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Roman Leadership (Reformers, Generals, and Triumvirates) How did Roman leaders try to fix the issues that Rome faced after the Punic Wars?

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Title: Roman Leadership (Reformers, Generals, and Triumvirates) How did Roman leaders try to fix the issues that Rome faced after the Punic Wars?


1
Roman Leadership (Reformers, Generals, and
Triumvirates) How did Roman leaders try to fix
the issues that Rome faced after the Punic Wars?
  • Over the next 100 years after the decline of the
    Roman Republic as a result of the Punic Wars,
    many different popular leaders tried to improve
    conditions in Rome. The following leaders were
    reformers, generals, or members of triumvirates
    who made attempts to fix the problems in Rome.
    Only one of them was completely successful.
  • Tiberius Gracchus
  • Gaius Gracchus
  • General Gaius Marius
  • General Lucius Sulla
  • Marcus Crassus
  • Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey)
  • Julius Caesar
  • Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony)
  • Marcus Amelius Lepidus
  • Octavian (Augustus)

2
vocabulary terms to know
  • reformer
  • booty
  • dictator
  • triumvirate
  • emperor
  • Pax Romana
  • freedmen
  • census
  • province
  • tariff
  • juris prudentes
  • standardized
  •  

3
Tiberius Gracchusreformer
  • -Time Period 133 B.C.
  • -Accomplishments 1st Roman reformer, a person
    who works to change and improve a society became
    tribune wanted to give land back to poor
  • -Supporters Gaius Gracchus (brother) and poorer
    classes
  • -End of Term Killed by members of the
    Senate-threatened by his ideas since he wanted to
    limit the amount of land a person could own

Tiberius Gracchus
4
Gaius Gracchusreformer
  • -Time Period 123 B.C.
  • -Accomplishments 2nd reformer followed in his
    brothers footsteps to carry out his plans to
    help the poor
  • -Supporters poorer classes
  • -End of Term Just like his brother, he was also
    killed by members of the Senate-threatened by his
    ideas since he wanted to limit the amount of
  • land a person could own

Gaius Gracchus
5
General Gaius Marius
  • -Time Period 107 B.C.
  • -Accomplishments military hero first
    lower-class Roman to hold a high office. Opened
    army to everyone as consul offered the following
    to the poor to get them to join the army pay,
    land, pensions, and booty, things taken from
    enemies during war
  • -Supporters Lower-class citizens ex-soldiers
  • -End of Term A rival named Lucius Cornelius
    Sulla led an army and overthrew Marius.
  • Gaius Marius

Even though Marius opened the army to everyone,
soldiers became loyal to their generals and not
Rome
6
General Lucius Sulla
  • -Time Period 82 B.C.
  • -Accomplishments Overthrew Marius when Marius
    tried to get the assembly to take command away
    from Sulla became dictator, or absolute ruler.
    Doubled size of Senate and weakened Tribunes
  • -Supporters Legionaries
  • -End of Term Retired

Lucius Sulla
7
Marcus Crassus1st Triumvirate
  • -Time Period 60 B.C.
  • -believed in a republic run by upper-class
    senators
  • -Accomplishments statesmen, financier, and
    military leader Member of the First Triumvirate,
    or group of 3 leaders with equal power called
    The Rich because he made much money through
    investments
  • -Supporters Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompey
  • -End of Term Killed in battle
  • Marcus Crassus

8
Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey)-1st Triumvirate
  • -Time Period 60 B.C.
  • -Accomplishments Romes highest ranking elected
    official outstanding Roman general and
    statesmen Member of the First Triumvirate,
    Caesars rival for power after Crassus died
  • -Supporters Army soldiers
  • -End of Term Killed in Egypt by supporters of
    Caesar
  • Pompey

9
Julius Caesar1st Triumvirate
  • -Time Period 46 B.C.
  • -member of the First Triumvirate
  • Julius Caesar gained power in 48 B.C. after the
    death of Pompey
  • -In 58 B.C., Caesar became governor of Gaul and
    built-up a strong and loyal army
  • -The Senate ordered him to break up army and
    return to Rome in 50 B.C.
  • -He instead led his army to Rome in order to
    challenge Pompey
  • -Became dictator of Rome in 46 B.C and made many
    reforms
  • Caesar

10
Julius Caesar (continued)
  • -Accomplishments Member of First Triumvirate,
    general, reformer, and dictator of Rome
    redistributed state lands in Italy founded new
    colonies overseas began public works projects
    planned and paid for gladiatorial games doubled
    the size of the Senate cut back activities of
    the publicans
  • -Supporters plebeians, military
  • -End of Term Killed by a group of Senators since
    they feared Caesar would make himself king!

11
(Marcus Antonius) Mark Antony 2nd Trimvirate
  • -Time Period 43 B.C.
  • Married to Cleopatra of Egypt.
  • Formed a Second Triumvirate
  • -Accomplishments Close friend of and military
    leader with Caesar who took control of Roman
    territories to the East after Caesars death
    member of the Second Triumvirate
  • -Supporters Caesar and military
  • -End of Term Octavian became emperor, sole ruler
    of empire, of Rome
  • Mark Antony

12
Marcus Amelius Lepidus 2nd Triumvirate
  • -Time Period 42 B.C.
  • -Accomplishments One of Caesars top officers
    took over the rule of Africa after Caesars
    death member of the Second Triumvirate
  • -Supporters Caesar and military
  • -End of Term died in 13 B.C. (not in battle)
  • Marcus Lepidus

13
Octavian (Augustus)2nd Triumvirate
  • -Time Period 27 B.C.-14 A.D.
  • -Accomplishments Caesars adopted son, Member of
    Second Triumvirate Became first emperor of Rome
    after fights broke out with Antony, ending in
    Antonys defeat in 31 B.C.
  • -Supporters Caesar
  • Became first Roman Emperor, sole ruler of
    Rome! Reign lasted 41 years
  • ended in 14 A.D.

Octavian (Augustus) Romes First Emperor!
14
Rule of Augustus
  • In 27 B.C., Octavian told the Senate that he had
    restored the republic and offered to resign as
    sole ruler.
  • The Senate refused his offer and gave him several
    titles.
  • Octavian took the title of Augustus, meaning
    revered one, and became the first emperor of
    Rome.

15
Rule of Augustus
  • Augustus implemented numerous policies that led
    to the Pax Romana, a 200-year time period of
    peace and prosperity in Rome.
  • Even after the empire collapsed, Roman influence
    would survive in much of the world.
  • Augustus was a clever politician and held the
    offices of consuls, tribune, high priest, and
    senator.

16
Rule of Augustus
  • The following were ways in which Augustus
    strengthened his authority while keeping the
    assemblies and government officials of the
    republic.
  • For control, he had every soldier swear
    allegiance.
  • He gave enslaved people and freedmen, or former
    enslaved people, a chance to be a part of the
    government.
  • He pushed Romes borders to natural boundaries
    that would be easy to defend.

17
Rule of Augustus
  • This led to the Pax Romana the peace and
    prosperity that Augustus brought to Romelasted
    over 200 years
  • People prospered, civilization spread, and
    cultures mixed.

18
Pax Romana-Rule of Augustus How did life in Rome
improve during the Pax Romana?
  • During the 41 years of his reign, Augustus
    brought peace, patriotism, and pride to the
    Romans.
  • He gave provincial governors long terms of office
    and paid them large salaries.
  • province an area controlled by Rome but not
    given Roman rights

19
Pax Romana-Rule of Augustus
  • He made Roman citizenship available to people in
    the provinces.
  • To make sure that people did not pay too little
    or too much, Augustus ordered a census, or a
    population count, to be taken from time to time.
  • Most important, he reorganized the government of
    Rome so that it ran well for more than 200 years.

20
Pax Romana-Trade
  • increase in trade
  • same coins used throughout the empire
  • No tariffs, or taxes placed on goods brought
    into the country
  • Goods and money moved freely along the trade
    routes.

21
Pax Romana-Trade
  • Mediterranean was cleared of pirates, making it
    safe for trade and travel.
  • Shipping became a big business.
  • Types of goods
  • grain from North Africa
  • brick, marble, granite, and wood for building
  • luxury itemsamber from the north and silk from
    China

22
Pax Romana-Trade
  • Increased trademore business for Romans
  • Shopkeepers grew richer.
  • Wine and olive oil were the main items bought by
    other countries
  • Italy became a manufacturing center for pottery,
    bronze, and woolen cloth.

23
Pax Romana-Law
  • During the Pax Romana, Roman law went through
    many changes since the original Twelve Tables
    were written.
  • When Rome conquered a new territory, Roman
    merchants had to do business with non-Romans.
  • Roman judges wrote new laws to make them fair for
    everyone.
  • Juris prudentes, special lawyers and legal
    writers, helped the judges.

24
Pax Romana-Law
  • A law was believed to be just because it was
    reasonable not because the government had the
    power to make people obey it.
  • Everyone was equal under the law.
  • Everyone was innocent until proven guilty.
  • By 125 A.D., Roman Law was standardized, which
    meant that legal procedures were the same in all
    parts of the empire.
  • In later years, Roman legal principles formed the
    basis for the laws of most western countries and
    of the Christian church.

25
Emperors of Pax Romana
  • 1st emperor of Roman Empire reorganized
    government of Rome brought peace to Rome
  • reformed taxes and improved financial state of
    government
  • repaired roads and began construction of two
    aqueducts nominated his horse for office
  • conquered most of England extended citizenship
    to many people outside of Rome set up ministries
    to handle government administration
  • Augustus
  • (27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
  • Tiberius
  • (14 A.D.-37 A.D.)
  • Caligula
  • (37 A.D.-41 A.D.)
  • Claudius
  • (41 A.D.-54 A.D.)

26
Emperors of Pax Romana
  • blamed for starting the great fire of Rome in 64
    A.D. rebuilt the city and gave it a city plan
  • brought people from the provinces into the
    Senate secured frontier regions brought Rome
    new prosperity built the Colisseum
  • built aqueducts, bridges, and harbors extended
    citizenship to more provinces cut dishonesty in
    business and government
  • Nero
  • (54 A.D.-68 A.D.)
  • Flavian Emperors
  • (69 A.D.-96 A.D.)
  • Vespasian
  • Titus
  • Domitian
  • Five Good Emperors
  • (96 A.D.-180 A.D.)
  • Nerva
  • Trajan
  • Hadrian
  • Antonius Pius
  • Marcus Aurelius
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