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Infectious Diseases


Infectious Diseases Part 2 Bacterial Diseases – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases Part 2
  • Bacterial Diseases

Bacterial Infectious Diseases
  • Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms.

Three types of Bacteria
  • Bacillus rod shaped
  • Coccus round
  • Spirillum spiral shaped

Whos Who?
  • Many bacteria are harmless to us but there are
    those strains that cause disease.
  • We will now look at ten different diseases that
    are caused by bacteria.

1.) Anthrax
Bacillus anthracis
  • Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic
    animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels,
    antelopes, and other herbivores, but it can also
    occur in humans when they are exposed to infected
    animals or tissue from infected animals.
  • Anthrax can infect one of three regions (next

  • Skin Most (about 95) anthrax infections occur
    when the bacterium enters a cut or abrasion on
    the skin. Skin infection begins as a raised itchy
    bump that resembles an insect bite but within 1-2
    days develops into an ulcer, usually 1-3 cm in
    diameter, with a black dying area in the center.
    Lymph glands in the adjacent area may swell.
    About 20 of untreated cases of skin anthrax will
    result in death.

  • Inhalation Initial symptoms may resemble a
    common cold. After several days, the symptoms may
    progress to severe breathing problems and shock.
    Inhalation anthrax is usually fatal.
  • Intestinal Caused when contaminated meat is
    eaten. It is followed by an inflammation of the
    intestinal tract. Initial signs of nausea, loss
    of appetite, vomiting, fever are followed by
    abdominal pain, vomiting of blood, and severe
    diarrhea. Intestinal anthrax results in death in
    25 to 60 of cases.

When animals die from anthrax
After the 9/11 attack letters that contained the
anthrax spore was sent to a few people, mainly
politicians and those in the media. Many people
that handled those letters became infected. Some
Since letters are carried through the mail, there
were postal workers that died handling the
letters. The postal service issued a 2.50
million dollar reward to find the person(s) that
sent the letters.
Dr. Bruce Ivins
died in an apparent suicide on July 31
Ivins worked at the Army's biological warfare
defense labs at Fort Detrick, Md., for 35 years
until his death on Tuesday. He was one of the
government's leading scientists researching
vaccines and cures for anthrax exposure. But he
also had a long history of homicidal threats,
according to papers filed last week in local
court by a social worker..
.. Authorities were investigating whether Ivins,
who had complained about the limits of testing
anthrax drugs on animals, had released the toxin
to test the treatment on humans. - (August 2008)
2.) Leprosy
  • A disease that affects the skin, nerves, and
    mucous membranes.
  • Today, India possesses the largest group of
    leprosy patients in the world at around 250,000
    people. Those that have this disease are
    ostracized and sent off to leprosy homes or

  • There are two prevalent myths about leprosy, both
    of which are totally false
  • The first is that leprosy is incurable. In
    truth, leprosy is treatable by using a regimen of
    drugs. The first real treatments for leprosy,
    using a drug called dapsone, were established in
    the 1940s. The World Health Organization (WHO)
    provides this Multi Drug Therapy (MDT) to any
    country in need as part of their ongoing efforts
    to eliminate leprosy as a world health problem.
  • The second myth is that leprosy is extremely
    contagious. In actuality, most people are
    naturally immune to the disease, and for those
    that are not, transmission is still unlikely. It
    is estimated that more than 90 of the world's
    population possesses total immunity to leprosy.
    For those that are susceptible, close contact
    with infected persons, particularly those
    exhibiting strong signs of the disease, is
    recommended against. In no way, however, is
    transmission anywhere near as easy as most people
    believe -- simple contact with a leper is highly
    unlikely, if not outright impossible.

3.) Pneumonia
  • Pneumonia is an infection of one or both lungs.
  • Over 3 million people develop pneumonia each year
    in the United States.
  • Approximately 5 of people infected will die from
    pneumonia. Pneumonia is the sixth leading cause
    of death in the United States.

Pneumonia in the lungs
4.) Strep Throat
  • Caused by the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria.
  • Common symptoms of strep throat are sudden sore
    throat, high fever, fatigue, swollen
    tonsils/lymph nodes. Symptoms of colds/flu that
    are usually not present in strep throat are cough
    runny nose.

Strep Throat
5.) Cholera
  • Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by
    infection of the intestine with the bacterium
    Vibrio cholerae.
  • Approximately one in 20 infected persons has
    severe cholrea characterized by profuse watery
    diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these
    persons, rapid loss of body fluids leads to
    dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death
    can occur within hours.

  • A person may get cholera by drinking or eating
    contaminated water or food. In an epidemic, the
    source of the contamination is usually the feces
    of an infected person. The disease can spread
    rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of
    sewage and drinking water.

6.) Typhoid Fever
  • This bacteriuim lives only in humans. Persons
    with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their
    bloodstream and intestinal tract.
  • You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or
    drink beverages that have been handled by a
    person who is shedding S. Typhi or if sewage
    contaminated with S. Typhi bacteria gets into the
    water you use for drinking or washing food.

  • Typhoid fever is more common in areas of the
    world where hand washing is less frequent and
    water is likely to be contaminated with sewage.
  • Once S. Typhi bacteria are eaten or drunk, they
    multiply and spread into the bloodstream. The
    body reacts with fever and other signs and
  • Typhoid fever is common in most parts of the
    world except in industrialized regions such as
    the United States, Canada, western Europe,
    Australia, and Japan.

Typhoid Fever
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7.) Tuberculosis (TB)
  • This bacteria usually attack the lungs. But, TB
    bacteria can attack any part of the body such as
    the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated
    properly, TB disease can be fatal. TB disease was
    once the leading cause of death in the United

  • TB is spread through the air from one person to
    another. The bacteria are put into the air when a
    person with TB coughs or sneezes. People nearby
    may breathe in these bacteria and become
  • When a person breathes in TB bacteria, the
    bacteria can settle in the lungs and begin to
    grow. From there, they can move through the blood
    to other parts of the body, such as the kidney,
    spine, and brain.

8.) Syphilis
  • A sexually transmitted disease that goes through
    four stages
  • Primary 21 days (average) after infection sores
    appear. They last 3-6 weeks then go away.
  • Secondary 6-8 weeks (average) a rash appears
    then goes away.
  • Latent becomes dormant for many years
  • Tertiary Begins anywhere from 10 to 50 years
    after infection.

What happens in tertiary syphilis?
  • Damage the internal organs, including the brain,
    nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones,
    and joints. Signs and symptoms of the late stage
    of syphilis include difficulty coordinating
    muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual
    blindness, and dementia. This damage may be
    serious enough to cause death.

Primary Syphilis
Secondary Syphilis
Tertiary Syphilis
Syphilis cannot be spread by
  • contact with toilet seats
  • doorknobs
  • swimming pools
  • hot tubs
  • bathtubs
  • shared clothing
  • eating utensils

How can a person get syphilis?
  • direct contact with a syphilis sore.
  • Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to
    the babies they are carrying.

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Top counties/cities in the US for (2008)
Syphilis http//
Chlamydia http//
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9.) Salmonellosis
  • Most persons infected with Salmonella develop
    diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72
    hours after infection.
  • The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most
    persons recover without treatment.
  • If it spreads to the bloodstream other organs
    become infected and death may result unless
    treated with antibiotics.

How do I get Salmonellosis?
  • Salmonella are usually transmitted to humans by
    eating foods contaminated with animal feces.
  • Raw eggs, chicken, and reptiles often contain
    Salmonella bacteria.
  • Prevention Washing hands and cooking thoroughly
    poultry products.

10.) Botulism
  • Botulism is a rare but serious paralytic illness
    caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the
    bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

Three types of botulism
  • Foodbourne (25 of cases) - caused by eating
    foods that contain the botulism toxin.
  • Wound (3 of cases) - caused by toxin produced
    from a wound infected with Clostridium botulinum.
  • Infant (72 of cases) - caused by consuming the
    spores of the botulinum bacteria, which then grow
    in the intestines and release toxin.

What are the symptoms of botulism?
  • double vision, blurred vision, drooping eyelids,
    slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth,
    and muscle weakness.
  • If untreated, these symptoms may progress to
    cause paralysis of the arms, legs, trunk and
    respiratory muscles. In foodborne botulism,
    symptoms generally begin 18 to 36 hours after
    eating a contaminated food.

Wound Botulism
Foodbourne Botulism
Watch that can!
Botox the latest fountain of youth
On a related note
The botulism toxin is used!
  • At this point, you may be wondering why anyone
    would want to have a botulinum toxin injected
    into his or her body. The answer is simple If an
    area of the body can't move, it can't wrinkle.
  • The effects of the treatment are not permanent,
    reportedly lasting anywhere from three to eight
    months. By injecting the toxin directly into a
    certain muscle or muscle group, the risk of it
    spreading to other areas of the body is greatly

Before you have that Botox Party
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued
    statements warning of the possible hazards of
    "Botox parties." Whether used to treat medical
    conditions such as blepharospasm or strabismus or
    cosmetic concerns such as furrow lines, a Botox
    injection is a medical procedure that should be
    performed in a controlled medical environment.
    According to the FDA, administering this
    treatment during a cocktail party greatly
    diminishes the gravity of this medical procedure.
    There is always a risk of adverse reactions or
    side effects after a Botox injection, so
    patients need to be in a medical setting that is
    equipped to handle an emergency situation. And,
    the ingestion of alcohol at or around the time of
    injection could worsen any bruising at the
    injection site.