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Antebellum%20Reform%20Movements

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Title: Antebellum%20Reform%20Movements


1
Antebellum Reform Movements
  • APUSH

2
ReformChange for Improvement
  • Main impulses
  • Faith in human nature
  • Goodness of the individual
  • Desire for order and control
  • Desire to remake society
  • Religious/moral impulses
  • Romanticism
  • Transcendentalists
  • Utopian Societies
  • Second Great Awakening
  • Temperance Crusade
  • Feminism
  • Abolitionism

3
Second Great Awakening
  • Similar to First Great Awakening
  • Began in Conn and eventually spread to frontier
  • Shifted Back East to
  • Burned Over District W. NY
  • Popular
  • Revival Meetings?Camps
  • New Religious Sects? Baptists and Methodists
  • Revivals increase popularity of reform movements

4
Second Great Awakening
  • How was the second Great Awakening Different from
    First Great Awakening?
  • 1st revivals seen as part of the miraculous
    work of God Sinners in the Hands of an Angry
    God Jonathan Edwards 1739
  • 2nd Human inspired
  • Opposed predestination and anyone could attain
    heaven
  • Charles Finney people choose to Sin
  • Sin is not natural but a voluntary Act

5
Revivals giving new life, to bring back to
life specifically Popular Religion (1830s)
  • Second Great Awakening
  • Widespread Christian Movement
  • Revival meetings new life
  • Emotional Sermons
  • Increased the amount of people participating in
    churches (particularly women)
  • Abolition and Temperance movement are directly
    linked to 2nd Great Awakening
  • Spread Christian ideas of equality and morality.

6
Romanticism
  • Romanticism
  • Artistic movement
  • Emerges 1800-1820
  • Message That would express their nations
    special virtues.
  • Discovering American Art as an American creation.
  • Nostalgic- looking fondly back on earlier times
  • Inspired by expression of inner spirit
  • Nature and God together
  • Work to unleash capacity for good and joy

7
Motifs in Romanticism
  • The Nostalgic (sympathetic fondness)
    interpretation of the historic PAST
  • Individual REBELLION
  • Subjects from MYTH and FOLKLORE
  • Glorification of NATURE, faraway settings
  • Emotion-SENTIMENTALISM Nobility of the
    uncivilized man and simple life
  • Spiritual (GOTHIC themes supernatural,
    mysterious)

8
Romanticism in Painting
Church
  • Hudson River School (NY)
  • First Natural Landscapes
  • Power of Nature
  • Sublime (feeling of awe, feeling of wonderment)
  • Grandeur of Nature
  • Nature offers promise
  • Sense of Nostalgia in nature

9
Romanticism in Literature link
  • Washington Irving (1809)
  • Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • American theme, Dutch in New York, early America
  • James Fenimore Cooper (1820s)
  • Wrote about American wilderness
  • Leather Stocking Tales
  • Last of the Mohicans
  • Reflected American Ideals
  • Independent Individual
  • Natural Inner Goodness
  • Need for order

10
Romanticism in Literature 2
  • Walt Whitman (Link)
  • Poet of American Democracy
  • NYC
  • Themes
  • Celebrated Democracy
  • Spirit of the Individual
  • Liberation of individual
  • Pleasures of the Flesh
  • American Spirit
  • Emotional and Physical Release
  • Personal fulfillment
  • Homosexual

Leaves of Grass Greatest collection When Lilacs
Last in the dooryard bloomd Lincoln
tribute Captain My Captain about Lincolns
Assassination
11
Romanticism in Literature 3
  • Herman Melville (link)
  • NY, 1819
  • Best of his era
  • Moby Dick pub 1851
  • Human spirit was troubled
  • Self Destructive
  • Man against nature

12
Romanticism in Literature 4
Poe exposes the underside of the American dream
of the self-made man and showed the price of
materialism and excessive competition --
loneliness, alienation, and images of
death-in-life.
  • Edgar Allen Poe (link)
  • Died 1849
  • Poems and stories
  • Sad and Macabre
  • 1845 the Raven
  • Theme of individuals rising above to see deeper
    world of spirit and emotion

13
Transcendentalists
  • a philosophy started in the early 19th century
    that promotes intuitive, spiritual thinking
    instead of scientific thinking based on material
    things
  • Emerges out of Romanticism
  • New England
  • Reaction against traditional Logic and
    Enlightenment- non-conformist values
  • Independent thinking
  • Referred to reason as the ability to grasp beauty
    and truth through---
  • ? Instinct and Emotion
  • (the highest human faculties)

14
More Transcendentalism
  • TRANSCENDENTALISM a philosophy that asserts the
    primacy of the SPIRITUAL over the MATERIAL and
    EMPIRICAL
  • The ultimate truth transcends the physical world

15
Transcendentalists and Nature
  • Nature was the source of deep Human inspiration
  • Helps individuals see truth within their souls
  • Genuine Spirituality come through communion with
    nature

16
Super individualism was at their core.
  • Philosophically though, there was a center and it
    was about the notion of spontaneous reason.
  • people are capable of discovering a truth solely
    on the basis of intuition.

17
Ralph Waldo Emerson (link)
  • Leader, Unitarian Minister, devoted to
    Transcendentalism
  • Wrote Essays, Lectures, Very Popular

Advocated the commitment of the individual to
full exploration of the inner capacities.
18
Emerson the Nationalist
  • Wanted cultural Independence
  • 1837 The American Scholar
  • American dependence on culture art is over
  • Truth beauty can be derived from instinct
    creative genius
  • Let the single man plant himself indomitably on
    his instincts there abide. And a huge world will
    come round to him.

19
R.W. Emerson Essay Nature 1836
  • In the quest for Self-Fulfillment
  • Individuals should work for Communion with Nature
  • In the woods, we return to reason and faith
    Standing on the bare ground my head bathed by the
    blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, all
    mean egotism vanishes I am part and particle of
    God.

20
RW Emerson essay 1841 Self Reliance
  • Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of
    your own mind
  • Self Reliance
  • was a quest for unity of the Universe
  • The wholeness of god
  • The great spiritual force/essence of spiritual
    soul
  • Each person has innate capacity to find divinity
    personally

21
Henry David Thoreau
  • Transcendentalist
  • Repudiated repressive forces
  • Individuals should
  • Work for self-realization
  • Resist conformity
  • Should respond to own instincts
  • Walden- in the Concord (Mass) Woods
  • Most famous book
  • Lived alone for 2 years

22
Thoreau
  • I went to the woods because I wished to live
    deliberately, to confront only the essential
    facts of life and see if I could not learn what
    It had to teach.
  • And not when I came to die I discover that I had
    not lived

23
Thoreau
  • Went to jail briefly
  • Refused to pay a Poll Tax
  • Protested Slavery
  • 1849 Essay Resistance to Civil Government
  • An individuals personal morality has first claim
    on his actions
  • Government that violated personal morality had no
    legitimate authority
  • An individual response should be
  • Civil Disobedience or Passive Resistence

24
Utopian Societies, Brook Farm, New Harmony,
Oneida Community, Morman
  • Utopian movements are radical manifestations of
    the reform impulse.
  • They have the common vision to remake society in
    a more perfect way
  • Communal characteristics
  • Separate from mainstream society
  • Cooperative

25
Utopian Movements
  • Brook Farm
  • Massachusetts 1841-47
  • Transcendentalists
  • Individual strives for Self- Realization
  • Communal
  • Leisure is key
  • New Harmony
  • Robert Owen
  • A village of cooperation
  • Oneida Community 1848
  • NY
  • Rejected traditional family and marriage values

26
Oneida Community
  • Oneida Community 1848
  • NY
  • John Humphrey Noyes
  • Rejected traditional family and marriage values
  • All residents were married to all other
    residents
  • No permanent conjugal ties
  • Sexual behavior was monitored to prevent abuse.
  • Children raised communally
  • Liberation from the demands of male lust.

27
Shakers
  • Voluntary
  • No children born into Shakerism
  • Contact between men and women was limited
  • Social discipline was important
  • Religious extremists
  • Re-defined traditional sexuality
  • Founded 1770s
  • Northeast Northwest 1840s
  • Shaking ecstatic movement- would shake
    themselves free from sin while performing a loud
    chant.
  • Commitment to Celibacy!?

A view of Shaker Meeting from 1885. A
photographer from the Poland Spring Hotel took
this image. The Shakers are seated in the front
benches. The spectators and guests from the
Poland Spring Hotel are in the back rows.
28
Mormons
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS)
  • Joseph Smith (prophet for Mormons)
  • 1830s Book of Mormon
  • Translation of set of Golden Tablets
  • Ancient Civilization in America (one of lost
    tribes of Israel)
  • Dark Skin Sin
  • Story of American Hebrews

29
Joseph Smith Brigham Young
30
Mormons Continued
  • Smith creates the movement and obtains converts
  • Rigid way of life
  • Polygamy
  • Secrecy
  • Life Style (very prescriptive, foods, behavior)
  • New York, Illinois,
  • Smith Arrested and killed by mob
  • Brigham Young takes the 12000 converts WEST to
    Utah

31
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32
Temperance Movement Against Alcohol (link)
  • Religious based Social Reform Movement
  • Crusade
  • The church must take on subject of Temperance,
    the moral reform, all the subjects of practical
    morality.
  • Crime, disorder, poverty? caused by alcoholism
  • Drinking was especially a problem for Women-
    husband abuse them, and kids, and drink the money.

33
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34
Temperance (Really good link)
  • 1826 American Society for the Promotion of
    Temperance
  • Preached abstinence
  • Large meetings
  • Going on the Wagon
  • Will later evolve into national movement
  • Womens Christian Temperance Union 1878
  • Anti-Saloon League 1880s
  • Eventually, under Progressives, will lead to
    prohibition of Alcohol 18th Amendment to the
    Constitution last 1920-1933.

35
Education
  • Public Education not widely established
  • Some progress in Massachusetts
  • New interest in Pub Ed
  • To create a stable social valuesconformity
  • Horace Mann is the leader

Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it.
36
Education
  • Mann
  • An educated electorate is essential to the
    working of a free Political system.
  • Education only way to counterthe tendency to
    domination of capital and servility of labor.
  • Advocated protestant values- thrift, order,
    discipline, punctuality, respect for authority
  • Not wide spread change comes from this movement.

37
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38
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39
Medical Reforms
  • Phrenology
  • Foolish
  • Germ Theory

40
Asylum (link) and Prison Reforms
  • Rehabilitation is the key
  • Asylummental health
  • Prison criminals
  • Rise of the Penitentiary
  • A place to cultivate penitence
  • Through discipline
  • Problem- Mentally ill and criminals kept in
    terrible conditions
  • Reform is key
  • Dorothea Dix
  • Some progress

41
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42
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43
Feminism
  • Women were active in reform and Revival- 2nd
    Great Awakening
  • Temperance
  • Abolition
  • Womens rights
  • Many women begin to call for womens rights
  • Men and women were created equal. They are both
    moral and accountable beings and whatever is
    right for man to do is right for women to do.

44
Womens Rights Movement
  • Lucretia Mott
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Strong connection between Womens Rights and
    Abolition movement

45
Seneca Falls Convention 1848 (link)
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Lucretia Mott
  • Fredrick Douglass
  • Declaration of Sentiments
  • Emulated Declaration of Independence
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