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Ramos, Erika Mae D.


Representation of the Earth: Maps (History, Use and Importance) Ramos, Erika Mae D. III-6 BEEd – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ramos, Erika Mae D.

Representation of the Earth Maps (History, Use
and Importance)
  • Ramos, Erika Mae D.
  • III-6 BEEd

What is a Map?
A map is a graphic representation or scale model
of spatial concepts. It is a means for conveying
geographic information. Maps are a universal
medium for communication, easily understood and
appreciated by most people, regardless of
language or culture. Incorporated in a map is the
understanding that it is a "snapshot" of an idea,
a single picture, a selection of concepts from a
constantly changing database of geographic
information (Merriam 1996).
3rd Century BC 15th Century BC Cartography Early
Map Medieval Maps T-O Maps Renaissance Maps
(15th and 16th Century) Modern Maps (17th, 18th,
19th Century)
3rd Century BC
Maps based on scientific principles had been made
since the time of Eratosthenes (3rd century BC
In the 15th century
Ptolemy'sGeographia began to be printed with
engraved maps the earliest printed edition with
engraved maps was produced in Bologna in 1477,
followed quickly by a Roman edition in 1478
(Campbell, 1987).
Early Maps Cartography is the art and science of
making maps. The oldest known maps are preserved
on Babylonian clay tablets from about 2300 B.C.
Cartography was considerably advanced in ancient
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  • Medieval Maps
  • During the Medieval period, European maps were
    dominated by religious views.
  • The T-O map was common. In this map format,
    Jerusalem was depicted at the center and east was
    oriented toward the map top.
  • Meanwhile, cartography developed along more
    practical and realistic lines in Arabic lands,
    including the Mediterranean region. All maps
    were, of course, drawn and illuminated by hand,
    which made the distribution of maps extremely

T-O Map
  • The T-O map derives its name from the map which
    appears to have the letter "T" contained within
    an "O" or circle.

  • Renaissance Maps
  • Printing with engraved copper plates appeared in
    the 16th century and continued to be the standard
    until photographic techniques were developed.
    Major advances in cartography took place during
    the Age of Exploration in the 15th and 16th

  • Modern Maps
  • Maps became increasingly accurate and factual
    during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries with the
    application of scientific methods.
  • Modern cartography is based on a combination of
    ground observations and remote sensing.

Maps are macroscopes which are used primarily to
represent spatial phenomena across the Earth's
surface, although maps are not limited to the
Earth, to a surface, nor to reality. 
  • A map can display only a few selected features,
    which are portrayed usually in highly symbolic
    styles according to some kind of classification
  • All maps are made according to certain basic
    assumptions, for example sea-level datum, which
    are not always true or verifiable.
  • Finally any map is the product of human
    endeavour, and as such may be subject to
    unwitting errors, misrepresentation, bias, or
    outright fraud

Uses of Maps
  • Many maps are designed and produced to serve very
    specific uses while other maps contain so much
    information that they are used by a variety of
    users for a great variety of tasks

  • Analysis - There are many ways humans carry out
    analyses. When the subject of study involves
    change over space then a graphic representation
    of that space is in order.
  • Maps are keyed to the earth through a system of
    georeference and tell us where things are. 

  • Confirmation - After surmising about certain
    relationships, or carrying out various analyses,
    we often turn to a map to verify our hypotheses.
    Or, on our recent journey we saw some interesting
    things and want to find out what we saw. We read
    about a political flare-up in a distant country. 

  • Communication and Propoganda - Many maps are
    produced to convey general information about an
    area or thematic information about any number of
  • Many maps are designed and produced to convey a
    particular image or communicate a particular
  • Maps are hung in front of the classroom to give
    a basis 

  • Decoration, Collection and Investment - Maps are
    sold and displayed simply because they are maps
    and many people like the appearance of a map. It
    is not uncommon to see a map in an advertisement,
    although it might be used as background. 

  • Exploration and Hypothesis Stimulation - Humans
    employ many tools to explore our world.
  • No one can see the entire world at one time, but
    through the use of maps we can picture our entire

  • Map Compilation - Once the map data are
    collected, we turn to the task of compiling the
    data to create a new map.
  • Map production is an iterative process and in
    that process a number of maps may be made as we
    converge on a appropriate design.
  • In many cases we consult other maps to check
    geographic names, to confirm boundary changes, or
    to look at land use and topography to better
    place dots on a map portraying the distribution
    of dairy cattle in a region.

  • Navigation and Control - Whether we move on land,
    at sea, or in the air we rely heavily on maps to
    plan our routes and to maintain our course. There
    are many government agencies, as well as private
    operations, around the world that regularly
    produce maps in support of navigation.

  • Planning - The obvious forms of planning that use
    maps are urban planning and regional planning.
    Military operations rely heavily on maps whether
    for the movement of vehicles and troops, the
    assessment of enemy positions, or any number of
    other possibilities.
  • Thus we see maps being made to Map Reading -
    Almost everyone will turn to a map at some time
    just to find out where a place is, relative to
    other places. 

  • Storage of Information - The topographic maps
    that are produced by most countries are good
    examples of this type of map use. These maps are
    produced to provide a standardized inventory of
    features that are deemed to be important, such
    are boundaries, hydrography, topography, and
    place names.

  • Synthesis - Many maps serve well to synthesize a
    number of things in a region or area. In
    Illinois, Schroeder assembled a map of the date
    of settlement of all of the lands of the State.
    The State was not settled randomly, or
    systematically, as is evidenced by the broad
    patterns of brilliant colors that make up the

  • Jurisdiction, Ownership, Assessment - Maps are
    used a legal documents showing the ownership of
    land and boundaries. 
  • Cadastral mapping is that area dealing with the
    legal systems showing who has rights to
    property.  Land that is subdivided is platted and
    those plats are recorded on maps. 

  • Understanding Spatial Relationships - Many maps
    are made in the process of trying to understand
    how phenomena are distributed spatially. 
  •   The development of the concept of Plate
    Tectonics was based on a great amount of mapping
    and map analysis around the world.  Police and
    public officials map data to see if there are
    patterns in the behavior of crime. 

  • Forecasting and Warning - The weathercaster on
    television is but one component of the use of
    maps to predict the future of events that play
    out over the Earth's surface and that have the
    potential for significant damage to systems
    important to humans. 
  •   Maps are an important part of the prediction
    processes and are equally important in
    forewarning potential victims.

Importance of Maps
  • Relevance/Perspective
  • When students know how to read maps, they will be
    able to see the world in a new light. Maps
    provide much more than just a location. Map
    reading can give students a sense of perspective
    when they see that they are part of a larger
    world, which could instill a desire to learn more
    about the places on a map than just their names.

  • Geography
  • By studying a map, students can learn much about
    a country, including information about its land
    forms, bodies of water, natural resources and
    climate. A major part of geography concerns the
    technical aspects of map construction. Students
    will learn about the symbols and tools of maps,
    such as the compass rose, key and titles that
    help distinguish one map from another.

  • History
  • Students get a strong sense of the history of a
    place by studying its maps. Maps have to be
    redrawn periodically to reflect changes that
    result from wars, politics and internal conflict.
    By studying old and new maps, students can see
    these transformations.

  • Cross Curricular Education
  • Students can reinforce writing skills by
    comparing features of various countries that they
    have learned from studying maps.
  • Because there are many types of maps, students
    can learn to organize and classify data, which is
    a useful skill for any academic subject.

Maps a graphic scale or representation model of
spatial concepts. History of Maps maps are
increasingly become accurate and factual as time
goes by. Cartography is the study of maps.
Maps could be use from the perspective of the
generic task, such as analysis, confirmation,
communication and propaganda, decoration,
collection and investment, exploration and
hypothesis stimulation, Navigation and Control,
Planning, Storage of Information, Synthesis,
Jurisdiction, Ownership, Assessment,
Understanding Spatial Relationships, and
Forecasting and Warning
Maps have importance in many fields such as,
Relevance and Perspective, Problem Solving,
Geography, History, and Cross Curricular
(No Transcript)
Representation of the Earth Maps (History, Use
and Importance)
  • Ramos, Erika Mae D.
  • III-6 BEEd
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