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The Cold War


Title: Slide 1 Author: Wesley Baker Last modified by: Masami Stratton Created Date: 1/17/2011 4:57:12 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War

The Cold War China Part II
Same, But Different Ideologies
  • Maos ideology was communist, but he believed
    that the peasants would be the basis for
  • Stalins ideology was communist, but he believed
    that the workers would be the basis for revolution

Stalin Is Apprehensive About Communist China
  • Stalin
  • Feared Mao as a rival
  • Did not want the cold war to spread to Asia
  • Underestimated the CCP and believed the GMD
    (Nationalists) would be the stronger party
  • Knew that the GMD would recognize Soviet claims
    to the disputed border territory along Manchuria

Sino-Soviet Alliance
  • In February 1950, the Treaty of Friendship,
    Alliance, and Mutual Assistance was signed giving
  • Monetary aid
  • Technical advisors
  • Machinery
  • Weapons

Korean War (1950-53)
  • China felt like USSR military equipment was sold
    at high rates and was upset at the lack of
    assistance from the USSR
  • It has even been suggested that Stalin
    deliberately delayed the end of the Korean War in
    order to exhaust the PRC

The Secret Speech Peaceful Coexistence (1956)
  • In 1956, Khrushchev denounced Stalin. Mao was
    annoyed at not having been warned
  • Mao saw it as an attack on his own style of
    leadership and that peaceful coexistence was
    ideological heresy

Beijing Meeting (1958)
  • Khrushchev and Mao met in 1958 to attempt to ease
  • However, the talks werent productive
  • The Soviets had betrayed the international
    Communist movement
  • The Soviets were guilty of viewing themselves as
    the only true Marxist-Leninists
  • The Soviets had sent spies posing as technical
    advisors into China

Quemoy and Matsu (1958)
  • In 1958, Mao bombarded the two islands.
    Khrushchev was annoyed at not having been warned
  • The USSR thought Mao was pursuing international
    revolution at any cost and that Mao was fanatical
  • The Soviets withdrew economic advisors

The Sino-Soviet Split
  • In 1961, the USSR did not help in relieving the
    famine which followed the failure of the Great
    Leap Forward
  • In 1962, there was a border conflict between
    China and India Khrushchev supported India
  • Also that year, Mao criticized Khrushchev for
    giving way to Kennedy over the Cuban Missile

Great Leap Forward (1957-62)
  • The Soviets called the rapid industrial change
    aspect of the Great Leap Forward faulty in
    design and erroneous in practice. Mao was
    furious at this criticism
  • The USSR did not help in relieving the famine
    which followed the failure of the Great Leap

Albania (1961)
  • At the Moscow Congress of the Communist Party,
    the USSR withdrew aid to Albania, attacking the
    Albanian regime for its Stalinist doctrines and
    backward ways
  • The PRC observer at the Congress walked out in
    protest, interpreting this speech as an attack on
    their system as well
  • Soon after, the PRC offered to replace Soviet
    money and technical assistance
  • This led to the severing of diplomatic relations
    between the Soviets and Chinese

Sino-Indian War (1962)
  • The Indian government was sensitive about Chinese
    troops in Tibet because they were close to their
  • China didnt recognize the boundary between the
    two countries that had been drawn up during the
    British colonial period and demanded they be
  • In Oct. 1962, war erupted. The Soviets gave
    India MIG fighters, but were supposed to be
  • War ended in Nov. 1962, with China taking the
    disputed areas
  • Results Not good for China America gained
    access to bases in India, China had attacked a
    nonaligned member, and the Soviets had supplied
    the enemy

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Atomic Weapons
  • In 1963, China attacked the Nuclear Test Ban
    Treaty, which the U.S. and USSR signed. Mao
    viewed it as the USSR abandoning its role as
    revolutionary leader and working with imperialist
  • Mao believed if the USSR is their friend, the
    would help them develop atomic weapons. The USSR
    believed that if China is their friend, they
    would protect them with their nuclear weapons

Other Events Increasing the Sino-Soviet Split in
the 1960s
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) was upset with
    Khrushchev for backing down and not being
    committed to the revolutionary cause
  • Cultural Revolution (1966-68) Soviets denounced
    the revolution as total fanaticism, and
    criticized Mao for creating a state of anarchy
  • Prague Spring (1968) Mao condemned the use of
    force against Czechoslovakia

Sino-Soviet Border War (1969)
  • The PRC denounced the Soviets as imperialists
    no different from the Tsars of old, as they still
    had not returned territory taken from the Chinese
    in the 19th century
  • Tensioned boiled over along the border on a
    disputed island in the Usuri River

  • This year was the low point in Sino-Soviet
    relations because
  • Serious border incidents threatened to turn into
    full-scale war
  • The PRC and the Soviet Union realigned missiles
    to face one another
  • There was an intensification of the rivalry to be
    the leading Communist nation

Vietnam War
  • There was a competition between the USSR and the
    PRC to win the Vietnamese Communists to their
  • The USSR eventually won this contest by keeping
    up a steady supply of aid and arms throughout the
  • In 1978, relations were formalized in the Soviet-
    Vietnamese Treaty of Peace and Friendship

Cambodia and Vietnam
  • In November 1978, Vietnam invaded Cambodia
  • China came to the defense of Cambodia, arguing
    that Vietnams invasion of Cambodia was Soviet
  • In February 1979, China invaded Vietnam to draw
    Vietnamese/Soviet forces out of Cambodia
  • The Chinese lost the war and was forced to

Sino-Soviet Rapprochement
  • Reasons for this relaxation of tension included
  • Maos death in 1976
  • The overthrow of the anti-Soviet Gang of Four in
  • Deng Xiaoping becoming the new leader of China,
    who was more tolerant towards the Soviets
  • Leonid Brezhnevs death in 1982

Mikhail Gorbachev and Deng Xiaoping
  • In 1986, new trade agreements were drawn up, and
    procedures for full diplomatic relations restored
  • Relations continued to improve when Vietnam
    pulled out of Cambodia and the Soviet Union
    pulled out of Afghanistan, both of which were
    condemned as expansionism
  • At this point, Gorbachev was allowed to visit

Tiananmen Square (1989)
  • In April 1989, before Gorbachevs visit,
    thousands of students flooded into Tiananmen
    Square to protest Chinas policy of no political
  • The protestors welcomed Gorbachev as a hero of
    reform and chanted his name

Tiananmen Square (1989)
  • The tension rose on May 19th when a million
    people took to the streets
  • On May 20th, martial law was declared and Deng
    refused to compromise with the students
  • On June 4th, Deng sent troops to disperse the
    crowd. The students threw rocks at the troops
    and the troops fired into the crowd
  • 100 civilians were dead and a hundred more wounded

Fall of the Soviet Union (1991)
  • The PRC no longer had a competitor for the
    leadership of the Communist world
  • However, the PRC didnt seize the international
    revolutionary initiative
  • Rather, the regime looked to enhance Chinas
    position as a major world player and continue its
    economic modernization