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The Respiratory System

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Title: The Respiratory System Author: Salem High School Last modified by: Salem Public Schools Created Date: 3/9/2010 4:02:37 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Respiratory System


1
The Respiratory System
2
Overview
  • The main function of the system is to allow gas
    exchange
  • The Respiratory system is divided into an upper
    respiratory tract and a lower respiratory tract
  • The upper tract consists of the nasal passages,
    pharynx, and larynx
  • The lower tract includes trachea, bronchi ( and
    their smaller branches), and the lungs.

3
Upper Tract The Nose
  • Only external part of the respiratory system
  • Air enters, passing through external nares
    (nostrils) and through the nasal cavity.
  • The air is warmed
  • Mucus helps to moisten the air and traps bacteria
    and other debris
  • Mucus is then pushed towards the throat
    (pharynx), where it is swallowed and digested in
    the stomach

4
Upper Tract The Nose (cont)
  • Unwanted Particles are also deflected through the
    conchae
  • Conchae swirls the air and deflects the particles
    into the mucus, preventing unwanted particles
    from entering the lungs.
  • The Nasal and Oral cavity is supported by the
    palate, some of which is supported by bone, (hard
    palate), and other with little support (soft
    palate)

5
Upper Tract Pharynx
  • Muscular passageway, commonly called the throat
  • Passage for both food and air
  • Air enters through nasopharynx, through
    oropharynx, to enter larynx below
  • Tonsils , are located high up in the nasopharynx.

6
Upper Tract Larynx
  • The larynx or a.k.a. the voice box
  • Made up of eight hyaline cartilages, including
    the thyroid cartilage, commonly known as an
    Adams apple
  • The epiglottis only lets air enter the larynx, if
    anything else enters the larynx, the cough reflex
    is triggered and the debris is directed to the
    esophagus or out of mouth

7
Upper Tract Larynx
  • When there is no swallowing the passage stays
    open for air
  • The larynx also includes vocal folds, that
    vibrate the air when releasing it, helping us to
    speak.
  • The Larynx also has cilia to filter air

8
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9
Upper Tract
10
Lower Tract Trachea
  • Wind pipe
  • Tracheal Tube largest tube in respiratory system
  • Lined with ciliated mucosa, which act in the
    opposite direction of the traveling air
  • Repel mucus, filters air

11
Lower TractBronchi
  • Tracheal Tube leads to two branches of Bronchi
  • The right Bronchus is wider and shorter than the
    left, and is commonly where unwanted debris would
    enter
  • Air at this point is mostly warm and filtered
  • Smaller branches of bronchi (Bronchioles) lead
    directly to air sacs.

12
Bronchi
13
Lower TractLungs
  • Thoracic cavity
  • Apex narrow, superior portion of lungs
  • Base portion of lung resting on diaphragm

14
Lower Tract Lung
  • Left lung has two lobes, the right lung has three
  • Lungs are made up of Stroma, elastic tissue, easy
    to expand
  • The outer surface of the lungs is covered by the
    visceral pluera
  • The thoracic cavity is covered by parietal pleura
  • The lung can slide easily because of these
    surfaces during breathing
  • They resist being pulled apart from each other

15
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16
Lower Tract Lung
  • Aveoli air sacs
  • Bronchioles lead air into respiratory zone in the
    lungs and into the Aveoli, where there is gas
    exchange
  • Bronchi serve as conducting zone structures,
    leading into and out of the respiratory zone.
  • Aveolar pores connect to other air sacs, in case
    some of the Bronchioles become clogged
  • Aveoli contains dust cells or Macrophages that
    pick up bacteria and clean the air sac

17
Respiratory Membrane
  • Located in the lungs
  • Alveoli on 1 side, capillary on other
  • walls1 cell thick
  • Gas flows on one side, while blood flows on the
    other
  • The oxygen diffuses through the membrane to
    supply the blood and carbon dioxide enters the
    air sacs and is released from the body

18
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19
Physiology
  • Pulmanary Venilation gases in air sacs of lungs
    are continuously changed, commonly known as
    breathing
  • External Respiration Gas exchange between blood
    and alveoli
  • Respiratory Gas Transport Oxygen and carbon
    dioxide is pumped into and out of lungs by the
    bloodstream
  • Internal Respiration Gas exchange between blood
    and tissue through capillaries

20
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21
Inspiration
  • Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract
  • Thoracic cavity enlarged lung tissue stuck to
    sides by pluera - vacuum
  • Air sucked in

22
Expiration
  • Passive process due to elasticity of lung tissue

23
Breathing
  • Triggered by CO2 level.

24
Air Volumes
  • Tidal volume normal amount of air in and out of
    lungs
  • Inspiratory reserve amount one can force in
    after normal breath
  • Expiratory reserve amount one can force out
    after normal exhale
  • Residual volume stays in lungs (more time for
    gas exchange)

25
Control breathing
  • Medulla sets basic rate
  • Pons smooths out the rhythm
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