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The Cardiovascular System
I. The Heart (the pump of the station) A.
Structure and location of the heart 1. Apex of
the heart is pointed toward left hip and located
at the 5th intercostals space. The ventricles
are the two lower muscular chambers of the heart.
2. Base of the heart is located at the 2nd
rib and is the area where the large vessels
enter and leave the heart and the location of
the two sac like atria chambers.
Superior Vena Cava
Aorta (aortic arch)
Parietal pleura
Pulmonary trunk (leads to pulmonary arteries)
Parietal pericardium
3. The heart is made up of 3 layers of cardiac
muscle a. Epicardium also called the visceral
pericardium. Helps to protect and anchor the
heart to sternum and diaphragm. b.
Myocardium cardiac muscle arranged
like rings around the heart. Layer that
contracts. There is a dense fibrous layer
deep to the cardiac muscle. c.
Endocardium Thin sheet of endothelium that is
continuous with the vessels that enter and leave
the heart. d. The parietal pericardium is
outside/superficial to the epicardium and
secretes the serous fluid that lubricates the
cardiac sac so the heart can beat in an almost
frictionless environment.
External heart anatomy
5. Heart internal anatomy
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6. Importance of valves a. Valves prevent
backflow of blood through the heart. b. Two
atrioventricular valves (bicuspid and tricuspid)
are anchored to the ventricles by the chorda
tendineae (heart strings). The system is a
pressurized system.
B. 1. Blood passively fills the chamber, flaps
hang down into the ventricles 2. When the
ventricles begin to contract, the pressure
increases which forces the flaps of the valves
closed. The chordae tenineae prevent the flaps
from opening back up into the atria. C. The two
semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic) have 3
cusps that fit tightly together. When the
ventricles contract the force of the contractions
open the valves into the pulmonary vein or aorta
as the blood rushes into the vessel. As the
ventricle relaxes the cusps come back together.
d. The AV valves and semilunar valves open and
close at different time so it is possible to
detect problems with individual valves by placing
the stethoscope at different points on the chest.
e. When valves do not work properly, the
heart is forced to work harder to pump blood,
which can weaken the heart over time. Valves can
be replaced by pig or synthetic valves.
  • Pump, pump, pump, pumps your blood.
  • The right atriums where the process begins,
    where the C02 blood enters the heart.
  • Through the tricuspid valve, to the right
    ventricle, the pulmonary artery, and lungs.
  • Once inside the lungs, it dumps its carbon
    dioxide and picks up its oxygen supply.
  • Then its back to the heart through the pulmonary
    vein, through the atrium and left ventricle.
  • Pump, pump, pumps your blood.
  • Pump, pump, pumps your blood.
  • The aortic valves, where the blood leaves the
    heart, then it's channeled to the rest of the
  • The arteries, arterioles, and capillaries too
    bring the oxygenated blood to the cells.
  • The tissues and the cells trade off waste and
    C02, which is carried through the venules and the
  • Through the larger vena cava to the atrium and
    lungs, and we're back to where we started in the

Heart sounds
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  • Circulatory song

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  • Electrical conduction system animation

B. Functioning of the heart 1. Pathway of blood
through the heart and body Blood Flow Through
Your Heart and Lungs
2. The heart is supplied with nutrients and gases
by the cardiac vessels (the presence of the blood
in the heart does not accomplish this). These
are called coronary arteries and coronary veins.
a. The blood from the veins empties into the
coronary sinus in the right atrium. b. When
these vessels become clogged or blocked this can
cause chest pain, angina, and if ignored can lead
to a cardiac infarction (tissue death from heart
attack) when the cells are deprived of oxygen and
Heart Attack (AKA myocardial infarction)
The numbers..
3. Cardiac Cycle a. Electrical system of the
heart determines how often the heart beats and
controls the contraction of the heart. 1.
Contractions occur spontaneously but must be
regulated so that the chambers of the heart beat
in a coordinated way. It is regulated by two
systems 2. Autonomic nervous system controls
the increase or decrease of heart rate.
Diastole means relaxation and Systole means
  • Intrinsic system within the heart tissue which
    begins at the SA (sinoatrial node) in the right
    atria, the signal is then carried to the other
    atria and the AV (atrioventricular node) which
    carries the impulse to the bottom of the
    ventricles via the bundle of His and the purkinje
  • SAVE His Bundles

  • 2. This electrical system can be measured by an
    electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG).

Diastole means relaxation (heart refills with
blood) and Systole means contraction
Stethoscope placement
POOR less than 12 Beats Per Minute (BPM) recovery
FAIR 12-20 Good 20-30 Excellent 30-40 Over 40
is outstanding.
C. Cardiac Output and the health of the
heart 1. Cardiac Output (CO) is a function of
stroke volume (volume of blood pumped out with
each contraction and heart rate (number of beats
per minute) CO SV HR , This stroke volume
(SV), times the number of beats per minute
(heart rate, HR), equals the cardiac output
(CO). (avg. for male 5.L/min, female 4.5
L/min) 2. Factors affecting cardiac output and
effects Venous return amount of blood
returning to the heart and enlarging the
ventricles. The larger the venous return, the
more stretched the cells the stronger the
contraction. Exercise can increase venous
return with the enhanced squeezing action of
the skeletal muscles returning blood to the
heart. Rapid heart rate or severe blood loss
will decrease venous return.
b. Heart rate changes HR can increase with the
loss of blood or can be altered by other factors
such as nervous stimulation (sympathetic nerves
to speed up), hormones (epinephrine and thyroxine
can increase), and changes in ions (lower
potassium causes irregular heartbeat). c. Age,
gender, body fitness and body temperature. 1.
Gender females (72-80 avg. HR), males (64-72
avg. HR) 2. As you age your heart rate
decreases, it is the fastest when you are a fetus
(140 to 160) 3. The colder you are the slower
your heart rate.
D. Cardiac congestion congestive heart
failure 1. Caused by weakening of the heart
muscle (clogging of cardiac vessels), heart
attack, or high blood pressure. 2. Failure of
left side of the heart causes pulmonary
congestion build up of fluid in the lungs,
person can drown if not treated. 3. Failure
of the right side of the heart causes peripheral
congestion build up of fluid in the extremities
causing edema. (since fluid cannot be efficiently
pumped to the lungs) http//
IV. The Vessels Highway system A. Types of
vessels 1. Arteries vessels carrying blood
away from the heart. Not always oxygenated
blood. Largest and most muscular of the
vessels, contain all three tunic layers. 2.
Arterioles smaller arteries that feed the
capillaries. 3. Capillaries smallest of the
vessels and the site of exchange between blood
vessels and body tissues. Are only one cell
layer thick.
Exchange is based on osmotic pressure and blood
pressure between body tissues.
Arteries vs. Vein structure
IV. The Vessels Highway system 4. Venules
drain the capillary bed and lead to veins. 5.
Veins Carry blood back toward the heart.
Vessel has a reduced smooth muscle layer (smaller
and less muscular). i.Adaptations to help
return blood to the heart are valves within
the vein to prevent back flow, skeletal muscle
contractions pushing blood back up legs and
arms, and respiratory pump to push blood
through the trunk. ii.Varicose veins
occur when the vein becomes distended and the
valves stop functioning. Blood can pool and
clot in these areas, which if the clot moves
can be very dangerous.
D. Physiology of Circulation 1. Arterial pulse
is felt in several places in the body. The
pressure you feel when you palpate these areas is
the expansion and recoil of the arteries
following each heart contraction. These are
also the locations of pressure points, areas to
apply pressure if person is hemorrhaging. 2.
Blood pressure measures the pressure the blood
exerts on the wall of the artery following each
heart contraction. The closer you are to the
heart, the higher the pressure will be.
i.Pressure is needed to propel the blood through
the vessel system of the body and the elasticity
of the arteries is very important to maintaining
blood pressure. ii. Pressure is taken by
measuring Systolic pressure ventricular
contraction, top number, recorded when sounds
are first heard in the stethoscope. Diastolic
pressure ventricular relaxation, bottom number,
recorded when the sounds can not be heard in the
stethoscope. Normal blood pressure is
120/80 Hypertension- high blood
pressure Hypotension low blood pressure
iii. Factors that affect blood pressure/peripheral
resistance 1. If arteries are narrowed this
will increase blood pressure a. Disease
atherosclerosis b. Chemicals nicotine
(vasoconstrictor) c. Diet high salt, fat and
cholesterol 2. Kidneys play a major role in
regulating blood pressure by stimulating the
excretion of more or less water in the urine .
3. Hypotension (lower than avg. blood
pressure) can be age related as blood pools in
the extremities and when going from sitting to
standing the BP drops suddenly. Can also be
caused by major blood loss.
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Silent Killer Summary
  • In 5 sentences or less explain the history behind
    cardiovascular disease and how research allowed
    for preventative cardiology.
  • 10 sentences or more explaining the risk factors
    involved in the development of cardiovascular
    disease. This is not a list.
  • High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart
    disease. (THIS is NOT what I want, I want an
    EXPLANATION of HOW blood pressure CONTRIBUTES to
    heart disease.
  • 3-2-1
  • 3 lifestyle changes you will make to better your
    health and decrease your chance of developing
  • 2 things you learned about CVD that you did not
    know before.
  • 1 thing you will share with a family member or
    friend to help them stay heart healthy!
  • REFLECT To sum up this unit, create a bumper
    sticker that summarizes what you learned about
    the heart and cardiovascular disease. (color,
    catchy, BIG idea, show me what you have learned)

Location of specific vessels Arteries
Location of specific vessels Veins
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  • Heart dissection labeled pictures

What is Atherosclerosis?
  • Means thickening and hardening of the arterial
  • Slow progressive inflammatory disease that begins
  • Arteries contain plaque that begins to accumulate
    and create an inflammatory response
  • CAUSES?Coronary Heart disease, heart attacks,
    strokes, sudden death, angina
  • Risk factors include Age, high blood pressure,
    high cholesterol, smoking, sedentary lifestyle,
    diabetes, obesity
  • Can be prevented by making smart lifestyle choices