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United Nations Environment Programme/ Regional Office for Europe

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Title: United Nations Environment Programme/ Regional Office for Europe Author: Beatrice Bulwa Last modified by: Victoria Created Date: 9/13/2000 3:55:10 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: United Nations Environment Programme/ Regional Office for Europe


1
CHILE Evaluating And Improving The Ministry Of
Agricultures Environmental Agenda (MAEA)
Integrated Assessment and Planning for
Sustainable Development

Second Review Meeting Geneva, September 21-22,
2005 Victoria Alonso - Edmundo Claro RIDES
2
Background (1)
  • What was the original focus of the assessment?
  • Assessment. To assess the sustainability impacts
    of the MAEA and to suggest necessary adjustments
    to it so that it promotes better environmental
    performance, reinforces sustainable trade in the
    agriculture sector and helps at reducing poverty.
  • Participation. To make relevant actors
    participation an important factor in the
    assessment, so that the MAEA is coherent in
    relation to the strategic goals of the Ministry
    of Agriculture, the National Commission on
    Environment, the Trade Liberalization strategy of
    the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Clean
    Production strategy of the Ministry of Economics.
  • Capacity building. Enhancing capacity to
    undertake integrated assessment and planning for
    sustainable development and therefore
    facilitating the design of policies, plans and
    programs that take into account economic, social
    and environmental aspects of development.
  • Why was it selected?
  • Political pluralism to promote the adoption of a
    plural perspective in policy matters.
  • Substantive pluralism to ensure environmental
    and social aspects were considered on a par with
    economic ones in the design of the MAEA.
  • Procedural pluralism to make certain that
    participation of different public bodies, civil
    society and the private sector in the design of
    the MAEA.
  • Methodological pluralism to expand the
    repertoire of analytical and participatory
    techniques used in the design of policies.

3
Background (2)
  • What were the original key objectives of the
    project?
  • To contribute to the planning process of the MAEA
    so that it can be a factor towards sustainable
    development. More specifically, to promote an
    environmentally progressive MAEA which reinforces
    sustainable trade in the agriculture sector and
    helps in reducing poverty.
  • Improving policy coherence of the MAEA in
    relation to the strategic goals of the Ministry
    of Agriculture, the objectives of the National
    Commission on Environment, the Trade
    Liberalization strategy of the Ministry of
    Foreign Affairs, and the Clean Production
    strategy of the Ministry of Economics.
  • To evaluate the sustainability impacts of the
    MAEA and to suggest necessary adjustments to it.
  • To disseminate the experience of this assessment
    in other policy planning processes within the
    country, as well as in the region and
    internationally.

4
Background (3)
  • What are the new focus and objectives (if there
    have been any changes) and why?
  • After the preliminary assessment of the MAEA, two
    of the objectives became more specific
  • Assessment focus on three selected productive
    sectors (forestry, pork meat and wheat),
    construct future scenarios for the MAEA under
    these sectors, and assess their sustainability
    impacts, and then derive recommendation of
    specific policies.
  • Participation to define who should participate,
    including authorities, the private sector and
    civil society

5
Background (4)
  • What are the key policy scenarios, why?
  • The MAEA is a general document with important
    elements for improvement but,
  • Does not include specific tools to constitute a
    policy document
  • Key policy scenarios are a) Without
    Environmental Agenda b) With a medium
    Environmental Agenda and c) With a full
    Environmental Agenda

6
Background (5)
  • What are the productive sectors to be assessed
    under each scenario, why?
  • Since the Agricultural Policy of Chile is
    organized in sub-sectors of agriculture, the
    project analyzed the main economic, social and
    environmental issues in some of these
    sub-sectors forestry, pork meat and wheat
  • These sectors were selected because they
    represent the following criteria economic
    relevance, impact on poverty, environmental
    impact and trade relevance.

7
Background (6)
  • What are the key methods for assessing economic,
    social, and environmental impacts in this
    project?
  • Scenario approach under the following structure
  • Description of the sector
  • Barriers to the sustainability of the sector
    (economic, social and environmental)
  • Policies attributable to the Environmental Agenda
    of the Ministry of Agriculture incentives,
    regulations, voluntary programs, and research and
    development
  • Scenario building for the year 2010 based on
    policies identified on 3) a) Without
    Environmental Agenda b) With a medium
    Environmental Agenda and c) With a full
    Environmental Agenda
  • Scenario assessment in terms of its contribution
    towards sustainable development trade, poverty
    and environmental impacts.
  • Policy recommendations.

8
Background (7)
  • What have been the processes of implementing this
    project?
  • Constitution of a Steering Committee
  • Background paper
  • Specific interviews
  • National Workshop
  • Selection of methodology and specific agriculture
    sectors
  • Sector description
  • Validation with ODEPA
  • Constitution of a Working Group for each sector
  • First Group discussion
  • Scenario Construction
  • Second Group Discussion
  • Definite sector documents

9
Assessment framework
  • Selected sector pork meat

Scenario 1 without MAEA Scenario 2 medium MAEA Scenario 3 full MAEA
Economic indicators State investment Exports level
Social indicators Employment Rural poverty
Environment indicators Water quality Odour emissions
10
Scenario construction
Policy or instrument Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3
Economic instruments financial instruments to promote application to CDM by SMEs ?
Information systems underground water baseline ?
Voluntary mechanism third clean production agreement ? ?
Land use planning to reduce conflict for land use between urban development and agriculture ? ?
11
Initial effects
  • How does each scenario affect the price of the
    related product or incentive of using a related
    natural resource?
  • Scenario 2 will affect incentives to produce pork
    meat but not very significantly.
  • Land use planning will certainly put some
    obstacles to the siting of new nurseries.
    However, due to the scale of incoming new
    projects, these new costs are expected to be very
    low in comparison to normal investment costs.
  • The clean production agreement will rise
    production costs due to more stringent guano
    application regulations there will be limits to
    the amout of guano to be applied and there will
    periods under which guano can be applied to
    agricultural land. However, this instrument is
    voluntary, so that all participating producers
    will have analysed their participation in
    economic terms before joining the agreement.
  • Scenario 3 should not affect incentives to
    produce pork meat further to what happened with
    Scenario 2. This is mainly because the two extra
    measures in Scenario 3 (financial instruments to
    promote application to CDM by SMEs and an
    underground water quality information system)
    should mostly imply costs to the state and not
    necessarily to the private sector.

12
Initial effects (continued)
  • How will the changes in price or incentive in
    turn affect production or use of the natural
    resource
  • It is expected that the measures contained in
    scenarios 2 and 3 will not affect the growing
    tendency in the production of pork meat. In
    effect, it might actually provide with new
    international market opportunities for clean or
    environmentally friendly pork meat products.

13
Economic/trade effects
  • For the ONE selected sector
  • How will the changes in production or use of
    resource affect economic and trade performance
    under each scenario?

Econ/trade indicators Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3
1. State investment (cost) 0
2. Export level 0
14
Environmental effects
  • For the one selected sector
  • How will the changes in production or use of
    resource affect the environment under each
    scenario?

Environment indicators Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3
1. Water quality 0
2. Odour emissions 0
15
Social effects (1)
  • For the ONE selected sector
  • How will changes in production or use of resource
    affect social well-being and poverty in each
    scenario? Use no more than 3 indicators.

Social indicators Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3
1. Employment 0
2. Reduction of rural poverty 0
16
Social effects (2)
  • Who are the winners and losers from the changes
    in production and use of resources?
  • In general, MAEA is a good thing for the future
    of environmental sustainability of Chilean
    agriculture
  • Facilitate construction of agreements within the
    public sector
  • Increases competitiveness of the Chilean pork
    meat sector, especially of big producers
  • Bring health benefits for workers, consumers and
    local communities
  • But
  • Might put more pressure on small and medium
    farmers by forcing them to comply with new
    environmental requirements

17
Secondary effects (1)
  • Please describe any further, long-term social
    economic/trade implications of the projected
    environmental changes?
  • Social implications a) due to better water
    quality, health improvements b) due to less
    odour emissions, less conflicts between local
    communities and nearby pork nurseries.
  • Economic implications a) due to better
    environmental performance of the pork meat
    sector, more competitiveness in international
    markets b) due to stringent environmental
    requirements, expansion of the environmental
    industry in Chile.

18
Secondary effects (2)
  • Please describe any further, long-term
    environmental economic/trade implications from
    the projected changes in social well-being?
  • Winners a) big pork meat producers will be more
    able to switch to cleaner production technologies
    and benefit from more resource efficient
    production b) lower poverty levels for rural
    workers might bring higher pressure on natural
    resources water, energy, land, etc. c) health
    benefits for workers, consumers and local
    communities might imply higher labour
    productivity d) b) and c) together might push
    the creation of new small entrepeneurs.
  • Loosers small and medium farmers not able to
    comply with MAEA requirements might switch to
    even lower environmental standards in order to
    compete in the national pork meat market.

19
Recommendations (1)
  • For ex ante or concurrent assessment, how should
    the policy/plan be re-formulated or revised?
  • A third Clean Production Agreement that World not
    only promote the measurement of nitrogen
    emissions but would include concrete measures to
    minimize those emissions.
  • A national plan for Land Use that would reinforce
    and broaden the environmental and sustainability
    considerations for land use planning, especially
    when addressing rural territories.
  • An underground water baseline that would inform
    on the pollution levels in the major agriculture
    basins.
  • Financial instruments to promote the making of
    collective studies to apply for the Clean
    Development Mechanism (CDM) for small and medium
    size producers

20
Recommendations (2)
  • How to improve the process of policy/plan-making?
    Consider
  • Complement with all relevant sectors
  • Reach decision makers
  • Reach political consensus
  • Further engagement of the private sector
  • Cost evaluation
  • Election year

21
Enabling conditions
  • What needs to happen in order to implement the
    recommendations?
  • To continue with the capacity building process
    related to the IAP project with key decision
    makers.
  • To proceed with other relevant sectors in the
    Chilean agriculture
  • To gather the required financial and human
    resources for the MAEA implementation
  • To get the private sectors commitment to support
    the future MAEA

22
Lessons learned so far...
  • Integrated assessment has provided elements for
    policy improvement in at least 3 ways
  • Has allowed for consideration of different
    elements of the Chilean agricultures reality
  • Has integrated a broad range of relevant actors
  • Has expanded the repertoire of analytical and
    participatory techniques
  • To address the agenda from a productive sectors
    perspective instead of enviromental aspects
  • To widen the participatory y process has proved
    successful in many ways
  • Has allowed different relevant actors to seat at
    the same table
  • Has promoted dialogue between actors from
    different relevant institutions in the public
    sector
  • Has produced an agreed upon document
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