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India

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India The ancient civilizations of ... people were farming in ... (could hold enough food for 35,000 people.) Farmers grew cotton, wheat, barley, and rice. They ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: India


1
India
  • The Indus and Ganges Rivers

2
Class Objective
  • Students will analyze the effect geography has on
    the South Asian civilizations and investigate the
    technological advances of them.

3
India
  • The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and
    Egypt rose and fell. They left behind a rich
    history of themselves but culturally very few
    links have lasted through to today.
  • This is not the case in India

4
  • Civilizations in India arose about 2500 B.C.
  • Many characteristics of modern Indian culture can
    be traced to that early civilization.

5
Geography Mountain Ranges
  • Mountain ranges served as a natural barrier
    between the Indus civilizations and other
    civilizations.
  • Because of the mountains, Indian culture was not
    as preoccupied with war and expansion.

6
(No Transcript)
7
Geography Rivers
  • There are two rivers that provided for this early
    civilization.
  • The Indus
  • The Ganges
  • This area stretches 1,500 miles across northern
    India and is called the Indus-Ganges Plain.
  • These rivers floods were unpredictable.

8
The Two Rivers
  • Indus River Valley
  • Ganges River Valley

9
Climate
  • Seasonal winds called monsoons dominate Indias
    climate.
  • A monsoon is a seasonal wind that shifts
    direction.
  • From October to May, winter monsoons from the
    northeast blow dry air across the country.
  • Spring monsoons start in the middle of June, and
    blow from the southwest, carrying moisture from
    the ocean in great rain clouds.

10
Monsoon Season
11
Early Villages
  • It is uncertain how the first people ended up in
    India whether they came by boat from Africa or
    migrated from the north.
  • By about 3,200 B.C., people were farming in
    villages along the Indus River.

12
Early Cities
  • Archaeologists have found ruins of over 100 early
    cities.
  • The largest cities were Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro,
    and Harappa.
  • The most surprising aspect of these cities is the
    presence of urban planning.

13
  • The cities in Mesopotamia were jumble of
    buildings connected by a maze of winding streets.

14
  • In contrast, the people of the Indus laid out
    their cities on a precise grid system.

15
  • Cities featured a fortified area called a
    citadel, which contained the major buildings of
    the city.
  • Buildings were made of baked clay bricks.

16
Accomplishments Sewer!!!!Mrs. Robertsons
favorite
  • In most ancient cities, people retrieved water
    from the river or a central well.
  • They dumped wastes into open drainage ditches or
    carted them out of town.
  • Only the rich had separate bathrooms in their
    homes.

17
Accomplishments
  • The Indus peoples built extensive and
    modern-looking plumbing systems. (not that
    modern)
  • In Mohenjo-Daro, almost every house had a private
    bathroom and toilet.
  • No other civilization would achieve this
    convenience until the 19th and 20th century.

18
Accomplishments
  • Economic
  • Division of labor
  • Specialization of crafts
  • Variety of services products made for export
  • Crop surplus

19
Accomplishments cont.
  • Technological
  • Architectural skill
  • City planning
  • Flood protection and water drainage system

20
Accomplishments cultural
  • Citadel strong central fortress.
  • Store houses for grain. (could hold enough food
    for 35,000 people.)
  • Farmers grew cotton, wheat, barley, and rice.
    They raised cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats
  • Developed a written language (it has not be
    deciphered yet).
  • Some sort of religion focused around a great God
    and nature.

21
Where are they now?
  • In 1750 B.C., the quality of building in the
    Indus valley cities declined.
  • We do not know why the Indus River civilization
    disappeared.
  • Archeologists suspect the rivers might have
    changed courses or a nomadic Aryan group
    conquered the area.
  • Evidence of earthquakes ravaged the area in
    1700BC.
  • All we know is there is evidence that some
    disastrous event occurred because unburied
    skeletons were found and people appear to have
    abandoned their homes and possessions.
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