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Title: 1 Author: Owner Last modified by: Owner Created Date: 10/17/2006 5:12:54 AM Document presentation format: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ?????? ??


1
??18?? ???????(???????) ?????? ??????????????
???????
???????????????????
????????????????? ????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????????????
(??????? ?????????????????)
???????????? (Communication)
????? (Assessnent)
????? (Management)
?????(Analysis )
2
?1.???????????????????
(??? ????????HP??)
1.???? 1.????????? ????????? ?
?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????
??????????? 2.???????????????(65??)
??????????????????? 3.??????????????? (1)
????????????????????? (2) ?????????????????????
? ?????????????????0.01ppm(?????)?????????????????

3
???????????QA
(??? ????????HP??)
Q25 ?????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????
A ???????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????
4
???????????QA
(??? ????????HP??)
Q18 ?????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????
A ??????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????? ?????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????
5
?2 ????????????????????????
(??? ????????HP??)
?????????A
?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ? ???
?????(ppm) 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.05 ???? 0.05 ????
????????????????????? ??????(GAP)?????????????????
?????????????????!
0.01ppm (?????)
6
??????????????
????
????
??????????
??
???
???
????? (????)
??7? ?1?
?????
??2?
0.5
????? (????)
??????
??2?
??34?
?????? 0.03
????????????????
?????
???????? 0.8
??1?
??
????????????????
?????
??3?
??
0.05
??????????
?????
??3?
??
?
??????????????????(??18?5?29??)???????????????????
?????????????(?)??????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????? ?????????????
7
???????????????????????
???????????????????????????
?????? ?????? ??????
????????????
????????????
??????(GAP Good Agricultural Practice)???
  1. ????????????????????????
  2. ???????????????????????
  3. ???????????????????????????

???????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
?? ? ????????????????????(stakeholder)??????????
?????????
8
???????????GAP?????
9
(No Transcript)
10
????????
???????(ADI )
??A
??D
??A
??D
?????B?????????MRL????????????????ADI?????
??E
??B
??B
??E
??C
??C
??F
??F
?????????????????MRL?????????????????????????MRL??
??????????ADI?????????????????????????????????????
???????
?????(MRL)
????????????????????????????????????????????MRL???
????
11
??????(GAP good agricultural practice)
??????HACCP??????? ????? ???? ?HACCP?????????????
??(GAP good agricultural practice)???????????????
??????
ltPracticegt??????????????! GLP?GMP?GAP?GHP?
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????????? ????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????? ??????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????
EurepGAP(?????????)
12
?????????????????????????? ? ? 16 ? 7?
??????????
?.????????????????? 1.???????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????(???????????
???)?2??????????????????????????????
2.??????????????? (1)???????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????? ? ???????????!
??????? (2)???????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????
?.?????????????????? (1)????????????? ? ?
??????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????? ???PR/HACCP????????
13
? ?????
?????????????????? ??????????(2003?7?18??????)
2.??????????????????????? ??????HACCP??????????
??? ????????????????????????????????????
????? ??????? ???????????????
1/1997 ???? The federal government, in concert
with state and local governments, industry and
academia, are conducting research, risk
assessments, and cost-benefit analyses to
determine how foodborne illnesses occur and can
be prevented or controlled in the most efficient
and cost-effective manner.
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????
14
FOOD SAFETY FROM FARM TO TABLE A NATIONAL FOOD
SAFETY INITIATIVE REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT MAY 1997
??????????????? ???????????????1997?5?
Executive Summary A New Interagency Strategy to
Prevent Foodborne Disease Foodborne Illness A
Significant Public-Health Problem Sources of
Foodborne Contamination The Current System for
Protecting Food The Food-Safety System Must Be
Prepared for the 21st Century Immediate Actions
to Improve Food Safety A New Early-Warning
System for Foodborne Disease Surveillance
Interstate Outbreak Containment and Response
Coordination Risk Assessment Research
Improving Inspections and Compliance
Education A Blueprint for a Better
Food-Safety System Appendix A - Budget Request
for Food-Safety Initiative Activities
FY98 Appendix B - Microbial Pathogens
?? ????????????????????????? ??? ?????????
???????? ?????????????? ?????????21??????????? ?
????????????? ???????????????????????
??????????? FDA?CDC(HHS?)?USDA????EPA
????????? ?? ????????? ??
?????????????? ??A- ?????????????????
FY98 ??B- ?????
15
President's Council on Food Safety ????? ???????
Charter ?? 1998?12?16?
Article I Purpose.
??? ?? ??? ?? ?????????????????? ???? ????
?????? ????????? ????????? ????????????/?????
???? ?????????????? ???????????
?? ??? ? ??? ?? ???? ? ??? ???????????????????!
Article II Membership
The following individuals shall be members of the
Council Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of
Commerce, Secretary of Health and Human
Services, Administrator of the Environmental
Protection Agency, Director of the Office of
Management and Budget, Assistant to the
President for Science and Technology/Director of
the Office of Science and Technology Policy,
Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy,
and Director of the National Partnership for
Reinventing Government.
???????????????????????????????????
???????
?????
16
??????????????
United States Food Safety System
March 3, 2000
?. ??? ????????(????)??????????????????????????
?? ?. ????????(????) ?? A.??????
B.????????????? 1.????? 2.????
C.???????????????????????? D.??? E.??????
  • Synthesis The United States Food Safety System
  • II. United States Food Safety System
  • Introduction
  • A. Laws And Implementing Regulations
  • B. Risk Analysis And the U.S.'s Precautionary
    Approach
  • 1. Risk Analysis
  • 2. Precautionary Approach
  • C. Dealing With New Technologies, Products, and
    Responding to Problems
  • D. Transparency
  • E. System Accountability

C.???????????????????????? ?????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????
17
Annex II to the United States' National Food
Safety System Paper
????????????????????
PRECAUTION IN U.S. FOOD SAFETY DECISIONMAKING
A .?? A.1. ???????????????? A.2. ????????????
A.3. ????????????????????????? A.4. ???????????
A.5. ??????????????? A.6. ??????? B
.??????????????? ??????(FDA) ???????(FSIS)
?????(EPA) ????????(APHIS ) C
.????????????????? D .??????????????????? E .?????
  • Introduction
  • A.1. A Food Safety System with Precaution as its
    Foundation
  • A.2. Producers' Responsibility for Caution
  • A.3. Regulators' Caution in Food Safety
    Regulation under U.S. Statutes
  • A.4. Caution in Risk Analysis
  • A.5. Complexity of Science and Variety of
    Precautionary Approaches
  • A.6. The Food Safety Initiative
  • B. Food Safety Agencies' Caution An Overview
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Safety
    and Inspection Service (FSIS) Environmental
    Protection Agency (EPA) Animal and Plant Health
    Inspection Service (APHIS)
  • C. Precaution in Response to Emerging Food
    Problems
  • D. Scientific Advice in Food Safety Risk
    Assessments
  • E. Economic Factors

????????????????????????????? ???????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????????
E .?????
18
???????????????????? ?????????????????
????????
?????? ????
????????
?????
non-O157 STEC
O157H7
? ????? ??() ? ????? ??() ? ????? ??()
2,453,926 1,963,141 80.0 13,174 10,539 80.4 124
99 79.8
1,412,498 1,341,873 95.0 16,430 15,608 95.0 582
553 95.0
73,480 62,458 85.0 2,168 1,843 85.0 61
52 85.2
36,740 31,229 85.0 1,084 921 85.0 30 26
86.7
???
????
????
52
99
553
Paul S. Mead, et. Al. Food-Related Illness and
Death in the United States. Emerging Infectious
Diseases, 5( 5), 607-625, 1999
19
???????????????(HACCP)????
  • ??
  • II.??????????(HACCP)????
  • III. ??????
  • IV. ?????????????
  • V. ????????????
  • VI. ????????????
  • VII. ????
  • VIII. ???? AG
  • XV.???????????
  • Background
  • II. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
    Systems
  • III. Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures
  • IV. Microbiological Performance Criteria and
    Standards
  • V. Other Issues and Initiatives
  • VI. Economic Impact Analysis and Executive Orders
  • VII. Final Rules
  • VIII. Appendix AG
  • XV. SupplementFinal Regulatory Impact Assessment

??????
?????????????????????
???????????????????????
20
???????????????????????????1993?
???????
?????????? ()
Rule4. p9
???????????? (??)
??????????
???
?? (??)
???
???
???
???
1??110????
??
???????? ?????? ???O157 ?????? ????? ??????? ??
66-110 11 22-66 22-33 66-385 132 319-737
55-88 11 22-55 11-22 33-286 66 198-440
???
??????? ?
297 616-1034
297 495-825
21
???????????????????
Rule3. p51
??
1??110????
?????
???
2??
3??
4??
5????
?.??????(SOP)??? ????? ????? ? .??????????
????? ????? ?????? ? .??????????????
???????????? ? .HACCP ???? ???????????
????? ??(????????????????) ? .??????????? ?
3.29 9.18 2.89 9.59 0.45
18.36 17.73 0.83 6.32-18.59
18.36 17.73 0.83 5.89-28.33
18.36 17.73 0.83 6.39-28.55
18.36 17.73 0.83 6.39-28.69
4.15 1.40 0.07 3.36 0.21
30.53 0.08 9.11 0.60 20.33 0.92
39.01 0.49 20.28 2.06 46.73 1.88
1.30 3.08 59.51 2.34
25.39
52.12-64.69
104.4-126.8
153.8-175.9
109.5-131.8
???????????
22
TABLE 4.PATHOGEN REDUCTION PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
?4.?????????
Maximum number of positives to achieve Standard
(c)
????? ??? ?????????? (c)
Performance standard (percent positive for
Salmonella) ()
???? (?????? ???) ()
Number of samples tested (n)
????????? (n)
?????
Class of product
Steers/Heifers Cows/Bulls Ground Beef Fresh Pork
Sausage Broilers Hogs Ground Turkey Ground
Chicken Turkeys
1.0 2.7 7.5 NA 20.0 10.9 49.9 44.6 NA
82 58 53 NA 51 55 53 53 NA
1 2 5 NA 12 6 29 26 NA
???/???? ?? /?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?
???
Not available at this time.
NA???????????
23
???????????????????? 1998?
??????
???
????()
????()
0-5 5.1-10 10.4-15 15.1-20 20.1-23.6 23.7-30 35-4
0 45-50 ?
27 20 10 8 4 5 1 1 76
35.5 26.3 13.2 10.5 5.3 6.6 1.3 1.3 100.0
35.5 61.8 75.0 85.5 90.8 97.4 98.7 100.0
Progress Report on Salmonella Testing og Raw Meat
and Poultry Products(FSIS 1999/10)
24
????HIMP????
????
??
??
??
???? 1 ???? 2 ???? 3
?? ?? ??
??????? ???????? ???????????
???? (Food safety)
??????????? (OCP other consumer protection)
OCP 1 OCP 2 OCP 3
4.1 7.2 20.5
???????????? ??/???????? ???(??/???????)
????????????75???0.0????? ????????????75?
??2.6?????
?????
???????
75?
?????
31
?2 ????
?3 ????
?1 ????
???????????????????????????
25
49.9??????
40
44.6????
35
???????????
30
25
???()
20
20.0??????
15
10
8.7???
7.5????
5
2.7???/??
0
1.0????/???
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
PR/HACCP????????????????????? ?????
26
40
1998-2001
????? Broilers
2002
????????
2003
30
2004
2005
??????????? Baseline Prevalence
20
10
0
Large
Small
Very Small
All Sizes
PR/HACCP????????????????????? Percent Positive
Salmonella Tests in the PR/HACCP Verification
Testing Program
27
??? Ground Chicken
1998-2001
50
2002
????????
2003
??????????? Baseline Prevalence
40
2004
2005
30
20
10
0
Large
Small
Very Small
All Sizes
PR/HACCP????????????????????? Percent Positive
Salmonella Tests in the PR/HACCP Verification
Testing Program
28
??????
?????????(pink hamburgers)??? 34
???(gt60,000) 45 gt ???(lt60,000) 30 ????
38 gt ???? 25 ???? 36 gt ?? 12
??????????????? 43 gt ??? 27 ?????? 18
????? 23 gt ??? 16 ???????? 1.5 ?????
4.9 gt ???? 1.4
???(gt60,000) 45 gt ???(lt60,000) 30 ????
38 gt ???? 25 ???? 36 gt ?? 12
FoodNet Presentations High-Risk Food Consumption,
handling, and Preparation Practices of Adults in
the FoodNet Sites, 1996-1997
???? 7493? ???? ?? ???? 96 ?7?-97?6?
29
0.25
100
0.2
80
10???????
10???????
60
0.15
0.1
40
20
0.05
0.0014
0
0
0
??
??
??
??
??
??
?????????????????????
30
????????????? Biosecurity for the Birds
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????? ?????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?
??????? ??????????! ????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????? ?????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????? ????????????????????!
31
????????????? What is Backyard Biosecurity?
????????????????????????????? ????????????????????
??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????
??????????????????????????? 1?????????????????????
??????????????? ??????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????????? ????????????????
???????????????? ?????????1????????????????1??????
???????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????!
32
?????????? ???????6??? Biosecurity Tips 6 Ways
To Prevent Poultry Disease
1. ?????????(Keep Your Distance) 2.
??????????(Keep It Clean) 3. ???????????(Dont
Haul Disease Home ) 4. ???????????(Dont Borrow
Disease From Your Neighbor) 5. ??????????(Know
the Warning Signs of Infectious Bird Diseases) 6.
???????????(Report Sick Birds)
33
????????(NPIP) National Poultry Improvement Plan
????????????????????????????????????????CD-ROM????
????????????????????????????? ??????????????????
??????????????MRL????????????????????????????????
??????????????!
????????????????????? ????????????????????! ??????
?????????????!
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