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Antebellum Reform Movements

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Title: Antebellum Reform Movements Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: CCSD Created Date: 11/9/2003 1:19:05 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Antebellum Reform Movements


1
AntebellumRevivalismReform
2
The Second Great Awakening
  • Rejected 18th century Calvinist beliefs and
    focused on individual responsibility for
    salvation.
  • Believed individuals could better themselves and
    society
  • Revival- an emotional meeting used to awaken
    religious faith through prayer
  • Revivalism swept through the United States

3
1. The Second Great Awakening
Spiritual Reform From WithinReligious
Revivalism
Social Reforms Redefining the Ideal of Equality
Education
Temperance
Abolitionism
Asylum Penal Reform
Womens Rights
4
The Burned-Over Districtin Upstate New York
5
Second Great AwakeningRevival Meeting
6
Charles G. Finney(1792 1895)
The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting
light the candles and lamps illuminating the
encampment hundreds moving to and frothe
preaching, praying, singing, and shouting, like
the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow
up all the powers of contemplation.
soul-shaking conversion
R1-2
7
The Mormon Migration
  • Mormons, a religious community also know as the
    Latter- Day Saints, played a major role in
    settling the West
  • Religion began in Western New York (1827) when
    Joseph Smith and five associates established the
    Church
  • Smith and a growing band of followers moved West
    and settled in Nauvoo, Illinois (1839)

8
  • Joseph Smith
  • Brigham Young

9
  • Within five years the community numbered 20,000.
  • Many neighbors became angry and printed protests
    against polygamy and other practices of this
    early church
  • Joseph Smith destroyed the towns printing press
    and was jailed for treason
  • An anti- Mormon mob broke into the jail and
    murdered Smith and his brother

10
Mother Ann Lee (1736-1784)
The Shakers
  • If you will take up your crosses against the
    works of generations, and follow Christ in
    theregeneration, God will cleanse you from
    allunrighteousness.
  • Set up first communities in New York and New
    England. Pooled all land, tools and labor
  • Believed men and women were equal and refused to
    fight for any reason
  • Rejected economic individualism and tried to
    withdraw from American society

R1-4
11
Shaker Simplicity Utility
12
Shaker Hymn
'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be
free,'Tis the gift to come down where you ought
to be,And when we find ourselves in the place
just right,'Twill be in the valley of love and
delight.When true simplicity is gainedTo bow
and to bend we shan't be ashamed,To turn, turn
will be our delight,'Till by turning, turning we
come round right.
13
Shaker Meeting
14
2. Transcendentalism (European Romanticism)
  • Wanted an alternative to traditional religion,
    but found revivalism too public
  • Transcend the limits of intellect and allow the
    emotions, the SOUL, the imagination to create an
    original relationship with the Universe.

15
Transcendentalist Thinking
  • Created a literary movement that stressed
    American ideas of freedom, optimism, and
    self-reliance
  • Believed in the good will (benevolence) of god
    and the divinity of the people
  • They instinctively rejected all secular authority
    and the authority of organized churches and the
    Scriptures, of law, or of conventions

16
Transcendentalist Intellectuals/WritersConcord,
MA
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
Nature(1832)
Resistance to Civil Disobedience(1849)
Self-Reliance (1841)
Walden(1854)
The American Scholar (1837)
R3-1/3/4/5
17
The Transcendentalist Agenda
  • Give freedom to the slave.
  • Give well-being to the poor and the miserable.
  • Give learning to the ignorant.
  • Give health to the sick.
  • Give peace and justice to society.

18
A Transcendentalist CriticNathaniel Hawthorne
(1804-1864)
  • Their pursuit of the ideal (perfection) led to a
    distorted view of humannature and
    possibilities The Blithedale Romance
  • One should accept the world as an imperfect
    place Scarlet Letter House of the
    Seven Gables

19
The Pursuit of Perfection In Antebellum
America
20
3. Utopian Communities
21
George Ripley (1802-1880)Utopian Communities
  • Experimental groups that tried to create a
    utopia or perfect place
  • 1841, George Ripley established Brook farm near
    Boston.
  • prepare a society of liberal, intelligent and
    cultivated persons, whose relations with each
    other would permit a more wholesome and simple
    life.-Purpose of Brook Farm

22
George Ripley
Brook FarmWest Roxbury, MA
23
Original Plans for New Harmony, IN
New Harmony in 1832
24
New Harmony, IN
25
Schools and Prisons Undergo Reform
  • By the mid 19th century thousands of Americans
    joined together to fight the various social ills
    that plagued the U.S.

26
4. Penitentiary Reform
Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) -Fought against the
imprisonment of the mentally ill -Introduced
Rehabilitation, treatment that would reform the
sick and help them return to society
R1-5/7
27
Dorothea Dix Asylum - 1849
28
5. Educational Reform
Before the mid 1800s there was no education
policy throughout the country
  • MA ? always on the forefront of public
    educational reform 1st state to
    establish tax support for local public
    schools.
  • By 1860 every state offered free public
    education to whites. US had one of the
    highest literacy rates.

29
Horace Mann (1796-1859)
Father of American Education
  • children were clay in the hands of teachers
    and school officials
  • children should be molded into a state of
    perfection
  • discouraged corporal punishment
  • established state teacher- training programs

R3-6
30
The McGuffey Eclectic Readers
  • Used religious parables to teach American
    values.
  • Teach middle class morality and respect for
    order.
  • Teach 3 Rs Protestant ethic (frugality,
    hard work, sobriety)

R3-8
31
6. Separate Spheres Concept
Cult of Domesticity
  • A womans sphere was in the home (it was
    arefuge from the cruel world outside).
  • Her role was to civilize her husband andfamily.
  • An 1830s MA minister

The power of woman is her dependence. A woman
who gives up that dependence on man to become a
reformer yields the power God has given her for
her protection, and her character becomes
unnatural!
32
Women and Reform
  • In the early 19 century women faced limitations-
    CULT OF DOMESTICITY
  • Women played an active part in reform movements
    of the times.
  • As they fought to improve conditions for other,
    they too realized they were second class
    citizens.
  • Sought after equal rights

33
Early 19c Women
  1. Unable to vote.
  2. Legal status of a minor.
  3. Single ? could own her own property.
  4. Married ? no control over herproperty or her
    children.
  5. Could not initiate divorce.
  6. Couldn'tt make wills, sign a contract, or bring
    suit in court without her husbands permission.

34
What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way!
R2-8
35
Cult of Domesticity Slavery
The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve
society.
Lucy Stone
Angelina Grimké
Sarah Grimké
  • American WomensSuffrage Assoc.
  • edited Womans Journal
  • Southern Abolitionists

R2-9
36
R2-6/7
7. Womens Rights
1848- Womens rights convention. -Listed
grievances..modeled declaration after the
declaration of independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Lucretia Mott
1848 ? Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
37
Seneca Falls Declaration
38
8. Temperance Movement
1826 - American Temperance SocietyDemon
Rum! The effort to prohibit the sale of alcohol
-Beecher lectured of the evils of liquor in
1825 -American Temperance society was formed in
1826 -By 1833 more than 6,000 temperance
societies where around the country
The Beecher Family
R1-6
39
The Drunkards Progress
From the first glass to the grave, 1846
40
Annual Consumption of Alcohol
41
9. Abolitionist Movement
  • 1816 ? American Colonization Society
    created (gradual, voluntary
    emancipation.

British Colonization Society symbol
42
Abolitionists Speak Out
  • By the 1820s more than 100 antislavery societies
    were advocating for the resettlement of blacks in
    Africa
  • Many Africans did not want to return because they
    considered America their home.
  • African Americans and whites (most Northern)
    joined together in public criticism of slavery
  • ABOLITION- the call to outlaw slavery

43
Abolitionist Movement
  • Create a free slave state in Liberia,
    WestAfrica.
  • No real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in
    the 1820s 1830s.

Gradualists
Immediatists
44
Anti-Slavery Alphabet
45
William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879)
  • Most radical white abolitionist. Wrote The
    Liberator- which was a newspaper used to deliver
    antislavery message
  • Immediate emancipation with NO compensation to
    slaveholders.
  • Slavery was a moral, notan economic issue.
  • Caused a lot of tension between government,
    church and the people.

R2-4
46
The Liberator
Premiere issue ? January 1, 1831
R2-5
47
The Tree of SlaveryLoaded with the Sum of All
Villanies!
48
Other White Abolitionists
Lewis Tappan
James Birney
  • Liberty Party.
  • Ran for President in 1840 1844.

Arthur Tappan
49
Black Abolitionists
David Walker(1785-1830)
1829 ? Appeal to the Coloured Citizens
of the World
Book that encouraged Blacks to fight for freedom
rather than wait to be set free by whites.
50
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)
1845 ? The Narrative of the Life Of
Frederick Douglass 1847 ? The North Star
R2-12
51
Fredrick Douglass
  • Realized knowledge could be his pathway from
    slavery to freedom
  • Escaped from slavery and fled to New York
  • Read The Liberator and met Garrison
  • Garrison and Douglass worked together speaking at
    functions and promoting abolition

52
Sojourner Truth (1787-1883)or Isabella Baumfree
-Slave for over 30 years -Traveled the country
preaching and arguing for abolition
1850 ? The Narrative of Sojourner Truth
R2-10
53
Harriet Tubman(1820-1913)
  • Helped over 300 slaves to freedom.
  • 40,000 bounty on her head.
  • Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.

Moses
54
Leading Escaping Slaves Along the Underground
Railroad
55
The Underground Railroad
56
The Underground Railroad
  • Conductor leader of the escape
  • Passengers escaping slaves
  • Tracks routes
  • Trains farm wagons transporting
    the escaping slaves
  • Depots safe houses to rest/sleep

57
Tighter Control over slaves
  • Many believed education and privilege inspire
    revolts
  • Slave Codes were issued to make laws more strict
    limiting the action of slaves
  • Example slaves were forbidden to preach the
    gospel unless a slaveholder was present (make
    sure nothing was said to encourage slaves to
    revolt!)

58
Proslavery Defenses
  • 1. Bible was cited- servants to obey their
    masters
  • 2. Southern Slavery allowed blacks to be a vital
    part of the economic community
  • Gave the picture of the happy Southern slave
    versus the Northern wage slave
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