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The Progressive Era

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Title: The Progressive Era


1
The Progressive Era
  • US History

2
Section 1 Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Explain the four goals of progressivism
  • 2. Summarize progressive efforts to clean up
    government
  • 3. Identify progressive efforts to reform state
    government, protect workers, and reform
    elections.

3
Section 1 The Origins of Progressivism
  • Main Idea Political, economic, and social change
    in the late 19th Century American led to broad
    progressive reforms.
  • Why it Matters Now Progressive reforms in areas
    such as labor and voting rights reinforced
    democratic principles that continue to exist
    today.
  • Key Terms
  • Progressive Movement
  • Prohibition
  • Muckracker
  • Initiative
  • Key Terms / Names
  • Referendum
  • Recall
  • Seventeenth Amendment

4
Timeline Whats Going On US and World
  • United States
  • 1901 William McKinley is assassinated
  • 1909 NAACP is founded
  • 1919 18th Amendment outlaws alcoholic drinks
  • 1920 19th Amendment grants women the right to
    vote.
  • World
  • 1889 Eiffel Tower opens for visitors
  • 1910 Mexican Revolution begins
  • 1914 WW I Begins in Europe

5
Progressivism?
  • Progress
  • People vs. Evil Corporations
  • Government Businesses
  • Urbanization Problems
  • Heavy toll on American Life
  • Unsafe factories
  • Conditions, Hours, Pollution
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
  • Urban problems
  • Over crowded, Unsanitary, Crime

6
  • Populists vs Progressives
  • Populists---rural
  • Progressives---cities
  • Populists were poor and uneducated
  • Progressives were middle-class and educated.
  • Populists were too radical
  • Progressives stayed political mainstream.
  • Populists failed
  • Progressives succeeded

7
Origins of Progressivism
  • Progressive Movement - Aimed to restore economic
    opportunities and correct the injustices in
    American life.
  • Response to the vast changes after the Civil War
    and from Industrialization
  • Simpler America
  • These were the problems
  • Economic inequities
  • Environmental issues
  • Social welfare
  • Working conditions
  • Rights for women and children
  • Progressivism political and cultural responses
    to industrialization and other issues
  • Immigration, corporate power, widening class
    divisions.

8
Four Goals of Reformers (Progressivism)
  • Protect social welfare
  • Promote moral development
  • Secure economic reform
  • Foster efficiency

9
Protect Social Welfare
  • Correct the harsh conditions of Industrialization
  • Monopolies
  • Corporations benefited from Government policy
  • Laissez Faire Government out of the business
    sector
  • Working conditions
  • Benefits and vacations a rarity
  • Workers killed and employers rarely helped
  • Child Labor
  • Workers Wages
  • 687 annually, worked 12-13 hr days
  • Living Conditions
  • Tenement Houses
  • Social Gospel Movement
  • Good works to improve America (Christians)

10
Promote Moral Development
  • Many reformers felt morality would change
    America
  • City offered many releases for middle class and
    lower class citizens
  • Nickelodeons, rail lines, amusement parks, Model
    T, Other Immoral acts
  • Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
  • Many reformers felt that alcohol was undermining
    American morals.
  • Prohibition the banning of alcoholic beverages.
    (18th Amendment)
  • Many groups fought this (saloons, and
    restaurants)
  • Saloons offered many things to Immigrants (cash
    checks, serve meals)
  • Anti-Saloon League (ASL) 1895
  • Later in the 1920s there would be a much bigger
    prohibition movement.

11
Muckrakers Criticize Big Business
  • Investigative journalists, known as Muckrakers,
  • exposed corruption in business, terrible working
    conditions, living conditions.
  • Emphasized facts
  • McClures and Colliers famous magazines
  • Middle Class citizens in shock
  • Today 60 Minutes TV Program
  • Example
  • Ida Tarbell exposed Standard Oil Companys
    cut-throat methods of eliminating competition.
    (vertical and horizontal integration)
  • Eugene V. Debs
  • Organized labor
  • Socialist Party 1901 uneven balance between big
    business and the laborers
  • Free Market Economy was hurting the workers

12
Regulating Big Business
  • Many businesses were attacked by politicians for
    being crooked
  • Capitalists vs. Robber Barons
  • They aimed to reform
  • Shipping rates
  • No free passes for business officials
  • Same taxes for everyone
  • Limits on child labor
  • 1907 30 states outlawed child labor
  • National Child Labor Committee
  • Reduced work hours
  • Workers were well rested more productivity
  • 1903 Oregon Limited Women's work day to 10 hrs

13
Political Reform
  • Large Urban cities
  • Ran by Political bosses Kickbacks
  • Change cities more responsive to its citizens
  • Local Governments
  • Established Council Members
  • Officials take charge of certain areas in a city
    and certain issues
  • Galveston, TX and Dayton, OH
  • Both cities hit with a natural disaster
  • Galveston Hurricane Dayton Flood

14
Reforming Mayors
  • Hazen Pingree of Detroit
  • Fair tax system, lower transportation rates, set
    up work relief for unemployed persons
  • City workers built schools, parks, electrical
    plants
  • Tom Johnson of Cleveland
  • Instituted progressivism into the city of
    Cleveland
  • Dismissed corrupt and greedy private owners of
    utilities
  • Gas, water,
  • Invited citizens to circus tents to discuss
    issues within the city (Town Hall Meetings

15
State Level Reforms
  • Legislation to regulate big business
  • RR, mines, mills, telephone and other large
    companies
  • Robert M. La Follette Fighting Bob
  • Governor of Wisconsin 1900
  • Targeted RR companies
  • Regulate rates and abolished free rides to
    politicians

16
Election Reform
  • The people wanted a voice in politics
  • Secret Ballots made it harder to rig elections
  • Hard to tell who you voted for
  • Initiatives voters could create a bill rather
    than lawmakers
  • Voters instruct legislators
  • Referendums Voters accepted or rejected the
    initiative
  • Express their views on a proposed measure
  • Recalls Enabled voters to force out public
    officials by having them face another election
  • With a petition voters can remove a public
    official

17
Direct Election of Senators
  • Before 1913, each states legislature had chosen
    U.S. senators.
  • To force senators to be more responsive to the
    public, Progressives pushed for the popular
    (vote) election of senators.
  • As a result, Congress passed the 17th Amendment
    the people elect the senators of their state.

Before 1913 the people had no say in the election
of senators
18
Section 2 Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe the growing presence of women in the
    workforce at the turn of the 20th Century.
  • 2. Identify leaders of the woman suffrage
    movement
  • 3. Explain how woman suffrage was achieved.

19
Section 2 Women in Public Life
  • Main Idea As a result to social and economic
    change, many women entered public life as workers
    and reformers.
  • Why it Matters Now Women won new opportunities
    in labor and education that are enjoyed today.
  • Key Terms
  • NACW
  • Suffrage
  • Key Names
  • Susan B. Anthony

20
Women in the Workforce / Education
  • Women in the early 19th Century
  • Devote time to children and family
  • Poorer women forced to work
  • Opportunities for women increased especially in
    the cities. By 1900, one out of five women
    worked.
  • Unions excluded women
  • The garment industry was popular as were office
    work, retail, and education
  • They made less per hour than men (for the same
    jobs!)
  • Men seemed to support families
  • Women also began to seek higher education

21
Social Reformers
  • Improve America
  • Social Gospel Movement
  • Settlement Houses
  • Florence Kelley
  • Improve lives of women and children
  • Investigated the sweat shops
  • Campaigned for a federal Child-Labor Law
  • Illinois Factory Act in 1893
  • Prohibited child labor and limited hours women
    could work
  • Children work hours
  • Work Monday Saturday from 6 am 9 pm

22
Women Lead Reform
  • Women started to form clubs
  • Couldnt vote (YET)
  • Push for reform
  • Working conditions, pay, long hours
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory (1911)
  • Women and higher education
  • Vassar College 1865
  • Higher education led to women independence
  • Social Housekeeping
  • Workplace reform, housing reform, education and
    food drug laws

23
Reform Organizations
  • NACW
  • National Association of Colored Women 1896
  • NAWSA
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association
  • State by state movement to help women earn the
    right to vote
  • Major businesses feared womens right to vote
  • Progressivism help the womens cause
  • Movement started in 1896
  • 1910 Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and Idaho

24
Susan B. Anthony
  • Women also pushed for equal voting rights
  • Susan B. Anthony was a leading advocate of
    womens Suffrage the right to vote.
  • Voted over 150 times in 10 different states
  • Supreme Court ruled Women are citizens 1875
  • Women still couldnt vote
  • In 1869 Anthony and Cady Stanton founded the
    National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) a
    group committed to gaining womens suffrage
  • Tried to introduce a Amendment Bill to allow
    women to vote
  • Later President Roosevelt will support womens
    suffrage
  • Many men feared the changing role of women in
    society. WHY?

25
A 3-Part Strategy For Suffrage
  • Suffragist leaders tried three approaches to
    winning the vote
  • Convincing state legislatures to adopt the vote.
  • Wyoming 1869
  • 1890s Utah, Colorado, Idaho
  • Pursuing court cases to test 14th Amendment.
  • Equal protection
  • Exclude Womens right to vote
  • Pushing for national Constitutional amendment.
  • 19th Amendment 1920

26
What Was The Outcome?
  • In 1875, The Supreme Court ruled that women were
    indeed citizens but denied that citizenship
    automatically allowed the right to vote.
  • For the next 40 years, other measures were voted
    down time and time again.
  • Women will not gain the right to vote until 1920!

27
Section 3 Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe the events of Theodore Roosevelts
    presidency
  • 2. Explain how Roosevelt used the power of the
    presidency to regulate business
  • 3. Identify laws passed to protect public health
    and the environment

28
Section 3 Teddy Roosevelts Square Deal
  • Main Idea As President, Theodore Roosevelt
    worked to give citizens a Square Deal through
    progressive reforms.
  • Why it Matters Now As part of his Square Deal,
    Roosevelts conservation efforts made a permanent
    impact on environmental resources.
  • Key Terms
  • The Jungle
  • Square Deal
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Conservation
  • Key Names
  • Upton Sinclair
  • Theodore Roosevelt

29
Teddy Roosevelt
  • Born into a wealthy NY family
  • Athletic Teenager
  • New York Politics
  • New York State Assembly
  • NYC Police Commissioner
  • Assistant Secretary of the US Navy
  • Rough Riders, Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba
  • Roosevelt returned as a leader and hero
  • Governor of NYC
  • Political Bosses didnt like TR as their Governor
  • Political NY Bosses nominated TR to become VP
  • 1901 Teddy Roosevelt becomes Vice President
  • William McKinley President is Assassinated
  • 1901 Theodore Roosevelt becomes the 26th
    President
  • 42 yrs old 1901-1909
  • He was a rough and tumble politician that spoke
    what was on his mind

30
1902 Coal Miners Strike
  • UMW United Mine Workers Union
  • Called for a strike
  • 140,000 Miners
  • Shorter work day, better pay, right to organize
    in a union
  • Workers struck for 5 months
  • Theodore Roosevelt had to intervene
  • Coal powered 90 of the nation
  • Called both sides to the White House to negotiate
  • Government intervened in the business world

31
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32
The Square Deal
  • Roosevelt saw the presidency as a bully pulpit
    used his role as president to do what he wanted
    to do.
  • Platform to advocate an agenda
  • Government should be responsive to injustice
  • Did not wait for the legislative branch to act
  • Executive decision.
  • The Square Deal The term is used to describe
    the various progressive reforms sponsored by the
    Roosevelt administration.
  • The Square Deal worked to balance competing
    interests to create a fair deal for all sides
    labor and management, consumer and business,
    developer and conservationist.
  • Not to favor any group of Americans but to be
    fair to all.
  • Government should use its resources to help the
    country socially and economically

33
Using Federal Power Trust busting
  • By 1900, Trusts legal bodies created to hold
    stock in many companies controlled 80 of U.S.
    industries.
  • Many Companies formed into a Monopoly (Standard
    Oil)
  • Sold their prices far lower than their
    competitors
  • Trust Buster
  • We dont wish to destroy corporations, but we do
    wish to make them serve the public good.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • 1890, outlawed Trusts/Monopolies in America
  • Initial law left it hard to enforce
  • Roosevelt filed 44 antitrust suits under the
    Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • The goal was to break up unfair business
    practices.
  • Northern Securities Company
  • Controlled RRs in the Northwest
  • Supreme Court broke up the company
  • Standard Oil

34
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35
Regulating the Railroads
  • Interstate Commerce Act 1887
  • Prohibit fixing of high prices in certain areas
  • Hepburn ACT of 1906
  • Interstate Commerce Commission
  • Set maximum railroad rates
  • Inspected Railroad companies
  • Free RR passes to politicians
  • Government
  • Laissez Faire to hands on

36
Upton Sinclair The Jungle
  • Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle in 1906.
  • The book focused on the sickening conditions of
    the meatpacking industry.
  • The book made quite the impression on Theodore
    Roosevelt.
  • He promised to fix the problems of mass
    production in the US.
  • After reading the book he passed the Meat
    Inspection Act reformed meatpacking conditions
    (1906)

37
Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Companies were promising their products to do
    everything from curing cancer, to growing more
    hair.
  • Popular childrens medicines contained opium,
    cocaine, and alcohol.
  • Expiration dates were also included on canned
    food.

38
Roosevelts Environmental Accomplishments
  • Roosevelt first conservation President
  • Carefully manage Americas Natural resources
  • Only the national Government had the resources to
    preserve Americas Nature
  • Originally states handled their natural resources
  • Conservation some wilderness areas would be
    preserved, while others would be developed for
    the common good.
  • 150 new natural forests
  • 5 National Parks, 18 National Monuments
  • Later presidents and advisors would aim to open
    this land for business

Yellowstone National Park - Wyoming
39
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40
Section 4 Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Summarize the events of the Taft presidency.
  • 2. Explain the division in the Republican party.
  • 3. Describe the election of 1912.

41
Section 4 Progressivism Under Taft
  • Main Idea Tafts ambivalent approach to
    progressive reform led to a split in the
    Republican Party and the loss of the presidency
    to the Democrats.
  • Why it Matters Now Third-party candidates
    continue to wrestle with how to become viable
    candidates.
  • Key Terms
  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • Bull Moose Party
  • Key Names
  • Gifford Pinchot
  • William Howard Taft
  • Woodrow Wilson

42
After Roosevelt
  • Teddy Roosevelt Legacy
  • Naturalists emerged, Girls Scouts
  • Roosevelt was president for 8 years and
    accomplished a lot.
  • Some of Roosevelts policies came under scrutiny
    from various organizations.
  • Gifford Pinchot head of the US Forest Service
    came under fire for conserving so much land for
    preservation.
  • Public enjoyment vs. Private Development
  • Others were starting to see the land as a great
    opportunity for development and growth (Taft)
  • Now William Howard Taft would have his chance at
    the presidency

43
William Howard Taft
  • Taft 1909
  • TR decided not to run again
  • Hand selected and endorsed Taft
  • Taft would support many progressive reforms
  • 16th 17th Amendments
  • 16th income tax
  • 17th direct election of Senators
  • But Taft did not run the country the way
    Roosevelt thought he would
  • Taft proposed higher tariffs.
  • Became much more conservative

44
Taft Stumbles
  • Did not increase Roosevelts Progressive Reform
    Policies
  • Taft did want to lower tariffs
  • Payne Bill
  • Lower taxes on imports
  • Payne Aldrich Tariff
  • Moderated the high rates of the Aldrich bill
    (proposed by the senate)
  • Richard Ballinger
  • Secretary of interior removed 1 million acres
    of forest
  • Anti conservationist action

45
The Republican Party Splits
  • As time went on, Taft couldnt hold the two wings
    (conservatives and reformers) of the Republican
    Party together.
  • Voters started to blame Taft for the rising costs
    of living and loss of conservation of land
  • More democrats gained seats in congress
  • Roosevelt is going to make a come back!!
  • Returned from a hunting trip in Africa

46
Why did Taft have trouble keeping the Republican
Party together?
  1. They didnt like Taft
  2. They wanted higher tariffs
  3. The progressives and reformers didnt agree on
    policy
  4. None of the above

47
The Bull Moose Party 1912 Election
  • Republicans split in 1912 between Taft and
    Roosevelt
  • Republicans wanted Roosevelt, but Taft had
    momentum
  • Republican progressives formed a third party
  • Roosevelt called his progressive party the Bull
    Moose Party Im as strong as a Bull Moose
  • TR is running for a 3rd term
  • Democrats seize an opportunity
  • The Democrats put forward a reform-minded
    governor, Woodrow Wilson. (who would later win
    the presidency)

48
What did the Bull Moose Party support?
  • The Bull Moose Party supported
  • 1. Womens suffrage
  • 2. Workers compensation
  • 3. An 8-hr. work day
  • 4. A minimum wage for women
  • 5. A federal law against child labor
  • 6. A federal trade commission to regulate
    business.

49
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50
So, How Did Wilson Win?
  • The split between Taft and Roosevelt turned
    nasty. (name calling) they divided themselves.
  • Roosevelt egotist
  • Taft fathead , brain of a guinea pig
  • Woodrow Wilson endorsed a progressive platform
    called the New Freedom, it demanded
  • 1. Stronger Antitrust legislation
  • 2. Banking reform
  • 3. Reduced Tariffs
  • Wilson won with a 42 popular vote.

51
What aided Woodrow Wilson the MOST in the
presidential campaign?
  1. His new ideas
  2. His popularity with the people
  3. The bickering going on between Roosevelt and Taft
  4. All of the above

52
Section 5 Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe Woodrow Wilsons background and the
    progressive reforms of his presidency.
  • 2. List the steps leading to women suffrage.
  • 3. Explain the limits of Wilsons progressivism.

53
Section 5 Wilsons New Freedom
  • Main Idea Woodrow Wilson established a strong
    reform agenda as a progressive leader.
  • Why it Matters Now The passage of the 19th
    Amendment during Wilsons administration granted
    women the right to vote.
  • Key Terms
  • Clayton Antitrust Act
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
  • Key Terms
  • Federal Reserve System
  • 19th Amendment

54
Wilson Wins Financial Reforms
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Grew up in the south
  • Professor then President at Princeton
  • Governor of New Jersey 1910
  • Supported Progressive Reforms
  • was a progressive president
  • New Freedom
  • Triple Attack Trusts, tariffs, high finances
  • Attacked Big Businesses
  • He aimed to give greater power to average
    citizens
  • He grew up in the South, which affected his
    ability to use federal power to help civil
    rights.

55
Clayton Antitrust Act
  • Legal approach to strengthen the Sherman
    Antitrust Act of 1890.
  • Spelled out a series of illegal practices
  • Selling at a lass to undercut competitors
  • prohibited corporations from acquiring stock of
    another if doings so would create a monopoly
  • Labor unions and farm organizations could legally
    form
  • Cannot charge strikers unless they caused damage

56
Federal Trade Commission
  • Federal Trade commission
  • Administrative approach to attack businesses
  • Watchdog agency
  • Power to investigate possible violations of
    regulatory statutes to
  • require periodic reports from corporations
  • End number of unfair business practices
  • FTC investigated over 400 companies

57
Tax Systems
  • Underwood Act (Underwood-Simmons Tariff)
  • Lower tariffs
  • Tariff tax on imports
  • House quickly passed the bill, Senate eventually
    passed the bill with revisions
  • Now called the Underwood-Simmons Tariff)
  • Federal Income Tax
  • 16th Amendment
  • Legalized federal income tax
  • Graduated Income Rates
  • Higher earnings higher taxes
  • Lower earnings lower taxes

58
Federal Reserve System
  • Now financial reform was on the table
  • Currency and Banking Reform
  • Credit and money supply had to keep pace with the
    economy.
  • Federal Reserve Act of 1913
  • Wilsons greatest piece of legislation
  • The Federal Reserve System was put into action.
  • It created a network of banks
  • 12 sections Regional Banks
  • Issue currency in emergency situations
  • provide loans to private banks
  • This system still serves as the basis of our
    nations banking system.

Federal Reserve Building
59
How the War Helped
  • America became involved in WW I.
  • Patriotic women headed committees
  • Carrie Catt NAWSA President
  • Peaceful, political organizations
  • Lucy Burns picked around the White House
  • Alice Paul formed radical suffrage
    organizations
  • Womens War Efforts
  • They knitted socks for soldiers
  • Sold liberty bonds
  • In 1919, Congress finally passed the 19th
    Amendment granted women the right to vote.
  • It had only taken 72 yrs (Seneca Falls Convention
    of 1848 was when they first tried)

60
Limits of Progressivism
  • Wilson created a lot of reform policies
  • Failed to create enough social reforms
  • African American reform
  • Disappointed supporters throughout America
  • Wilson placed segregationists in the federal
    government
  • Like Roosevelt and Taft, Wilson retreated on
    Civil Rights when he entered office.
  • Did not favor anti lynching laws or segregation
    laws
  • state issue
  • Navy do away with common drinking fountains and
    towels
  • Segregated facilities were just
  • the colored men who voted and worked for you in
    the belief that their status as African citizens
    was safe in your hands are deeply cast down

The KKK reached a membership of 4.5 million in
the 1920s
61
End of Progressive Movement
  • WWI on the horizon
  • theres no chance of progress and reform in an
    administration in with war plays the principal
    part.
  • WWI 1914
  • US gets involved in WWI April 2 1917
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