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Background: The Roman World

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Title: Background: The Roman World


1
Background The Roman World
  • HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

2
Introductory Lesson (for first day of class)
  • Syllabus
  • Instructional policy
  • Texts, Bibles, and any other materials

3
Introductory Lesson (for first day of class)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  • Read The Roman World through Alexanders
    Empire (pp. 24)

4
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  • Draw a venn diagram in your notebook with three
    overlapping circles with Hellenistic worldview in
    one of the circles and Christ and Church in the
    center where the three circles overlap. Do not
    label the other two circles at this time.
  • This lesson is about how Greek influence helped
    the Church grow.
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • What do you know already about ancient Greece?

5
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What were the major features of the Hellenistic
    worldview with respect to Christianity?
  • How did the Hellenistic worldview support the
    spread of the Gospel?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • Hellenism gave the Church a rich language and a
    deep philosophical heritage.
  • This proved useful to express doctrines and
    explain the Faith.

6
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is Hellenization?
  • Hellenization is the process by which Greek
    ideas, culture, philosophy, and religion are
    adopted by people of another culture.
  •  
  • What did Alexander the Great do to Hellenize the
    lands he conquered?
  • Alexander the Great wanted to build a unified
    empire, so he and his officers married Persian
    wives, and he founded new cities populated with
    native Greeks in order to introduce Greek
    language, dress, and learning in the areas he had
    conquered.
  • What effect did Hellenism and Judaism have on
    each other?
  • Though Jews and Persians considered Greek
    religion simplistic, Greek thought gave them a
    new language and a rich philosophical tradition
    that furthered their development. The
    introduction of Aristotle inaugurated a tradition
    of Jewish commentaries on his texts.

7
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read aloud from the Catechism of the Catholic
    Church, no. 285 (p. 25), and then discuss the
    philosophical question of the origin of the
    universe.

8
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Complete the following table about the languages
    of Christs time.

9
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
10
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did the Greek language benefit the spread of
    Christianity?
  • It provided a common language through which the
    teachings of Christ could be spread throughout
    the known world.
  •  
  • What did Greek language and philosophy provide
    the teachings of Christ?
  • The richness of the Greek language allowed people
    to explain the intricacies of Christian beliefs.
    The philosophies of Plato and Aristotle provided
    invaluable ideas for the development of theology
    and Church teachings.
  •  
  • What role did Greek philosophersespecially
    Aristotleplay during the Middle Ages?
  • Aristotle was held in such high esteem by
    theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas that he
    was called the Philosopher, the greatest of all
    philosophers.

11
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • There is something which moves without being
    moved. He concluded this unmoved mover is God.
    We say therefore that God is a living being,
    eternal, most good, so that life and duration
    continuous and eternal belong to God.
    (Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book XII)
  • What can be known about God is plain to them,
    because God has shown it to them. Ever since the
    creation of the world his invisible nature,
    namely, his eternal power and deity, has been
    clearly perceived in the things that have been
    made. (St. Paul, Romans 11920)
  • Compare what Aristotle and St. Paul wrote about
    the ability of human reason to know God.

12
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • How did the influence of Hellenism help make it
    an ideal time for Christ to be born and found the
    Church?

13
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Question 1 (p. 24)
  • Workbook Questions 111
  • Read The Romans through All Roads Lead to
    Rome (pp. 511)
  • Read The Æneid (p. 22)

14
1. The Hellenistic Worldview (pp. 24)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write an answer to the question from the Closure
    on a separate sheet of paper for a quiz grade.

15
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Write Roman Empire in one of the two unoccupied
    circles in the venn diagram in your notebook.
  •  
  • The basic objective of the next two lessons is to
    learn how the Roman Empire helped the Church
    grow.

16
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • BASIC QUESTION
  • What major historical events were most important
    within the Roman Empire?
  •  
  • KEY IDEA
  • The Roman Empire had a unifying system of laws
    and organization and entered into the Pax Romana.

17
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Review the selection from Virgils Æneid on
    page 22, and then discuss it.

18
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • (1) Write in your notebook the names of four
    Roman provinces that have corresponding modern
    names in English
  • (2) Write the name of one province that does not
    have a corresponding modern name in English.

19
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner and a dictionary to complete
    the following table.

20
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
21
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Study the map of the city of Rome (p. 26), and
    then discuss the following questions
  • If you were at the Forum of Augustus on business
    and wanted to visit the Temple of Venus to
    perform a sacrifice, which street would you
    likely take?
  • If you then wanted to see a gladiatorial show,
    what amphitheater would you likely attend?
  • If you needed to go the capitol from the
    gladiatorial show, what direction would you
    probably travel?

22
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  •  FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is a triumvirate?
  • From the Latin trius (three) and vir (man), a
    triumvirate is an agreement between three men to
    share power, especially one of the triumvirates
    that ruled the Roman Empire.
  •  
  • How did Julius Caesar become dictator of the
    Roman Empire, and what was his fate?
  • A member of the First Triumvirate, Julius Caesar
    conquered Gaul and invaded Italy. The Roman
    senate was forced to elect him dictator soon
    after, a group of senate conspirators
    assassinated him.

23
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Who was in the Second Triumvirate, and what
    happened to each man?
  • Marc Antony, a follower of Julius Caesar the
    nineteen-year-old Octavian, Juliuss stepson and
    Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate.
    These men eliminated their political opponents
    ruthlessly. After Lepidus retired, Marc Antony
    and Octavian vied for power. When Marc Antony and
    Cleopatra saw their defeat was certain, they
    committed suicide, leaving Octavian to be sole
    ruler of the Roman Empire.

24
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Brainstorm
  • (1) Why a nation would want to have a large
    number of slaves and
  • (2) Some of the inherent problems with a large
    slave population.
  • Then, read aloud Spartacus, Leader of a Slave
    Revolt, and discuss how his story ties into the
    brainstorming you just did.

25
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How many Punic Wars were there?
  • There were three Punic Wars.
  •  
  • Against what city did Rome fight the Punic Wars?
  • Rome fought against Carthage in North Africa.
  •  
  • Which territories did the Punic Wars bring under
    Roman control?
  • They won for Rome Sicily, Spain, and North
    Africa.

26
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Review the section The Roman Empire The Reign
    of Augustus (p. 10), and then work with a
    partner to complete the following table.

27
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
28
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was the Pax Romana?
  • The Pax Romana (Roman Peace), was the 200-year
    period of relative peace and prosperity within
    the Roman Empire beginning under Caesar Augustus
    (Octavian), the first emperor of the Roman
    Empire.
  •  
  • What specific changes implemented by Augustus
    helped to facilitate the Pax Romana?
  • Augustus convinced the Senate to give him
    exclusive control over the provinces in which
    most of the Roman legions were stationed,
    precluding further civil wars. He centralized the
    bureaucratic, republican administration, which
    dramatically improved communication within the
    empire. He also had new highways built and
    encouraged marriages and the family.

29
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • How did the Pax Romana contribute to the growth
    and spread of the Church?
  • The Pax Romana made possible safe and efficient
    travel and communication over vast distances,
    which made the spread of Christianity easier.
    Extension Christians could move throughout the
    empire and maintain communication with one
    another. For example, the Apostles undertook
    missionary journeys St. Clement I, the fourth
    Pope of Rome, was kept abreast of what was
    happening in Corinth and wrote a letter to that
    Church and ordinary Christians emigrated to
    other cities and so brought the Faith into new
    regions.

30
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read aloud the excerpt from Tacituss Annals (p.
    22), and then discuss it.

31
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Review All Roads Lead to Rome, and then discuss
    the following questions
  • Have you ever taken a road trip in which you did
    not travel on highways but on country roads? What
    happened when you came to a town or city?
  • What would travel be like if there were no
    interstate highways and all traffic traveled only
    on city streets and two-lane highways?
  • What would travel be like if there were no paved
    roads whatsoever?

32
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes using the following
    question
  • Based on what you have learned and your previous
    knowledge, what is the most important
    relationship between Christianity and the Roman
    world into which it was born?

33
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 27 (p. 24)
  • Workbook Questions 1232
  • Read Cultural Impact of the Romans through
    Categories of Roman Slaves (pp. 12 16)
  • Read The Annals (p. 22)

34
2. The Romans (pp. 511)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Create a simple timeline of the Roman Empire that
    includes the following items, finding the dates
    in your text
  • The founding of the city of Rome
  • The founding of the Republic
  • The Punic Wars
  • Julius Caesars invasion of Italy
  • The beginning of the First and Second
    Triumvirates
  • The beginning of Caesar Augustuss (Octavians)
    reign.

35
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Open your notebooks and review the graphic with
    the three intersecting circles.
  • The emphasis of this lesson is how the Roman
    Empire helped the Church grow.

36
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • BASIC QUESTION
  • How did conditions in the Roman Empire support
    the spread of the Gospel?
  •  
  • KEY IDEA
  • A unified system of laws and organization and the
    Pax Romana aided the spread of the Gospel greatly.

37
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What does it mean to call the Romans a practical
    people?
  • While the Greeks excelled at philosophy and art,
    the Romans flourished in practical disciplines,
    including organization, administration,
    government, building, the military sciences, and
    law.
  •  
  • What is the orbis terrarum?
  • The orbis terrarum was the circle of lands
    comprising the Roman Empire (cf. pp. 67). It was
    the known world of the Romans.
  • In what ways did the Romans influence other
    peoples living within the orbis terrarum?
  • Latin culture had a profound impact on the
    peoples living in the northern and western
    provinces and in North Africa before the rise of
    Islam. In the East Roman law was respected, and
    Latin was spoken alongside Greek.

38
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    questions
  • What Roman religious duty did the Jews refuse to
    perform, and why?
  • What was the eventual outcome of the
    intransigence of the Jews?

39
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was the trend with respect to morality
    within the Roman Empire?
  • Generally, it declined infamously.
  •  
  • What did Caesar Augustus do to promote population
    growth after the devastating civil wars?
  • He enacted laws to restrict the rights of those
    who did not marry and who remained childless.
    This demonstrated Romans saw the family as the
    place to cultivate moral values.
  •  
  • What is the source of Roman ideas about virtue?
  • The Roman understanding of virtue developed from
    the Hellenistic tradition. This is evident in the
    Roman literature that flourished during Caesar
    Augustuss reign.

40
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Complete the following table about three widely
    spoken Romance languages.

41
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
42
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Where did the Romans get their religion?
  • They imported it from Greece it was a result of
    Hellenization.
  •  
  • Were the Romans tolerant of other religions?
  • Generally, the Romans allowed conquered peoples
    to worship their own gods as long as they
    sacrificed to the Roman gods, too. Sacrifice to
    the emperor was a civic duty.
  •  
  • What does it mean to say the Romans had a
    practical outlook on religion, and how was this
    reflected in their concept of piety (pietas)?
  • Religion was a way to enforce political unity
    thus, everyone sacrificed to the Roman gods. It
    was an act of piety to placate the gods so they
    would protect the Roman state.

43
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did the Roman emperors associate themselves
    with the god Jupiter?
  • Jupiter was the chief Roman god. The emperors
    wanted to place themselves at the center of pagan
    worship.
  •  
  • What class of Romans was most interested in
    Mithraicism?
  • Soldiers were most interested in this cult
    because it was a fraternal order that cultivated
    virtues important in the life of a soldier.
  •  
  • How were some of the rituals of Mithraicism
    similar to Christianity?
  • The Mithraic cult shared a communal meal in which
    members ate flesh that symbolized their god. They
    also believed in personal salvation.

44
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What were bread and circuses?
  • To keep the poor happy and content, the emperors
    began to supply them with tax-subsidized food and
    entertainment.
  • What was the condition of the poor and women in
    the Roman Empire?
  • Because of high taxes and competition from
    slave-labor agricultural estates, the poor in the
    countryside tended to be forced into cities. Life
    was precarious for freemen in the cities as there
    was little money and employment for them. Though
    during the republic the role of woman as wife and
    mother was honored, during the era of the empire
    women were often sold as concubines, a
    destructive substitute for marriage.
  • How were most slaves obtained, and how numerous
    were they?
  • Most slaves were obtained as prisoners of war.
    During the time of the empire, more than
    one-fourth of the population was enslaved.

45
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read silently the section Slavery (pp. 1516),
    and then answer the following question in your
    notebook
  • What was the original relationship between
    slavery and Christianity?

46
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Mini-Lecture on religion, philosophy and the
    natural law.
  • Review the section Stoicism (p. 15), and then
    identify the tenets of Stoicism.

47
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Discuss how Jews and Christians might have viewed
    emperor worship.

48
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is a chattel slave?
  • A chattel slave is considered not a person but
    property. Therefore, the owner held the power of
    life and death over the slave.
  •  
  • Was slavery always a permanent condition?
  • No, a slave could be freed by his master or even
    earn enough money to purchase his freedom. Once
    free, it was even possible for a slave to become
    a Roman citizen.
  •  
  • What kinds of work did slaves do?
  • Slaves did every kind of work in the Roman Empire
    except hold public office. Plautuss comic plays
    illustrate the wide variety of jobs slaves
    performed.

49
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes about the Basic
    Questions of the past two lessons
  • What major historical events were most important
    within the Roman Empire?
  • How did conditions in the Roman Empire support
    the spread of the Gospel?

50
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 811 (p. 24)
  • Practical Exercise 1 (p. 24)
  • Workbook Questions 3351
  • Read The Jews through Conclusion (pp. 1721)

51
3. The Romans (continued) (pp. 1216)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Closed-book, open-workbook quiz on one or two
    questions from last nights homework.

52
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Return to the three interlocking circles you drew
    in the first lesson and label the final circle
    Judaism.
  • This lesson will include an introduction to
    Kashrut.

53
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • BASIC QUESTION
  • How did the Jewish religion and people contribute
    to the spread of the Gospel?
  •  
  • KEY IDEA
  • The Jews, Gods Chosen People, prepared the way
    for the coming of the Messiah, Jesus.

54
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read aloud the two paragraphs on page 17 (The
    history of the Jewish and The Jewish world).
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • In what ways were the Jews singular, that is,
    unlike any other people of their time?

55
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Who were the major figures of Jewish history?
  • Major figures include Abraham, with whom God made
    a covenant and who founded the Hebrew people
    Moses, who led the Hebrews out of slavery in
    Egypt and gave the Law Joshua, who conquered the
    promised land for the Chosen People and David
    and Solomon, under whom the Jewish Kingdom of
    Israel reached its zenith.
  •  
  • What were the staples of Jewish religious life?
  • The staples of Jewish life were reading the
    Torah, sacrificial worship in the Temple in
    Jerusalem, and (later) rabbi-led worship in the
    synagogue.

56
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about major persons and events in Jewish
    history.

57
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
58
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the distinction between the Pentateuch,
    the Torah, and the Septuagint?
  • The Pentateuch and the Torah are synonymous they
    refer to the five books of the Law, the first
    five of the Old Testament. The Septuagint a the
    Greek translation of the Old Testament.
  •  
  • Why was the Septuagint helpful to the spread of
    Christianity?
  • Non-Jews as well as Grecophone converts to
    Christianity could read and hear the Scriptures
    in their own language. The Sacred Authors of the
    New Testament used the Septuagint to quote the
    Old Testament.

59
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why was the Temple so important to the Jews?
  • The First Temple housed the Ark of the Covenant,
    and it became the only place the Jews offered
    sacrifices to God. After the Jews had returned to
    Israel from the Babylonian Exile, they built the
    Second Temple to replace the one the Babylonians
    had destroyed.

60
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did the Old Testament come to be translated
    into Greek, and what is that translation called?
  • The King of Egypt requested a Greek copy of the
    Scriptures for his library in Alexandria. Since
    many Jews throughout the empire knew both Hebrew
    and Greek, a group of rabbis in Alexandria
    translated the Scriptures into Greek. This
    translation is called the Septuagint (from the
    Latin for seventy) because seventy-two scholars
    worked on the project.

61
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What was the Diaspora?
  • The Diaspora was the emigration of Jews to areas
    outside the Promised Land. During the time of
    Christ, there were more Jews living outside Judea
    than within for example, there were 1,000,000
    Jews in Alexandria. There was considerable
    emigration after Jewish revolts in Judea in 63 BC
    and AD 115117.

62
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What special concessions did the Jews enjoy in
    the Roman Empire?
  • They were often exempt from emperor worship.
  •  
  • What was the eventual fate of Judea under the
    Romans?
  • The Romans destroyed the Temple AD 70 and later
    razed Jerusalem. They forbade entrance except one
    day per year to weep before the ruins of the
    Temple.

63
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Complete the following table about the Sadducees
    and Pharisees.

64
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
65
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes on the following
    question
  • How might the influence of the Pharisees on
    Israel have helped make it the right time for
    Christ to have been born and found the Church?

66
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 1216 (p. 24)
  • Practical Exercises 23 (p. 24)
  • Workbook Questions 5270

67
4. The Jews (pp. 1721)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Review the Vocabulary (p. 23), and then write a
    paragraph about the term related to Judaism you
    believe has the most significance for the history
    of Christianity.

68
THE END
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