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## Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

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### Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund Chapter 14: Basic Data Analysis Tabulation Frequency table Percentages CROSS-TABULATION Analyze data by groups or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

1
Essentials of Marketing Research William G.
Zikmund
• Chapter 14
• Basic Data Analysis

2
Tabulation
• Frequency table
• Percentages

3
Measure of Central Measure of Type of
Scale Tendency Dispersion Nominal Mode None O
rdinal Median Percentile Interval or
ratio Mean Standard deviation
4
CROSS-TABULATION
• Analyze data by groups or categories
• Compare differences
• Contingency table
• Percentage cross-tabulations

5
ELABORATION AND REFINEMENT
• Moderator variable
• Spurious relationship

6
Data Transformation
• A.K.A data conversion
• Changing the original form of the data to a new
format
• More appropriate data analysis
• New variables

7
CALCULATING RANK ORDER
• Ordinal data
• Brand preferences

8
TABLES

9
Charts and Graphs
• Pie charts
• Line graphs
• Bar charts
• Vertical
• Horizontal

10
Line Graph
11

Bar Graph
12
WebSurveyor Bar Chart
13
Computer Programs
• SPSS
• SAS
• SYSTAT
• Microsoft Excel
• WebSurveyor

14
Hypothesis
• An unproven proposition or supposition that
tentatively explains certain facts of phenomena
• Null hypothesis
• Alternative hypothesis

15
Significance Level
• Critical probability in choosing between the null
hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis
• Probability level selected is typically .05 or
.01
• Too low to warrant support for the null hypothesis

16
Testing A Hypothesis About A Mean
17
The null hypothesis that the mean is equal to 3.0
18
The alternative hypothesis that the mean does not
equal to 3.0
19
A Sampling Distribution
m3.0

20
A Sampling Distribution
a.025
a.025
m3.0

21
A Sampling Distribution
UPPER LIMIT
LOWER LIMIT

m3.0
22
Critical values of m
Critical value - upper limit
23
Critical values of m
24
Critical values of m
Critical value - lower limit
25
Critical values of m
26
Region of Rejection
LOWER LIMIT
UPPER LIMIT
m3.0

27
Hypothesis Test m 3.0

2.804
3.78
3.196
m3.0
28
Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing
State of Null Hypothesis Decision in
the Population Accept Ho Reject Ho Ho is
true Correct--no error Type I error Ho is
false Type II error Correct--no error
29
Testing a Hypothesis about a Distribution
• Chi-square test
• Test for significance in the analysis of
frequency distributions
• Compare observed frequencies with expected
frequencies
• Goodness of fit

30
Chi-Square Test
31
Type of Measurement
Type of descriptive analysis
Frequency table Proportion (percentage) Frequenc
y table Category proportions (percentages) Mode
Two categories
Nominal
More than two categories
32
Type of Measurement
Type of descriptive analysis
Ordinal
Rank order Median
33
Type of Measurement
Type of descriptive analysis
Interval
Arithmetic mean