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How to find your way around

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Title: How to find your way around


1
How to find your way around
You can play the PowerPoint and the Test here.
Example Course
2
How to find your way around
Always click the home icon to save your
progress and log off. This is important!
Example Course
3
Fit for Work
For all staff.
4
Fit for work
Introduction The main piece of law governing
Health Safety is The Health Safety at Work
etc. Act 1974 This Act defines responsibilities
and duties for all people at work and provides a
system for other Health Safety law
(Regulations) to fit into. The Fit for Work
module is designed to encourage and promote safe
working practices which help you to look after
your health. To remain safe you should - be
aware of the risks involved in activities -
ensure that you use equipment that has been
provided to assist you in your work - operate
equipment and handle materials according to
health and safety guidelines.
  • COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • On completion of the Fit for Work module you will
    be able to
  • Describe why an awareness of health and safety
    issues in the workplace is important.
  • Demonstrate how to lift, carry, and deposit an
    inanimate load safely.
  • Describe how to adjust seating position and
    posture whilst using display screen equipment.
  • Identify dangers associated with using hazardous
    chemicals.
  • Take appropriate measures to relieve stress and
    fatigue whilst carrying out certain tasks.

5
Ergonomics
What is Ergonomics? In its simplest term
ergonomics is the study of people in relation to
their working environment. This means how you
and the things around you at work fit together.
To ensure efficient operation and to avoid strain
and injury, you and your workplace environment
must be arranged, organised, and designed. In
this section we shall help you to understand
ergonomics at work.
6
Scenario
Jane works in a busy Admin office. She is only
50" tall and all her colleagues are much taller.
The photocopier paper is always kept on an high
shelf which is easily reached by Janes taller
colleagues. However, whenever Jane needs to
refill the copier, it's a struggle to reach the
paper and she often has to stand on her tiptoes
to reach. What should she do?
  • Stand on a chair?
  • Ask someone else to get it down for her?
  • Knock it down with an umbrella?
  • Ask for the shelf to be lowered?
  • Keep the paper elsewhere?

From these options it may seem very clear what
the correct course of action is but it also shows
that some options are dangerous and some may
cause injury. It also demonstrates that this is
not a very efficient way to run an office.
The fit between a person and their working
environment needs to be addressed. A basic
understanding of ergonomics within your workplace
can improve your work routine. Ergonomic
solutions can often be simple to make, such as
altering the height of a chair.
7
What can it do?
  • By applying ergonomics within the workplace it
    has the potential for reducing-
  • Accidents
  • Potential for injury or ill health
  • It can also lead to improved performance and
    productivity.
  • The use of Ergonomics reduces the potential for
    ill health at work, such as aches and pains of
    the wrists, shoulders, and back by considering
    the layout of your working equipment and how
    objects and work tools should be positioned in
    relation to how they are used. For example,
    items used most often should be placed where they
    are within easy reach and use reducing the need
    for stooping, stretching, etc.
  • Failure to observe ergonomic principles may have
    serious repercussions, not only for individuals,
    work colleagues, their families, but also for the
    Trust.

8
What can I do?
  • If you find a problem the next step is to look
    for the cause and consider possible solutions. A
    slight alteration may be all that is necessary to
    make a task easier and safer to perform. Here are
    some examples-
  • Use adjustable chairs so individuals can work at
    their seating position
  • Remove any obstacles from under desks to create
    sufficient leg room
  • Arrange items stored on shelving so that those
    that are the heaviest are between waist and
    shoulder height
  • Change shift work patterns
  • Rotation of different tasks to reduce physical
    and mental fatigue
  • Talk to colleagues and get them to suggest ideas
    and discuss possible solutions
  • Always make sure that any alterations are
    properly evaluated by the people who do the job.
    Be aware that a change introduced to solve one
    problem does not create another.

9
Ergonomics
Ergonomics is normally known for resolving
problems that are more physical in nature. For
example, ensuring that desking is high enough to
allow adequate clearance for an individuals
legs. However, ergonomics also deals with
psychological and social aspects of the
individual and their work. For example, a
workload that is too high or too low, not having
clear and defined tasks, time pressures,
inadequate training, or poor social support can
all contribute to having negative effects on an
individual and their work.
  • The following are some examples of typical
    ergonomic problems that can be found and
    addressed in the workplace-
  • Display Screen Equipment
  • Manual Handling
  • Work-related Stress
  • Managing the Working Day

10
Question
Problems attributed to poor ergonomics may result
in mistakes being made at work?
FALSE
TRUE
Continue
11
Display Screen Equipment Considerations
  • Is the screen poorly positioned - is it too high
    / low / close / far from the worker, or is it
    off-set to one side?
  • Is the mouse too far away and do you have to
    stretch to use it?
  • Is the chair properly adjusted to fit the person,
    or is it awkward and causing uncomfortable
    postures?
  • Is there glare on the screen from windows or
    overhead lights, as this will increase the risk
    of eyestrain?
  • Is the hardware and / or software suitable for
    the task and the person using it, or is it
    causing frustration and distress?
  • Remember to take enough breaks or changes of
    activity?

If any of the above problems are not dealt with
it may result in mistakes and poor productivity,
stress, eye strain, headaches, or other aches and
pains. The correct set up is demonstrated in the
picture.
12
Manual Handling Considerations
  • Is the load heavy and / or bulky, placing
    unreasonable demands on the person?
  • Does the load have to be lifted from the floor
    and / or above the shoulders?
  • Does the task involve frequent repetitive
    lifting?
  • Does the task cause an awkward posture, such as
    bending or twisting?
  • Can the load be gripped properly?
  • Is the task performed on an uneven, wet, or
    sloping floor?
  • Is the task performed under time pressure and /
    or have too few rest breaks?
  • Any of the above, if not addressed, may result in
    physical injuries such as low back pain, injury
    to the arms, hands, or fingers. The problems may
    also contribute to the risk of slips, trips, and
    falls.

13
Work Related Stress Considerations
  • Are work demands too high or too low?
  • Does the employee have little say in how they
    organise their work?
  • Is there poor support from management and / or
    colleagues?
  • Are there conflicting demands, e.g. high
    productivity and quality?

Any poor control of the risks causing
work-related stress could lead to ill health and,
therefore, reduced performance and productivity.
14
Scenario
  • Sheila works on a conveyor assembly line. In her
    job she has to use her hands to pick up and fill
    small boxes of goods ready to dispatch to retail
    outlets. The assembly line makes and dispatches
    800 boxes a day and it takes approximately 30
    seconds to pack each box.
  • As well as the risk from repetitive strain,
    Sheila often has to adopt poor postures to reach
    the goods for packing. She has to repeatedly
    stretch out her arm and constrain her posture
    while packing. After some time on the job,
    Sheila found she was leaving work with shoulder
    and wrist pain.
  • One tea break, Sheilas line manager saw her
    rubbing her neck and wrists and recognised the
    pain could be due to the type of work she was
    doing. The Line Manager told the company Health
    and Safety Representative about what she had
    seen.
  • Considering Sheilas problem, think about what
    actions her employers could take to improve the
    work area?

15
What the Company Implemented
  • Whilst considering the possible actions, WELL
    DONE if you thought of any of the following-
  • Modify the workplace layout and allow workers
    better access to the conveyor, so they didnt
    need to adopt poor working postures
  • Introduce grab tools that allowed the gathering
    of the goods, which will reduce the repetitive
    movements
  • Implement a job rotation scheme, whereby five
    workers on the line are moved around a number of
    different tasks.

This now completes the Ergonomics part of the
training
Continue
16
Display Screen Equipment
It is very likely that in the course of your work
you will be using a computer, keyboard, mouse,
and Screen or monitor (referred to as a Visual
Display Unit or VDU). However, to minimise any
risks in using this equipment your employer must
ensure that the workplace, desks, and jobs are
well designed. As a user of the equipment, you
are also responsible for using the equipment and
resources provided to you correctly. In this
section we will look at how you can work safely
and avoid injury while using equipment of this
type.
17
What can I do?
To make full use of the equipment provided, you
will need to adjust your workstation to get the
best from it and to avoid any potential health
problems. Firstly, set up your workstation
properly to make this as comfortable as
possible. The following slides will help you see
how best to set up your workstation and then
complete the Risk Assessment so that you will be
able to print, sign, and give it to your Manager.
18
What can I do?
As a broad guide, your forearms should be
approximately horizontal to the desk surface and
your eyes the same height as the top of the VDU.
Make sure you have enough work space for
whatever documents or other equipment you need.
Please Note Make sure that your chair has five
spokes to its base. Older models with only
three or four spokes are dangerous and should be
withdrawn.
Adjust your chair and screen to find the most
comfortable position for your work. Look beneath
the seat of your chair for adjustment controls
for lift, tilt, and back height.
19
Question
Your eyes should be level with the top of the VDU
screen to avoid neck and eye strain?
FALSE
TRUE
Continue
20
What can I do?
Try different arrangements of keyboard, screen,
mouse and documents to find the best arrangement
for you. A document holder may help you avoid
awkward neck and eye movements.
Arrange your desk and VDU to avoid glare, or
bright reflections on the screen. This will be
easiest if neither you nor the screen is directly
facing windows or bright lights. Adjust curtains
or blinds to prevent unwanted light.
21
What can I do?
Make sure there is space under your desk to move
your legs freely. Move any obstacles such as
boxes, files, or equipment.
Avoid excess pressure from the edge of your seat
on the backs of your legs and knees. A footrest
may be helpful, particularly for smaller users.
Position the mouse within easy reach, so it can
be used with the wrist straight. Sit upright and
close to the desk, so you dont have to work with
your mouse arm stretched.
Support your forearm on the desk, and dont grip
the mouse too tightly. Use a mouse mat with wrist
support if required.
Rest your fingers lightly on the buttons and do
not press them hard.
22
What can I do?
Adjust your keyboard to get a good typing
position. A space in front of the keyboard is
sometimes helpful for resting the hands and
wrists when not typing. Try to keep your wrists
straight when typing. Keep a soft touch on the
keys and don't overstretch your fingers. Good
keyboard technique is important.
Adjust the brightness and contrast controls on
the screen to suit lighting conditions in the
room make sure the screen surface is
clean. When setting up and working on any
applications, adjust the settings so text is
large enough to read easily on your screen.
Individual characters on the screen should be
sharply focused and should not flicker or move.
23
What can I do?
Dont sit in the same position for long periods.
Make sure you change your posture as often as
practicable. Some movement is desirable, but
avoid repeated stretching for things you need (if
this happens a lot, rearrange your
workstation). Most jobs provide opportunities to
take a break from working on a screen. Make use
of them. If there are no such natural breaks in
your job, your Manager should help you plan for
regular short breaks from the typing position.
Frequent short breaks are better than fewer long
ones.
24
Answers to some commonquestions from VDU users
Are aches and pains caused by using a VDU? What
about RSI? Some users may get aches and pains
in their hands, wrists, arms, neck, shoulders, or
back, especially after long periods of
uninterrupted VDU work. Repetitive Strain
Injury (RSI) has become a popular term for these
aches, pains, and disorders, but can be
misleading - it means different things to
different people. A more accurate name for this
whole group of conditions is Upper Limb
Disorders (ULD). Usually, these disorders do
not last but in a few cases they may become
persistent or even disabling.
Can work with VDUs affect eyesight? Extensive
research has found no evidence that VDUs can
cause disease or permanent damage to eyes,
although long spells of VDU work can lead to
tired eyes and discomfort. Also, by giving your
eyes more demanding tasks, it might make you
aware of an eyesight problem you had not noticed
before. You and your employer can help your eyes
by ensuring your VDU is well positioned and
properly adjusted, and that the workplace
lighting is suitable. Ask for an Eye Test if you
still think there is a problem.
25
Answers to some commonquestions from VDU users
  • Headaches may result from several things that
    occur with VDU work, such as-
  • screen glare
  • poor image quality
  • a need for different spectacles
  • stress from the pace of work
  • anxiety about new technology
  • reading the screen for long periods without a
    break
  • poor posture
  • or a combination of these.
  • Many of these things can easily be put right once
    the cause of the problem has been found. People
    who use a VDU sometimes complain of stress, but
    this usually arises from an increased pace of
    work or pressure to meet deadlines, not the VDU
    itself. Some VDU workers find stress reduced
    because the VDU makes their job easier or more
    interesting, but for others stress becomes worse.
    This can happen when a system does not work well
    or when the user does not feel in control or
    competent to operate it. Employers can help
    overcome stress by providing the right training,
    and by designing systems and tasks to
  • match the abilities of the people who work with
    them.

26
The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment)
Regulations 1992 require employers to minimise
the risks in VDU work by ensuring that workplaces
and jobs are well designed. The Regulations
apply where staff habitually use VDUs as a
significant part of their normal work. People
who use VDUs only occasionally are not covered by
the Regulations (apart from the workstation
requirements). However, their employers still
have general duties to protect them under other
Health and Safety legislation.
I am self-employed - am I covered? The
Regulations do not place any duties on the
self-employed. However, parts of them apply if
you habitually use a VDU for a significant part
of your normal work and are using a client
employers workstation. The client employer has
to assess and reduce risks, ensure the
workstation complies with the minimum
requirements, and provide information as if you
were an employee. However, there is no
requirement for employers to plan work breaks,
provide eye tests, or provide training for the
self-employed. I work at home am I
covered? Yes, the Regulations apply if you are
an employee working at home and habitually using
a VDU for a significant part of your normal work.
27
Finally, before we leave this subject, don't
forget about your other piece of display screen
equipment - your eyesight! Have it checked
regularly for your general medical health. If
you use a computer for work your employer may
also pay towards your eye test.
Continue
This now completes the DSE part of the training
28
Manual Handling
What is Manual Handling? A good definition of
Manual Handling is the transporting or
supporting of a load, including lifting, putting
down, pushing, pulling, carrying, or moving of a
load. More than a third of all 4 day injuries
reported across the country each year are caused
by manual handling - the transporting or
supporting of loads by hand or by bodily force.
Manual handling injuries account for
approximately 40 of all general workplace
reported injuries. However, these only represent
the tip of a very large pyramid. For every
injury that is reported there is an estimated 10
additional injuries that have not and
approximately 200 near misses.
29
What does the law say?
This is covered by the Health and Safety at Work
etc. Act 1974 which aims to make the workplace as
safe as reasonably possible for staff and anyone
affected by their work and puts requirements on
both employers and employees. Along with Manual
Handling Operations Regulation 1992 there are
other regulations that also come under the Health
and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 that are also
relevant.
30
Manual Handling Operations Regulation 1992
  • The Regulations require employers to
  • Avoid the need for hazardous manual handling, so
    far as isreasonably practicable
  • Assess the risk of injury from any hazardous
    manual handlingthat can t be avoided
  • Reduce the risk of injury from hazardous manual
    handling, so far as is reasonably practicable
  • Review Risk Assessments regularly.
  • However, Employees have duties, too.
  • They are
  • Follow appropriate systems of work laid down for
    their safety
  • Make proper use of equipment provided for their
    safety
  • Co-operate with their employer on health and
    safety matters
  • Inform the employer if they identify hazardous
    handling activities
  • Take care to ensure that their activities do not
    putothers at risk.

31
Risk Assessment - the Difference Between an
Hazard and a Risk
Central to understanding the risk assessment
process is the difference between an hazard and a
risk. In everyday language these terms are used
interchangeably. For example, that was
hazardous and that was risky. In Risk
Assessments, however, they have distinct and
different meanings.
A Risk is the chance or likelihood of harm
occurring from an hazard and takes into account
the possible seriousness of the injury or
incident should it occur. For example, an
identical trip hazard, such as a box, is an
higher risk on stairs than it is in the corner of
a seldom used store room.
An Hazard is anything that has the potential to
cause harm. Trailing leads, confined spaces,
water on the floor are all examples of hazards.
32
Question
When lifting a load , twisting and lifting at the
same time is better than turning by moving the
feet?
FALSE
TRUE
Continue
33
The Risk Assessment Process in Manual Handling -
TILEE
We often undertake Risk Assessments in everyday
life, for example, driving a car and crossing a
road. These assessments are, of course, informal
and not structured, certainly not written
down! When completing a Manual Handling Risk
Assessment it is useful to have a structured
approach so that hazards are easier to see and
risks are easier to control. In Manual Handling
the Risk Assessment must consider the hazards and
risks in the following areas
L
E
E
I
T
34
Risk Assessment - T I L E E
  • Individual (you and me)
  • Are you fit enough to do the task or do you have
    an injury or a medical condition that might
    prevent you from applying best practice
    techniques?
  • Are you pregnant?
  • Are you trained and confident to undertake this
    particular task?
  • Have you read the moving and handling plan?
  • Are you familiar with any equipment used in the
    workplace?
  • Task
  • Things (Risk Factors) to consider about the Task
  • How is the task performed?
  • How long does the task take?
  • Is our posture compromised?
  • When and how often is it done?
  • Is there sufficient rest between this task and
    the next?
  • Load
  • The Load is central to the task.
  • We would assess the following factors about the
    load
  • Its weight
  • Its size and shape (how easy is it to handle)
  • Does it have suitable handles?
  • Is it evenly balanced?
  • Is there anything inside the load that could move
    and shift the centre of balance?
  • Are there any sharp edges and should we wear
    suitable gloves and clothing (at work this would
    be Personal Protective Equipment PPE)?
  • Equipment
  • Does the Task require equipment, for example, a
    trolley or sack barrow and if so
  • Is it available when needed?
  • Is the equipment safe, serviced, and maintained?
  • Is everyone trained and competent in using the
    equipment?
  • Is it compatible with the environment, ie too big
    or small for theroom?
  • Environment
  • Is there enough space for the task? (This
    includes you, your colleagues and any equipment.)
  • Are there problems in the design? (Are the
    doorways and corridors too narrow or is the shape
    of the environment awkward?)
  • Is there anything on the floor that you might
    slip or trip on?
  • Is it too hot or too cold which might impair your
    grip or cause fatigue?
  • Is your environment very busy, noisy, or
    distracting?

35
Work Equipment
  • It must be
  • Suitable for the intended purpose
  • Safe for use and maintained in a safe condition
  • Used by people who have received adequate
    training and instruction
  • Fitted with adequate guards and warning signs
    where appropriate.
  • And we must use it for the intended purpose,
    sensibly, safely, and in accordance with any
    training received

Moving and Handling Forms
These are available from the Trust Intranet
within the Policies and Procedures section.
36
A Quick Anatomy Lesson
The human spine consists of 32 individual bones
(vertebrae) that are stacked one on top of
another to form a flexible column. Viewed from
the side the spine has a series of curves which
act like a spring to protect our heads from the
forces generated by walking and jumping. What
are the different structures that form the spine?
Ligaments - are tough bands of tissue that
surround the facet joints and also pass between
the bodies of the vertebrae. Ligaments help limit
movement and they hold everything
together Spinal Muscles - like all muscles these
provide the power to move bones, in this case the
vertebrae. These muscles are small, delicate and
weak (when compared with the large leg muscles)
and form a network that runs the length of the
spine. Our leg muscles are much more powerful and
better suited for the power of lifting.
(Intervertebral) Discs - are flat, round discs
that act as shock absorbers and physical spacers
to separate the vertebrae to allow room for the
spinal nerves to exit the spine. The discs also
allow the spine to be flexible. Facet Joints -
are paired joints at the back of the spine which
direct and limit the range of movement between
vertebrae. Vertebrae (individual spinal bones) -
gives the spine shape and structure, transmits
weight and forces as acts as attachment points
for the discs, muscles and ligaments Tendons -
are non-contractile bands that join the muscles
to the bone. These are needed because they take
up less space on the bone.
Remember - The spine is a very strong and
flexible structure but only when used correctly
,it can be prone to injury if misused.
37
Summary
Do Not Jerk
Keep Close to the Load
Recommended Loads
38
Small children lift with a nice straight back and
using the hips and knees, both to bend and for
power, because of their lack of balance and back
muscle strength but this is the way that we are
designed to lift. The way that most adults
move, lift, and handle loads and objects is
essentially a learned bad habit.
Continue
This now completes the Manual Handling part of
the training
39
Stress
What is Stress? Stress can become an issue for
anyone at any level of business and research
shows us that work related stress is quite
widespread and is not confined to any particular
sector, job, or industry. The Health Safety
Executive defines stress as "the adverse
reaction people have to excessive pressure or
other types of demand placed on them". Pressure
is part and parcel of all work and can help to
keep us motivated. However, exposure to
excessive pressure can lead to stress which can
then undermine performance, be costly to
employers, and can make individuals ill. Stress
is not an illness, but if stress becomes too
excessive and prolonged serious illness can
develop. Work-related stress can affect us all
at some time or another. Recognising it,
preventing it, and doing something about it can
help avoid mistakes, injury, and illness.
40
Dealing with stress
Stress can be an unnoticed and gradual build-up
of the many pressures experienced in work, at
home, and in everyday life. Most people are able
to cope with the big issues in life and can find
them exciting but for some they are too demanding
or, combined with everything else going on, they
can become overwhelming, resulting in
stress. Many of lifes demands can cause stress,
particularly work, relationships, and money
problems. When you feel stressed it can get in
the way of sorting out these demands, or can even
affect everything you do. Stress can affect how
you feel, think, behave, and how your body works.
In fact, common signs of stress include sleeping
problems, sweating, loss of appetite, and
difficulty concentrating. You may feel anxious,
irritable, or low in self esteem, and you may
have racing thoughts, worry constantly, or go
over things in your head. You may notice that
you lose your temper more easily, drink more, or
act unreasonably.
41
Question
In some cases, prolonged stress can lead to
physical and/or mental ill health?
FALSE
TRUE
Continue
42
Dealing with Issues
Many of lifes demands beyond work can cause
stress, particularly relationships and money
problems. A person can experience more stress
outside of the working day than during it, or
vice versa, and stress from one can affect the
other. Finding the correct balance between work
and all the demands, responsibilities, and
rewards of everyday life can be difficult.
Conflicting demands are stressful and when you
feel stressed it can get in the way of sorting
out these demands or can even affect everything
you do. The less control you have over
potentially stress-inducing events and the more
uncertainty they create, the more likely you are
to feel stressed. Even the typical day-to-day
demands of living can contribute to your body's
stress response.
43
Stress
  • Recognising your Stress Triggers
  • If you're not sure what's causing your stress,
    keep a diary and make a note of stressful
    episodes for two-to-four weeks. Then review it to
    spot the triggers.

Take Action to Tackle Stress There's no
quick-fix cure for stress, and no single method
will work for everyone. However, there are
simple things you can do to change the common
life problems that can cause stress or make
stress a problem. These include relaxation
techniques, exercise, and talking the issues
through with someone. The Trust has many
resources available that can be found on the
Intranet, it also has a systematic and planned
approach to promoting and supporting all staff.
This is part of the Trusts commitment to support
work / life balance and work force planning.
Mental health issues, including stress, anxiety
and depression, are the reason for one-in-five
visits to a GP.
44
Stress
Take Action to Tackle Stress If you've tried
self-help techniques and they aren't working, you
should go to see your GP. They may suggest other
coping techniques for you to try or recommend
some form of counselling or cognitive behavioural
therapy. Remember Stress can affect anyone.
Continue
This now completes the Stress part of the
training please
45
Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)
What is COSHH? COSHH is the law that requires
employers to control substances that can be
hazardous to health. This section aims to give
you an awareness of COSHH and help you to
identify and deal with potential hazardous
substances. Using chemicals or any other
hazardous substances at work can put your own and
other people's health at risk. The law requires
employers to control exposure to hazardous
substances to prevent ill health. These controls
have to protect both employees and any other
person who may be exposed to the substance by
ensuring compliance with the Control of
Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002
(COSHH).
46
What is an Hazardous Substance?
  • An hazardous substance is defined as a substance
    with the potential to cause ill-health effects.
  • Examples of these are
  • Chemicals - these are identified by orange hazard
    warning symbols on the container e.g. very toxic,
    toxic, harmful, corrosive, etc
  • Any substance that has been assigned a workplace
    exposure limit
  • Dusts can become hazardous in concentrated form
  • Biological agents, such as bacteria, viruses,
    fungi, and parasites
  • Asphyxiates, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen
  • Carcinogens, such as tobacco smoke or radon gas.
  • Care should be taken with any containers that are
    not marked!

47
Substances may be hazardous not only due to their
toxicity but also through the route of entry they
take into the body. These routes may be
  • Inhalation - breathing in vapours, gasses, dusts
    and fumes
  • Ingestion - eating or drinking substances or
    foods contaminated by hazardous substances
  • On or through the skin - contact with the skin
    can cause harm to the skin or substances can be
    absorbed into the body through the skin causing
    harm to internal organs
  • Eyes - contact with the eyes by fumes, vapours,
    liquids, or dusts
  • Injection - liquids, solids, or gasses passing
    through the skin either by puncture wounds or
    through cuts.

48
A chemical is not just something used by
scientists in laboratories. Most people use
chemicals as part of their job or at home every
day. Cleaning products such as bleach and oven
sprays are chemicals. So are paints, inks,
glues, and oils. Most of the chemicals you might
use at work are not dangerous if you use them
properly and know what to do if something goes
wrong (such as a spillage), however, some
chemicals need more careful handling than others.
Labels can help you identify the more hazardous
chemicals tell you what the dangers are, and how
to avoid them. All hazardous substances must be
segregated and stored correctly they must be
kept locked in a COSHH cupboard when not in use.
49
A label can tell you a lot. Take a look at a
typical label you can find on a chemical used in
the workplace. You will see that it gives basic
information which alerts you to the dangers and
precautions, and gives details about the supplier
so you can get further advice. Look for the
label on all chemicals you use.
Any substance must be approved through a Risk
Assessment before they can be used in the Trust.
These are usually controlled by the Facilities
Department which can provide further information
on request. For further information about Risk
Assessments please visit the Trust intranet.
50
Manufacturers may also include instructions,
either on the label or on a leaflet supplied with
the product. Suppliers must provide Safety Data
Sheets for chemicals used in the workplace. This
is a detailed information sheet provided by
chemical suppliers to their customers so that
workers and the environment can be properly
protected.
First Aid instructions appear on most hazardous
substances. You should familiarise yourself with
these instructions before using rather than after
an incident occurs.
51
Question
If there are no Instructions for use on the
label or supplied as a leaflet with the product,
you should consult your manager or supplier for
advice?
FALSE
TRUE
Continue
52
Each workplace should have a register of
hazardous substances usually located with the
Facilities staff, who most use the chemicals -
ensure that you know where this register is. If
you have any questions about safety precautions
for hazardous chemicals, ask your manager before
using them. For your own safety, and the safety
of those you work with, each time you use a
chemical pause for a moment and ALWAYS READ THE
LABEL
Continue
This now completes the COSHH part of the training
53
Accident and Incident Reporting
  • All staff have a duty to report an incident or
    accident when it happens, but only one report is
    required per incident.
  • On completion of this Reporting section, you
    should understand
  • The reporting process
  • RIDDOR reports

Within SEPT incidents and accidents are reported
electronically on a database system called Datix.
Datix can be accessed via a link on the front
page of the Trust intranet site.
54
The word "accident" is used in day-to-day
language quite often. In Health Safety it has
a specific meaning, which is- any unplanned
event that resulted in injury or ill health of
people, or damage or loss to property, plant,
materials or the environment or a loss of
business opportunity. A near miss is where
harm could have resulted but was avoided.
  • Accident Causes
  • ALL accidents are the result of human failures,
    either by acts or omissions.
  • Of these accidents, it is calculated that 70 of
    them are preventable. People cause accidents by
    a number of different methods, these include
  • A lack of knowledge
  • Poor or defective tools or equipment
  • Lack of ability / training
  • By taking short-cuts
  • Not following correct Policy or Procedures
  • System Errors

55
  • Factors
  • Despite all of the things just mentioned, we, as
    people, do not usually choose to cause an
    accident. There are personal factors which can
    affect our behaviour. These can include
  • Complacency / Over-eagerness
  • Disinterest
  • Illness / Fatigue
  • Boredom
  • Distraction
  • Worry / Stress
  • RIDDOR
  • All RIDDOR incidents must have a 7-Day Report
    attached to the incident record.

56
  • Under RIDDOR (Reporting of Illness, Disease, and
    Dangerous Occurrence Regulations) there are
    certain types of incidents and accidents that
    must be reported, these include-
  • Any fracture, not including fingers, thumbs, or
    toes
  • Any amputation
  • Dislocation of the shoulder, hip, knee, or spine
  • Loss of sight (temporary or permanent)
  • Chemical or hot metal burn to the eye
  • Any penetrating injury to the eye
  • Any injury resulting from electric shock or
    electrical burn
  • A RIDDOR incident also includes time-off sick
    after an accident or incident at work, where the
    person is off sick for four or more days
    (reported externally to the HSE if off sick for
    eight or more days). Employees who are off-sick
    because of an incident or accident whilst at work
    must, by law, inform their manager once they are
    off-sick for four or more days. The Manager then
    reports this fact to the Risk Management Team and
    completes a 7-Day Report Form.

RIDDOR reports are made in the usual way on Datix
and the Risk Management Team should be notified
immediately by telephone (01268-739-731).
Updates and changes to the Datix record will be
made by the Manager, or their deputy, as they
occur. It is very important that staff report any
possible RIDDOR to the Risk Management Team (RMT)
as soon as the incident occurs. The RMT are
required to report incident to the HSE
immediately (serious cases) or within 10 days
(usual cases) of the incident happening.
57
Question
All staff have a duty to report any incident or
accident ?
FALSE
TRUE
Continue
58
Datix Form Completion
Datix Forms are very easy to complete. A form
should be completed immediately after an incident
or accident happens - anyone can complete the
form. The Datix form is completed on-line, via
the intranet. On the form all the areas marked
with the red asterisk must be completed.
59
Any Witness Statements, or other relevant
documents, should be scanned and attached to the
Datix form. Ensure the documents are saved and
are ready to be attached before completing the
incident form. Any documents added to a Datix
record must have any passwords removed before
attaching them.
Enter all the details of those involved including
Patients (Service Users), Staff, Visitors, etc.
By selecting the Add Another button you will be
able to add all those named persons involved in
the incident / accident.
60
  • Once the Datix form is complete you finish by
    clicking on the Submit button at the bottom of
    the form.
  • Once a form has been submitted the system will
    automatically send out any necessary alerts the
    form is then available for the Manager of the
    area identified to complete their part, which
    includes any investigations or reports.

61
Remember
The Trust can only be proactive in Health
Safety if you report ALL accidents, incidents,
and near miss events. For further help and
advice on reporting please contact the Risk
Management Team. The Teams details and contact
numbers can be found on the Trust Intranet.
Continue
This now completes the Reporting part of the
training
62
Slips, Trips, and Falls
You take hundreds of steps every day, but how
many of those steps do you take seriously?
Controlling slips and trips risks at work
Introduction Slips and trips are the most common
cause of injury at work. On average, they
account for 40 of all reported major injuries
and can also lead to other types of serious
accidents, for example, falls from height. Slips
and trips are also the most reported injury to
members of the public.
  • This lesson covers -
  • What causes slips and trips
  • Assessing the risks
  • Spotting potential hazards
  • Being aware of your environment.

63
Slips and trips are funny arent they??
Slip and trip accidents are often used in
cartoons and videos to raise a laugh, but ask a
victim if theyre funny. Slip and trip injuries
are serious enough on their own, but they often
cause serious injury. Incidents such as falls
can cause life long problems.
Example A young person, who was working in a fast
food outlet, slipped on water leaking from a
freezer. She put out her hand to break her fall
but her arm landed in a deep fat fryer, causing
severe scalding. The company, who were aware of
the leak but had not taken steps to cure it or to
contain it, were prosecuted by the Local
Authority and were fined 15,000.
64
Regulations
The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
requires employers to ensure the health and
safety of all employees and anyone who may be
affected by their work, so far as is reasonably
practicable. This includes taking steps to
control slip and trip risks. Also, employees
have a duty not to put themselves or others in
danger, and must use any safety equipment
provided. Employers are required to assess risks
(including slip and trip risks) and, where
necessary, take action to address them. The
Regulations require floors to be suitable, in
good condition, and free from obstructions.
People should be able to move around safely.
  • On average, fracture injuries result in at least
    one month off work and the cost of treating slip
    and trip injuries for the NHS is more than 150m
    pa.
  • To the individual lost income, pain, reduced
    quality of life
  • To employers over 500m pa in damages, admin,
    insurance, lost production, on-going absences
  • To society over 800m pa loss of potential
    output, medical costs, social security.

65
Spotting an Hazard
What could be a potential hazard?
Poorly Lit Areas
Manhole covers
Stairs and steps
Phone wires
Extension leads
wet Surfaces
Open drawers
Heaved Concrete
Door Thresholds
Loose Carpet
Computer Wiring
Loose floor tiles
These are only examples. There are many others
so please be aware of your environment.
Frost, Snow or Ice
Mats
Uneven Surface
Sudden Change of Direction
Inattention
66
Preventing a Slip or a Trip
There are many simple ways to control slip and
trip risks and prevent accidents in your
workplace. Here are a few examples-
  • Get the right footwear
  • Where floors cannot be kept clean and dry,
    slip-resistant footwear can help prevent slip
    accidents.

Stop floors becoming contaminated by
  • Use entrance matting
  • Fix leaks from machinery or buildings
  • Make sure plant and equipment are maintained
  • Design tasks to minimise spillages
  • Plan pedestrian and vehicle routes to avoid
    contaminated areas.

Consider the flooring and work environment
  • Check for loose, damaged, and worn flooring and
    replace as needed
  • Floors likely to get wet or have spillages on
    them should be of a type that does not become
    unduly slippery
  • Make sure lighting is sufficient and that slopes
    or steps are clearly visible
  • Keep walkways and work areas clear of
    obstructions
  • Make sure that wires, cables are leads are not a
    trip hazard.

67
Question
Slips, Trips or Falls do not have to be reported?
FALSE
TRUE
Continue
68
Summary
  • In all workplaces
  • If you have an incident, accident, or near miss
    make sure you report it via Datix
  • If you see a spillage, clean it up or make
    arrangements for it to be cleaned
  • Report any damaged floors or mats
  • Play your part and keep the workplace clean,
    clear, and tidy
  • If you see items on the floor where someone could
    trip over them, remove them, arrange for them to
    be removed, or for the situation to be made safe
  • If you are given PPE (Personal Protective
    Equipment), wear it, use it, and look after it
    reporting any faults or damage to your Manager.
  • Tell the Trust about any work situation that you
    think is dangerous, or if you notice that
    something has gone wrong with your health and
    safety arrangements.

This now completes the Slips Trips and Falls And
Fit for Work.
69
Remember, if you want to find more information /
evidence about this subject or anything else
which is relevant to your work or study, join
your local healthcare library. For staff in Essex
contact Basildon Healthcare Library.
www.btuheks.nhs.uk library_at_btuh.nhs.uk 01268
524900 EX3594 
It may be that you work in a different area, for
example Luton. Details of all the Health
Libraries in the East of England can be found at
this site You are welcome to join any of
these.
www.eel.nhs.uk
70
Review of Objective(s)
  • Before completing the test, please ensure you
    have acquired the relevant knowledge against the
    modules objective(s) below
  • On completion of the Fit for Work module you will
    be able to
  • Describe why an awareness of health and safety
    issues in the workplace is important
  • Demonstrate how to lift, carry, and deposit an
    inanimate load safely
  • Describe how to adjust seating position and
    posture whilst using display screen equipment
  • Identify hazards associated with using hazardous
    chemicals
  • Take appropriate measures to relieve stress and
    fatigue whilst carrying out certain tasks.
  • If not, please take this opportunity to revisit
    the presentation content.

CONTINUE
71
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