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CPE 426 Computer Networks

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Title: CPE 426 Computer Networks


1
CPE 426 Computer Networks
  • Week 3
  • Review 3 SPT VLAN
  • Chapter 20 Internet Concept

2
TOPICS
  • 1. Repeater/Bridges
  • Chapter 17 17.1-17.6
  • 2. SPT
  • Chapter 17 17.7-17.8
  • 3. VLAN
  • Chapter 17 17.9-17.11

3
TOPICS
  • 4. X.25/FR/ATM/MPLS/ISDN
  • Chapter 19 19.1-19.4
  • ALSO Reference From CPE 326 (Stalling Book)
  • BREAK
  • Chapter 20 Internetworking
  • Motivation Sec. 20.1-20.2
  • Concept Sec. 20.3-20.4
  • Internetworking Sec. 20.5-20.8
  • Protocol Architecture Sec. 20.9-20.11
  • Routers Sec. 20.12

4
Review Ethernet Technologies
  • IEEE 802
  • IEEE 802.1 Management
  • IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree
  • IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Tag
  • IEEE 802.1X ?????
  • IEEE 802.2 LLC
  • IEEE 802.3 Ethernet
  • IEEE 802.11 WLAN

5
Network types
Range
Bandwidth (Mbps)
Latency (ms)
LAN
1-2 kms
10-1000
1-10
WAN
worldwide
0.010-600
100-500
MAN
2-50 kms
1-150
10
Wireless LAN
0.15-1.5 km
2-11
5-20
Wireless WAN
worldwide
0.010-2
100-500
Internet
worldwide
0.010-2
100-500
6
?????????? ?????????? 2 Entity
Destination ?????? ???? ?????????????
Sender Source ?????? ?????????????????????
Transmitter
Receiver
Signal ??????
DATA
DATA
Transmission Medium
7
Simplex ????????????? 4-wire Duplex
Destination
Source
Rx
Tx
Transmission Medium
Source
Destination
Tx
Rx
Transmission Medium
8
Duplex
Destination
Source
Rx
Tx
Source
Destination
Tx
Rx
Transmission Medium
Half-Duplex
Destination
Source
Tx/Rx
Tx/Rx
Source
Destination
Transmission Medium
Full-Duplex
9
??????????????????????????? 2 ??
  • ???????(Duplex)????????????????????????????????
    Full Mesh Topology

B
C
????????? n(n-1)/2 O(n2)
A
D
????????????? n ???????? O(n2)
F
E
Topology ?????? Network ??????????????????????????
?????????????????????
10
?????????? Share Medium ????? Multiple Access
Control
  • ?? LAN ????? Topology 3 ???????????
  • Bus (??? Tree), Ring, Star

hub
11
?????????? Share Medium ????? Multiple Access
Control
  • ?? WAN ????????? Partial Mesh
  • Medium ????????????? Statistical Time Division
    Multiplexing ????????

Intermediate Node Switching/Routing Node
C
A
D
B
End Node
E
H
F
G
12
??? Share Medium
  • ??????????????? Medium Access Control
  • End Node ???????????????????????? Address
    ????????????? ????????? Circuit Number
  • Intermediate Node ????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????(Forwarding)
  • ???????
  • 1. Data ?????????????????????? (Header)
    ?????????????????? Address ?????? Control
    ???????????????????? Encapsulation
    ????????????????????? Frame
  • 2. ?????????????? Frame ??????????????????????????
    ???????????????? (Error Detection) ????????? CRC
    Code ????? Frame Check Sequence(FCS)
  • 3. ???????????? Header ??????? FCS
    ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    Frame (Frame Delimiter Pre-amble/Post-amble)
  • 4. ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????? ???????????? Protocol ?????????????

13
LAN vs WAN Technologies
  • LAN ??????????? Share Medium ??? Contention
    ????????????????????????????????? Multiple Access
  • Topology ????????????? Bus, Ring, Star
  • WAN ?? Share Medium ??????? ??????????????????
    Synchronous Multiplexing (TDM) ?? Circuit
    Switching Network???? Statistical Multiplexing
    (????? Packet Switching Network)
  • Topology ????????????? Mesh Network ????????????
    Partial Mesh
  • Internetworking Technologies ?????????????????????
    ??????????? LAN ???? WAN Network
  • ?????????? Internet (IP Network)

14
IEEE 802.3 Frame Format
General Ethernet Frame Format
15
IP over Ethernet
  • ??????????????? IP Packet ???? Ethernet IEEE
    802.3
  • ????? IP ???????????????????? LLC Layer
    ????????????????????????? DSAP ??? SSAP ???????
    Control ???????????? LLC Frame ?? Payload ???
    Protocol ???????? ???????????????? MAC Layer
    ??????????? MAC Frame
  • ?????????? LLC ?? Code ????? IP Packet ????????
    Code ????? ARP Protocol ?????????????????????????
    MAC Frame
  • ARP ???????????????????? MAC Frame ?????????? MAC
    Address ??? ???? Link ??? Match ??? IP Address
    (???????????????????????? Gateway)
  • ??????? ?????????? Run ARP ??????????? LLC Frame
    ??????
  • ???????
  • ??????????????? LLC ??????????????????? ARP ???
  • ???????????? SNAP ????????????????????
  • ????????????? Ethernet Frame Type II
    ??????????????????? ????? LLC
  • ???? ??????????? TCP/IP ????? Ethernet ??????
    Network ???????? (??? Technology ??? Intranet)
    ?????????????? Ethernet Frame ?????????????????
    LAN ?????? Ethernet Type II
  • Switch ???????? ??? Ethernet Frame ?????????????
    ????? Switch ??????? MAC Address ???????????? MAC
    Frame

16
Ether Type II (DIX Frame)
MAC-48 Address In Transmission Order 01-23-45-67-8
9-ab, 0123456789ab, 0123.4567.89ab
802.3/.4 Send LSBit First (Canonical
Format) 10000000 11000100 10100010 802.5/.6
Send MSBit First (Bit-Reverse/Non-canonical) 00000
001 00100011 01000101
17
Bridge Concept
  • Repeater ???????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????
    ?????????????
  • Bridge ????????????????? ?????????????????????????
    ??? MAC address ?????????? Frame
    ????????????????? MAC address table
    ???????????????
  • ???????????????? MAC Address ???????????????????
    ??????? Frame ?????? ???????? MAC address
    ????????? Frame ????? Update ????????

18
Bridge vs Repeater
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
Port 0
Port 0
Port 1
Port 1
MAC Table A port 0 B port 0 D port 0 E port 1 F
port 1 G port 1 H port 1
F
E
G
H
F
E
G
H
  1. ??? A ???????????? C ???????????? ?
  2. ??? A ??? Broadcast Traffic ???????????? ?

19
Bridge vs Repeater Collision Domain vs Broadcast
Domain
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
Port 0
Port 0
Port 1
Port 1
F
E
G
H
F
E
G
H
Collision Domain
Broadcast Domain
20
Repeater and Bridge in Star LAN
  • ?? Topology ??? LAN ??? Hub ?????? Repeater
    ????????? Port ??????? Layer 1
  • ????????????????????? Hub ?????? Collision Domain
    ????????
  • ??????????????????? Switch ?????????????????
    Bridge ????????? Port ??????? L 2 (MAC Layer)
  • ?????????????????????? Switch ??????????? Port
    ??????????? Collision Domain
  • ???????????? ???????????????????????? Hub ????
    Switch ??????????????? Network ???????? (??
    Network ID ???? Subnetwork ID ????????) ???????
    LAN ??????????
  • Broadcast Traffic ???????????? Network
    ????????????? ????????????? Broadcast Domain
    ????????
  • ?????????????????????? Network ??????????????
    Layer 3 ??? Router ???? L3 Switch
  • Port ???????? Switch ????????? Network ???????
    Broadcast Domain

21
Star LAN
???????????? LAN ??????????????????? Hub ????
Switch ????? ????? LAN Segment
HUB 5/4/3 SWITCH Broadcast Traffic
22
NW Diagram
???????????? LAN ??????????????????? Hub ????
Switch ????? ????? LAN Segment
23
Layer 2 LAN No Redundancy
S4
Core Switch
No Redundant
S3
Access Switch
S1
S2
24
Layer 2 LAN with Link Core Redundancy
S4
S5
Core Switch
L2 Redundancy
Access Switch
S1
S2
S3
25
Layer 2 Redundancy Active Link
S4
S5
Core Switch
L2 Redundancy
Access Switch
S1
S2
S3
26
Layer 2 Redundancy SPT
S4
S5
Core Switch
L2 Redundancy
Access Switch
S1
S2
S3
27
Layer 2 Redundancy SPT
S4
S5
Core Switch
L2 Redundancy
Access Switch
S1
S2
S3
28
Spanning Tree
  • L2 Protocol
  • LAN ?? Loop ??????
  • ?????????????????? Redundancy
  • ??? Port ?????????? Loop
  • ???? Port ???????????????? ???????????????????????
  • IEEE 802.1D
  • IEEE 802.1W
  • IEEE 802.1S

29
Spanning Tree
  • Transparent
  • ?????????????????
  • ???????? Tree ???????????????????????????????
  • ???????????? Configure
  • ???????????????? Root Bridge ??? Bridge Priority

30
Steps 1 Root Bridge Selection
  • ????? Root Bridge ?????? Switch ??? BPDU ??????
    Port ????????? Bridge ID
  • Bridge ID Bridge Priority(2 Octet) MAC
    Address(6 Octet)
  • Switch ????? Bridge ID ???????????? Root
  • Default Bridge Priority 32768
  • ??????????? Configure ??????? Switch ????? MAC
    Address ???????????????????

31
Steps 2 Minimum Cost Tree
  • ????? Minimum Cost Tree ?????? Root ??? BPDU
    ????? Cost 0 ??????? Port ?????????
    ????????????????? Designated Port
  • ????? Switch ?????? BPDU ??????????? Cost ???
    Cost ??? Link ????????? ?????????
  • ??????????????????? 1 BPDU ???????????????????????
    ?????????? Root (Loop)
  • ??????????????? Cost ??????? ???? Root Port
  • ??????????????????????????? Cost ??????? ?????
    Port ????? Bridge ID ???????
  • ?????????????????? Port Priority ???????

32
Steps 3 ????? Designated Port ??? Port Blocking
  • ????????????????????????????????
  • ?????? ????? Blocking Port
  • Port ?????????????????
  • ??? Port ????? Cost ???????????? Root ??????????
  • ??? Port Switch ????? Bridge ID ???????
    ??????????
  • ??? Port ????? Port ID ???????
  • Port ID Port Priority(1 Byte, Default 128)
    Port Number
  • Port ???????????? Designated Port

33
Cost Table
Link Bandwidth Path Cost (Old Version) Path Cost (New Version)
4 Mbps 250 250
10 Mbps 100 100
16 Mbps 63 62
45 Mbps 22 39
100 Mbps 10 19
155 Mbps 6 14
622 Mbps 2 6
1 Gbps 1 4
10 Gbps 0 2
34
Spanning Tree Protocol
  • STP ???? Protocol ??? Algorithm ???????????????
    Loop ????????? LAN(?????????????Layer 2 Switch)
  • ?????????? IEEE 802.1D
  • ?????????? Root Bridge ??? Set ??? Port ?? Switch
    ????? Cost ?????? ???????? Traffic ????? Root
  • Root Bridge ???? SW ????? Bridge ID ??????
  • Switch Port ????????????????????????? Tree ?????
    Disable ???????????????? Path ???????????? 2
    Station
  • ????? Switch ????? Bridge Protocol Data Unit
    (BPDU) ??????????????????? Spanning Tree
  • BPDU ????????????? State ??? Port ???????
  • ????????? BPDU ???????????? 2 ??????
  • Root Bridge ?????????? Manually ??? Switch
    ??????????????????????

35
Order of Precedence
  • 1. Lowest Root Bridge ID
  • 2. Best Root Path Cost
  • 3. Lowest Bridge ID that Send BPDU
  • 4. Port ID

36
Order of Precedence
????? Root Bridge
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
37
Order of Precedence
????? Designated Port ?????? BPDU ??? Root
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
38
Order of Precedence
????? SPT ??? Block Link ????????????????? Tree
????? Precedence Rule
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
39
Order of Precedence
????? SPT ??? Block Link ????????????????? Tree
????? Precedence Rule
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
40
Order of Precedence
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
41
Order of Precedence
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
42
Order of Precedence
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
43
Order of Precedence
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
44
Order of Precedence
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
45
Order of Precedence
ID 28672 MAC 0123.4567.89AB
ID 28672 MAC FBEA.4567.0110
ID 32768 MAC 1234.0000.ABCD
ID 32768 MAC ABCD.EF01.2345
ID 32768 MAC BCBD.A012.4FFE
ID 36864 MAC 67AE.A089.86A2
ID 36864 MAC 2345.0900.0AC2
ID 36864 MAC 234A.F0F2.A023
46
VLAN
  • ??? Broadcast Domain ???????? Switch ????????
  • L2 Protocol
  • ??????????????? Switch ???????????????????????????
    ?
  • ??????????? Configure ??????????????????
  • VLAN by Port (Static) ?????????? Port
    ???????????????? VLAN ????
  • Dynamic VLAN ??? MAC, IP, Protocol ?????????
    ???????????? Port ????????? VLAN ??? Condition
    ???????? ??????????????? Mobile Port

47
VLAN
  • VLAN 1 ??? Default VLAN ????????????????
  • ??? Port ???????????????????????? VLAN 1
  • VLAN Number 12 Bit ???????????????
    ??????????????????? VLAN 2 VLAN 4094
  • ??????????????? VLAN ???????????????????????????
    L3
  • VLAN ????????? Physical NW ?????? Logical NW

48
VLAN ???? Switch ????????????
Switch ???????????????? VLAN ?????????? Managed
Switch
Switch ???????? ??????????? 3 VLAN
????? VLAN ??????????????? ??????????????
Switch ?????????????? Sub-network/Broadcast
Domain ?????????????? Layer 3(Router) ???????????
49
VLAN
??? Network ??? Server ???????????????????
????? ??? Switch ?????????????????????
???????????????????? Network ?????????
50
VLAN
??? Network ??? Server ???????????????????
??? VLAN ???????? ??????? ????????????
Port ?????? Switch ????? ??? Configure Port
?????? VLAN
51
VLAN ????????????????????? 1 Switch
Room 2
Room 1
VLAN 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 100
VLAN 100
52
VLAN ????????????????????? 1 Switch
Room 2
Room 1
VLAN 100
VLAN 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 100
VLAN 100
53
VLAN ????????????????????? 1 Switch
Room 2
Room 1
VLAN 100, 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 100
VLAN 100
54
VLAN ????????????????????? 1 Switch
Room 2
Room 1
VLAN 100
VLAN 100, 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 100
VLAN 100
55
VLAN ????????????????????? 1 Switch
Room 2
Room 1
VLAN 200
VLAN 100, 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 200
VLAN 100
VLAN 100
56
VLAN TAGGING
  • IEEE 802.1Q Standard
  • 4 Byte ?????????????? Header
  • 12 Bit ???? VLAN Number
  • ISL(Cisco)
  • Encapsulation

57
VLAN Tagging (IEEE 802.1Q)
  • Port ??? Switch ?????????????????? Tag Port
  • ????????????????????????? Tag Port ?????????? Tag
    ????? VLAN
  • ???????????????? Tag Port ????????????? VLAN ???
    Tag ?????? Tag ??????????
  • VLAN Default ??? Port ??????????????? Tag
  • VLAN Number ?????? Local ???????? Tagging
  • ???????????????????? Protocol ?????????????? SW
    (Interswitch Protocol)

58
Communication Between VLAN
  • Connect Through Router (L3)
  • Using L3 Switch ??????

59
VLAN Static vs Dynamic
  • ????? VLAN ??????????? Port ??? Switch ????????
    Static VLAN
  • ?????????????????????? Port ??????????????????????
    ?? VLAN ????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????? Port
    ???????? VLAN ?????????????????????? ???? ??? IP
    Address, MAC Address ?????????? Authentication
    ???????? Dynamic VLAN
  • Port ?????????????? Mobile Port ????????????
    VLAN Rule ???

60
???????? VLAN
  • ????? Subnet ??????? ????? VLAN
  • ????????????? Topology ??????
  • Subnet ???????? Network
  • ????? IP Address ??????????? Subnet
  • ????? VLAN ??????????? Subnet
  • ???????????? Subnet ??????????????????? Switch
    ???????????
  • ????? Subnet ???????????? ???????????? Switch ???
  • ???????? Logical Network(Diagram) ??? Physical
    Network(Wiring Diagram) ???????????????
  • Network ??????????????? Diagram

61
Spanning Tree and VLAN
  • ??????????????????? Spanning Tree(802.1D)
    ????????????????????? VLAN ???????????? VLAN ??
    Network ??????????? 1 Spanning Tree ??????
    ??????????????? VLAN ???????? Spanning Tree ?????
    ????????? VLAN ??? ?????????????????
    ???????????????????????? Filter ??? Trunk Port
    ????????????? VLAN ??????? Spanning Tree ???
  • Cisco ??????????????? Protocol ??? Spanning Tree
    ???????????????? Spanning Tree ??????????????
    VLAN ??? ?????????????? Switch ??? Cisco ????????
    ?????????????????????????? IEEE ??? IEEE 802.1s
    ????????????????????? Multiple Spanning Tree(MST)
    ?????????????? Spanning Tree ???

62
WAN Technologies
  • ?????????????????????, Ethernet Technologies
    ???????????????????
  • IP ???? WAN ????????? Layer 3 ??????????????
    Layer 2 ??? Layer 1 ????????? IP Packet
  • IP ?? Ethernet ???????? LAN ????????
  • ??????????????????? ?????? WAN Technologies ????
    IP Packet
  • IP ??????? WAN Layer 2 ??????? Layer 1 (HDLC, FR,
    SDH, MPLS, ATM ???? Modem, Fiber, )
  • IP ??????? Layer 3 WAN Frame ?????? X.25

63
WAN Connection
64
Connect to ISP
Router
Modem
Modem
Leased Line
ISP (IP Network)
Router
Note ???????? Technology ??? Ethernet
??????????????????? ???????????? LAN
??????????????????? ??. ??????????????????????????
?? ????????????? Public Network
65
WAN Technologies
66
HDLC
  • High Level Data Link Control Protocol
  • ISO Standard
  • Current Standard ISO 13239
  • Connection Oriented and Connectionless
  • Most common mode point-to-point using ABM
    (Asynchronous Balanced Mode)
  • Transmission Mode/Station Type/Flow
  • ???? CPE326 (Stalling Book)

67
HDLC Frame Format
  • HDLC ???????????????? Frame Format
  • ??? L2 Protocol ?????
  • LLC
  • MAC
  • PPP
  • LAPB
  • LAPD
  • LAPF
  • ???

68
X.25
Packet Switching Exchange Node
69
X.25
General Format ID Logical Channel ID -LC Group
No -LC Number Packet Type ID
  • Physical Layer ????????????????????????? ???????
    DTE/DCE ???????? X.21 ????????? EIA-232, EIA-449
    ???? Serial Protocol ????
  • Data Link Layer ??????????????? Link
    ????????????????????????? DTE/DCE ????? LAPB
  • Packet Layer ????? Protocol ??????? Packet
    ??????????????? Control ??? Data ??? PSN ????
    Virtual Circuit

70
Frame Relay
??????????? X.25 ??? LAP-D ???????? Data, ???????
Flow Control ??? ??? Switch ?? L2
???????????????????????????? Stream ???????
71
ATM (Cell Switching)
Diagram of the UNI ATM Cell

72
ATM (Cell Switching)
Diagram of the UNI ATM Cell

???????? SDH ??????????? Transport ATM
7 4 3 0
GFC GFC GFC GFC VPI VPI VPI VPI
VPI VPI VPI VPI VCI VCI VCI VCI
VCI VCI VCI VCI VCI VCI VCI VCI
VCI VCI VCI VCI PT PT PT CLP
HEC HEC HEC HEC HEC HEC HEC HEC
Payload and padding if necessary (48 bytes) Payload and padding if necessary (48 bytes) Payload and padding if necessary (48 bytes) Payload and padding if necessary (48 bytes) Payload and padding if necessary (48 bytes) Payload and padding if necessary (48 bytes) Payload and padding if necessary (48 bytes) Payload and padding if necessary (48 bytes)
CBR VBR ABR UBR
AAL Type 1-5
73
MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching)
74
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
  • ????????????????? ?????????? Data Link Protocol
    ??????????????????????????? Node (Point-to-Point)
  • ?????????? Physical Link ??????? ???? Serial
    Cable, Phone Line, Cell Phone, SONET ?????? ISP
    ?????????????????????????????? Dial-Up Access ???
    Internet
  • ???????? Protocol ??????????
  • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
  • LAPB ?? X.25
  • ???????????????????? Network Layer ????? ??????
    IP
  • ????????????? Protocol ?????????????? Broadband
    ???? ?? PPPoE ??? PPPoA

75
PPP Frame
Field Name Size (bytes) Description
Flag 1 Flag Indicates the start of a PPP frame. Always has the value 01111110 binary (0x7E hexadecimal, or 126 decimal).
Address 1 Address In HDLC this is the address of the destination of the frame. But in PPP we are dealing with a direct link between two devices, so this field has no real meaning. It is thus always set to 11111111 (0xFF or 255 decimal), which is equivalent to a broadcast (it means all stations).
Control 1 Control This field is used in HDLC for various control purposes, but in PPP it is set to 00000011 (3 decimal).
Protocol 2 Protocol Identifies the protocol of the datagram encapsulated in the Information field of the frame. See below for more information on the Protocol field.
Information Variable Information Zero or more bytes of payload that contains either data or control information, depending on the frame type. For regular PPP data frames the network-layer datagram is encapsulated here. For control frames, the control information fields are placed here instead.
Padding Variable Padding In some cases, additional dummy bytes may be added to pad out the size of the PPP frame.
FCS 2 (or 4) Frame Check Sequence (FCS) A checksum computed over the frame to provide basic protection against errors in transmission. This is a CRC code similar to the one used for other layer two protocol error protection schemes such as the one used in Ethernet. It can be either 16 bits or 32 bits in size (default is 16 bits). The FCS is calculated over the Address, Control, Protocol, Information and Padding fields.
Flag 1 Flag Indicates the end of a PPP frame. Always has the value 01111110 binary (0x7E hexadecimal, or 126 decimal).
76
Broad-band (ADSL)
77
PPPoE
Application FTP SMTP HTTP DNS
Transport TCP TCP TCP TCP UDP UDP
Network IP IP IP IPv6 IPv6 IPv6
Network access PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP PPP
Network access PPPoE PPPoE PPPoE PPPoE PPPoE PPPoE
Network access Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet
78
  • END OF REVIEW
  • BREAK
  • CHAPTER 20 TCP/IP Concept

79
Chapter 20 TCP/IP Concept/?????????????
  • ???????? ????? Network ????????
    ?????????????????????????? ????? NW
    ??????????????
  • ??????????? ?? NW ?????? Technology ????????
  • ?????????????? NW ???????????????????? ?????
    Share ???????????????????? ????? Protocol
    ??????????????????
  • ????????????? NW ???????????????????????????????
    NW ????????????????
  • ??????????????? NW ?????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????? NW ????????????????????
  • ???????? NW ???????????? Heterogeneous
  • ???????????? Technology ???????????????????? NW
    ??????????????????? ??????????????????????????????
    ?????????
  • ??????????????????????? ????
  • ?????????????????? Hardware ??????????
  • Frame Format ???????????????
  • ?????????? Address ???????????????

80
Chapter 20 TCP/IP ????????????? gt Solution
internetworking
  • ???????????????????????? Network
    ??????????????????????????
  • Internetworking ???? internet
  • (??????? ??????????????????? IP Network
    ???????????????????? a internet ?????? the
    Internet
  • ?????????????????? Network ???????????
    ????????????????????????????? Router
  • Router ??????????? NW ???????(???????????)
    ???????????
  • ??????????? Port ???????? Router ????? Run
    Protocol ????? ??????????? Port ??????? Run
    Protocol ??????????
  • ????? Port ??? Router ???????? Interface
  • NW ????????? ????????????? Technology ?????????
    Frame Format/Media/Address/Signal ?????????????

81
Chapter 20 Internetworking with Router
Link1
Link2
phy1
phy2
NW 1
NW 2
Router
Address/frame/signal/media
Address/frame/signal/media
An internet ?????????? NW ????????
???????????????? Router
82
Chapter 20 Internet Architecture
  • ???????? Partial Mesh ?????????? Redundancy
    ??????????????


NW 2
NW 1
NW 3
PSN
NW 6
NW 5
NW 4

NW 9
NW 7
NW 8
LAN
83
Internet Universal Service
  • ?????? Router ????????????????????????????????????
    ? Network
  • ??????????????????????????????????????? Network
    ????????? Address ????????????? Network ???????
  • ??????????? Network Address Translation
    ????????????
  • ?????????? Protocol ??????????????????????????????
    ??????????? ???? Router ??????????????????????????
    ???? Network
  • Software Protocol ??????? Run ????????????????????
    ?????????? ????????? Router ????
  • Protocol ????????????? Network Address ???????
    Universal ????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????
  • Packet ???????????????????????????????? Internet
    Protocol ????? Application Layer

84
Internet Universal Service
  • ?????? Router ????????????????????????????????????
    ? Network
  • ????????
  • ??? PC ?????? ?? Run Internet Protocol ????????
    ????????????????????????? Network1 ????? Packet
    ??? Protocol ???? ???? Network Protocol
    ???????????????????????? Router
    (????????????????????????? Tunneling)
  • ??? Router ??????????? Packet ?????? Network
    Protocol ??????????????? ??????? Internet
    Protocol ???????????? Address ??? Internet
    Protocol ???????????????????????????????????????
    Interface ?????????? ?????? Run Network Protocol
    ?????????????????? ??????????????? Internet
    Packet ??????? Protocol ??? Interface
    ????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????? Network ??????? Router
    ????????? ???????? Hop ??????????? Packet ?????
    Internet Protocol ????????????? Protocol ???????
    Interface ????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????? Packet ????? Internet
    Protocol ???????????????? Internet Packet
    ???????????????????????????????? Internet Protocl
    ????? Application Layer

85
(No Transcript)
86
Virtual Network
  • ????????? Internet Software ??????????????????????
    ? Layer ???????????????
  • Layer ??????????????????? (?????????? Protocol L2
    ???? L3) ???????????????????????????????? ?????
    Protocol ?????????????????? Network Access
    ??????????? Internet
  • Ethernet, HDLC, ppp, X.25, FR, ATM, ???
  • ?????????????? Application ????? Run ????????
    Internet Address ???????????????
  • ????????? Internet ??????????? Protocol
    ????????????????????????????? Network
    ??????????????????? Internet
  • L1L2(L3)
  • ?????? Concept ??? Virtual Network

87
Virtual Network
ATM
Virtual Network
ATM
Ethernet
Ethernet
X.25 x.21
X.25 x.21
FR (LAPD)
FR (LAPD)
ppp
ppp
Concept ??? The Internet ??????????????????????
Internet ???????? Network Access Protocol
?????????? ????????????????? Network
???????????????? Internet ????????????
?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
???????????????????????????? ????????????????????
88
Internetworking Protocol
  • ???????????? Protocol ????????????????
    ???????????????? Protocol ????????????????????????
    ???????????? ??????? ?????? Protocol TCP/IP
  • ??????????????? 1970s ??????????????????????????
    Ethernet ??????????????
  • ????????? 1990s Protocol ?????????????????????????
    ? Commercial

89
TCP/IP Protocol Stack
  • ??????????? Layer 3 Internet Protocol(IP)
    ??????????????????????? Packet ???????????????????
    ? Network ?????????? Address ??? Layer ??? (IP
    Address) ??????????? Router ??????????????????????
    ?????? Router ??????????????? ???????????????????
    (Host) ??????? ??????? Protocol ???????????? Run
    ?? Router ?????? ??????? Host
  • Layer 4 Transport Layer (Host-to-Host)
    ??????????? TCP ??????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????(Host) ???????????? (Host)
    ??????????????? ???? Protocol ???????? Run ???
    Host ????????????????????????

90
  • END of Week 3
  • Download HW 2 WK 3
  • ??????????????? A4
  • ?????????????????????????
  • ?????????????? ??????????
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