachers did show up
  • Parents didnt seem to have much of an impact
  • Everyone provided bad data, but parents give
    worse data than headteachers
  • Implications monitoring is harder for parents,
    but the optimal solution might be to involve
    parents as auditors of teacher monitoring process
    done by headteachers
  • Cheaper, because parents only participate when
    there is an problem

12
Overall lessons
  • Local accountability schemes can have impact,
    including
  • Low-cost, informational interventions that
    address collective action problems
  • Delegated incentive schemes that recognize
    monitors costs and address potential
    incompleteness of information
  • The best information for central planning may not
    be the best for local management

13
Steve Glaserman and Ali Protik,
Mathematica Moving High Performing Teachers to
Low Performing Schools
14
  • Problem Most needy students often do not have
    best teachers
  • Research question Can a good teachers skills
    transfer to a low performing school?
  • Project implemented in 10 districts around the
    country-elementary and middle schools
  • Study identified high performing teachers based
    on test scores of students at these high
    performing schools
  • Reached out to these teachers to see if they
    would switch to a low performing schools-provided
    a substantial monetary bonus to teachers who did
    (10K over 2 years for staying)

15
  • Even if teachers do transfer, will students test
    scores increase?
  • And once they do transfer, will they stay?
  • Take up rates were low-hard sell-most teachers
    did not want to switch out of their schools,
    especially to a low performing school
  • 22 that were eligible applied and only 5
    transferred but 88 of targeted vacancies were
    filled
  • Positive impacts on student test scores at
    elementary level not significant at middle
    school level
  • 60 of teachers who transferred stayed at schools
    after study ended (and monetary bonuses ended as
    well)
  • Cost effectiveness-what would it cost to raise
    test scores using other methods-like class size
    reduction? Teacher transfers and bonuses are a
    more cost effective way to go

16
Cris Smith, Umass Amherst Improving Teacher
Effectiveness in Early Grade Reading-assessing
factors that influence teacher attendance,
learning and instruction
17
  • Looking at factors that support or hinder early
    grade reading teachers in planning and teaching
  • Want to work with partners, including teachers in
    schools, to create a theoretical model to support
    early grade reading teachers
  • Proposed model has 4 phases
  • Phase 1 compile existing evidence on teacher
    attendance, learning and change
  • Phase 2 design and conduct research with
    teachers-using partners in the field, including
    teachers
  • Phase 3 analyze data and refine model-develop a
    theory of change on factors that influence
    teachers to support and hinder them
  • Phase 4 disseminate findings and research
    protocols for others to adapt and use
  • Funding for phase 1 secured by UMass but other
    phases require funding

18
Motivation Issues in Low Income
Schools Presentation by Helen Abadzi to TMWG
webinar
19
Research
  • Much research done in the Western context/high
    income populations
  • i.e. Hersbergs model of motivation
  • Need to understand motivation issues in a
    low-income context

20
  • Teacher Motivation in relation to teacher
    retention
  • Low status may teach children who are too poor
  • i.e. caste issues in India
  • In the US too much preparation, too much
    technology to learn
  • Nobody really appreciates what the teachers do
  • Unmotivated students demotivate teachers

21
  • Teacher Motivation in relation to teacher
    retention
  • Discipline issues with students, tiresome
    fighting over them
  • Repeating the same things over and over
  • Some info really irrelevant to our lives
  • Correcting homework day after day
  • Correcting the same mistakes somehow unpleasant

22
  • Teachers are cognitively overloaded
  • Long timeframes of rewards
  • Teaching is an inchoate task no clear
    timeframes for rewards
  • Timeframe of rewards
  • Immediate rewards, e.g. videogames
  • The neuroscience of the phenomenon is now well
    understood
  • Short-term timeframe maybe 100 days
  • Sense of self-efficacy
  • Perceived probability of success
  • According to some research, 50 perceived
    probability likely to be actionable
  • Effort likely to be needed
  • Cognitive overload

23
Self-determination theory (Gagne and Deci,
2005) Bring teachers to the autonomous extrinsic
motivation stage?
24
  • How do keep teachers motivated?
  • Self-determination
  • Explain rationale for curricula
  • They can do differently perhaps once they become
    more experienced
  • Help increase self-efficacy Can you do it?
    Where will you fail?
  • Make them think of timeframes
  • You should finish x by date Y. You will feel so
    competent!
  • Make them think of intrinsic incentives the
    students will be forever grateful

25
"Does teaching innovation and a coaching approach
motivates teachers to improve their professional
practices? reflections from the Gambian case"
Aigly Zafeirakous Presentation to TMWG webinar
26
Main points of presentation
  • Teachers lack basic methodologies
  • Write scripted lessons on board
  • Teachers read and students repeat
  • Gambias case
  • Training based on coaching model 125 teachers,
    60 coaches, school directors, trainers of
    teachers and trainers of initial teacher training
  • There was continuous support provided to teachers
  • Lesson plans were provided with built-in routines
    for teachers
  • Coaches helped teachers with these routines
  • Coaching should be recognized as a part of
    in-service training, improve capacity of training
    providers, in-class support

27
How teachers were motivated in The Gambia
  • Introduction of scripted lessons for teachers
  • Hands on training, provided inside the classes
  • Use the modelization approach for teaching
    behaviors and practices including small videos to
    show new practices
  • Supporting teachers coaching within the schools
  • Recognize the coaching as part of in-service
    training
  • Improve capacity of training providers

28
Coaches
  • Supportevery 1-2 weeks by national team of
    Ministry of Education
  • Role of coach
  • Insures that teacher follows scripted lessons
  • Observes teachers twice a month
  • Provides feedback on teacher performance
  • Meets with teachers twice per month to discuss
    observations
  • Receives support

29
Challenges
  • Consistent leadership
  • Understanding coaching
  • Equityserving teachers in remote geographic
    areas
  • Refreshing training and support for coaches

30
Impact
  • Coaching is motivatingteachers have a sense of
    their own capacity and professionalism
  • Helps children learn
  • Emergent community of practice around literacy
    instruction

31
Concluding Remarks
  • If teachers receive hands-on practical
    trainingincreases their internal motivation
  • A good coach has uses the best teachers within
    schools. (Wanted a model that was sustainable
    when program ends)
  • Teachers are motivated and coaches are also
    motivatedworking longer hours than necessary
  • Looking at cell phone coaching

32
Teacher Belief in Mali and Congo Natalie Louge
presentation to TMWG webinar
33
Background
  • Data from Mali, Congo, Liberia and
    Philippinesand over two decades
  • When starting to work in a country
  • Dont know the context of reading instruction in
    countries
  • So design programs on evidence-based practice
  • Could teachers tacitly-held beliefs about
    learning in general and about literacy in
    particular serve as information filters,
    encourage them to attend to practices that align
    with their beliefs about how children learn to
    read, and reject or reinterpret those practices
    that do not.

34
Research
  • Overarching question How will intervention be
    received based on what teachers are doing?
  • Teacher beliefs (Research)
  • Every teacher operates with at least an implicit
    model of reading that influences their reactions
    to teacher education and their teacher practice
  • Teacher beliefs are used to evaluate new ideas
    about teaching that teachers confront in their
    professional development
  • Teachers have assumptions about language and
    language learning which impacts their teaching
  • Teacher beliefs are critical to their teaching
    and instructional decision-making
  • Teachers interpret and respond to innovations in
    ways that relate to existing beliefs

35
Teacher Beliefs on Reading
  • What are teacher beliefs about reading
    instruction and the reading process?
  • How does this affect their instructional decision
    making and ultimately student learning?
  • What are factors contribute to certain belief
    structures?

36
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37
Implications for PD
  • Awareness of teacher beliefs are key to designing
    teacher training
  • Reducing gap between teacher expectations and
    those outlined in curriculum
  • As a result of this info, in Mali, EDC designed
    program to help teachers use strategies they were
    NOT using

38
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39
Julia Frazier, Ph.D. International Rescue
Committee Supporting Teacher Well-being and
Motivation through Teacher Professional
Development in DRC
40
  • DR Congo basic education (reading / math / social
    emotional learning) OPEQ project via teacher
    professional development (TPD)
  • Teachers Realities SEL survey
  • Well-Being
  • Teachers struggle to meet basic needs (66
    receive salary late, 25 go to be hungry 1/3 of
    time)
  • High levels of emotional exhaustion
  • Low sense of personal accomplishment
  • Motivation
  • High intrinsic motivation 80 stay for
    altruistic reasons
  • Greatest difficulties lack of teaching/learning
    materials, lack of student tables/benches
  • Low job satisfaction (except high quality of
    supervision)

41
  • Positives
  • Teachers care
  • Relatively high level of education
  • Students perceive their teachers as supportive,
    and
  • Teachers feel respected by their communities.
  • TPD Model Dont want to demotivate teachers!
  • Best TPD is
  • Content focused
  • Content-specific pedagogy
  • Modeled on content-specific pedagogical practices
  • Encouraging and giving forum for reflection
  • Socially organized
  • Relevant to teachers working context
  • IRC TPD approach
  • Build professional skills in community of
    practice
  • Teachers well-being improves with collegial
    support
  • Teachers become more motivated as they improve
    practice
  • Leads to teachers are more confident
    professionals

42
Paul St. John Frisoli, Ed.D. International Rescue
Committee / UMass Amherst Teacher Attitudes
Practice Change A Case Study of TPD in
Post(Conflict) DR Congo
43
  • Study based on concepts of self-efficacy and its
    major elements (enactive master, role models,
    praise, and coping strategies)
  • Increased beliefs in ones abilities is based on
    developing self-efficacy in communities of
    practice while examining external influences that
    impact teachers
  • OPEQ Project / DR Congo Case studies of
    teachers experiences of TPD known as Teacher
    Learning Circles
  • 3 themes emerged Motivation, School
    Characteristics, TLC Characteristics

44
  • Motivation Factors that impact their efforts
    working conditions, intrinsic motivation, beliefs
    about TPD opportunities
  • School Climate Factors influence teachers
    efforts at school Relationships with Head
    Teachers, Community Members Impacts from
    Education Stakeholders
  • TLC Characteristics Frequency of TLCs,
    Technical Support, Social/Emotional Support
  • Preliminary Findings
  • Higher Order Themes
  • Self Efficacy Across Themes
  • Communities of practices
  • differences

45
Edem Adubra, Ph.D. International Task Force on
Teachers for EFA - UNESCO International Teacher
Task Force on Education For All Presentation
46
  • EFA 2008 Oslo meeting Result Task Force on
    Teachers for EFA - Teachers are crucial to
    achieve EFA
  • Secretariat hosted at UNESCO, funded by Norway,
    EU, France, Germany, Indonesia
  • TTF targets Explore teacher policy, capacity,
    finance gaps frameworks
  • Vision qualified and well-resources teachers
    who are supported in all countries to create and
    enrich the learning opportunities of every child,
    youth, and adult with the overall goal of
    achieving equal, just and sustainable societies
  • Mission
  • facilitate coordination of int. efforts to
    provide sufficient numbers of qualified teachers
    as well (access quality)
  • Support teacher development (policy / production
    / resourcing)

47
  • Membership Donors, countries, International
    Gov. Orgs, INGOs, teachers orgs, civil society
  • Activities Phase 2
  • Advocacy / coordination with global initiatives
  • Knowledge creation / sharing
  • Country Support
  • TMWG Overlapping Interest
  • Understanding and sharing findings on teacher
    motivation and impacts on teachers (i.e.
    attrition)
  • Sharing research, facilitating collaboration
    between members, bring in members to provide
    inputs to TMWG information/materials

48
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49
Teacher Professional Development in Fragile
Contexts
50
Barriers to quality teacher PD
  • 1 Research void
  • 2 Fragility is broadly defined but narrowly
    interpreted
  • 3 Fragmentation in terms of PD provision
  • 4 Absence of teacher voice in PD
    decisions/design
  • 5 PD itself often does not embody best
    practices

51
Importance of best practice
  • 7 recommendations/themes
  • 1 Focus on key issues affecting teachers in
    fragile contexts
  • 2 Develop, apply, measure and institutionalize
    standards for teacher professional development
  • 3 Create professional development
    opportunities that promote teacher collaboration
  • 4 Provide teachers with ongoing support
  • 5 Invest in high-quality teacher educators
  • 6 Build instructional leadership at all levels
    of the educational system
  • 7 Use ICT to provide access to content,
    professional development and professional
    learning communities

52
Indian School Teachers A Marginalized Community
  • Maya Menon
  • The Teacher Foundation

53
Why Indian teachers are a marginalized community
  • Low professional status
  • Female-dominated
  • Poor professional training
  • Few avenues for career growth

54
Key Challenges
  • Shortage of teachers The country has the largest
    under 18 population in the world, has also worked
    to increase access to education. Teacher/pupil
    ratio is very high.
  • Systemic absence of vision, purpose and urgency
    There is generally less concern about addressing
    education issues in comparison to other
    countries.
  • Learning and instruction The typical classroom
    includes a lot of rote learning with a minimal
    focus on critical thinking and understanding

55
Need for Liberal Arts Education
  • Teachers in India need a liberal arts education
    that equips them with
  • the ability to think for themselves
  • the skills to communicate effectively
  • the capacity for lifelong learning.

56
Components of Teacher Foundations Training
Programs
  • As teachers teach the way they have been taught,
    they need to experience a different kind of
    learning for themselves. Quality teacher
    preparation programs can provide insight into new
    ways of learning.
  • To help teachers learn, the trainings build in
  • art and use of creative materials
  • technology and collaboration
  • discussions
  • personal reflection
  • fun and enjoyment

57
Challenges to working with teachers in India
  • Lack of fluency in language as a tool for
    critical thinking Teachers are used to using
    language primarily for memorization.
  • Difficulty of changing conditioned mindsets and
    paradigms
  • Inability to trust what they see Teachers dont
    believe the ideas presented will transfer to
    their own classrooms.

58
Teacher Motivation in Low-Income Contexts An
Actionable Framework for Reform Emily E
Richardson Co-Chair of the Teacher Motivation
Working Group
59
Rationale for the Study
  • Teachers motivations matter both in the short
    and longer-term, not only for their own
    well-being and career satisfaction, but also for
    how they relate to and interact with students,
    and their teaching effectiveness (Richardson et
    al., 2014, p. xv).
  • What personal and contextual factors sustain
    teacher commitment, interest and enthusiasm?

60
  • Teachers want a place to live, respect within
    their schools and communities, adequate teaching
    and learning materials for their students, to be
    deployed to schools that are not too far from
    their families and career and professional
    development that encourages them to thrive within
    the profession.

61
Key Study Findings
  • What can we do to enhance teacher motivation?
  • Improve recruitment policies
  • Address working conditions
  • Make systemic changes
  • Adopt a longer-term approach
  • Find incentives that work
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