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Chapter 34 Notes, The Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems


The Circulatory System. the circulatory system is the body's transportation system. The circulatory system consists of the blood, the heart, the blood vessels, and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 34 Notes, The Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Chapter 34 Notes, The Circulatory, Respiratory,
and Excretory Systems
The Circulatory System
  • the circulatory system is the body's
    transportation system.
  • The circulatory system consists of the blood, the
    heart, the blood vessels, and the lymphatic
  • The circulatory system transports oxygen,
    nutrients, disease-fighting materials, cell
    fragments and proteins used for blood clotting,
    and the circulatory system distributes heat
    uniformly throughout the body.

The Circulatory System
Blood Vessels
  • Just like a highway transportation system has
    roads, on and off ramps, stop lights etc., the
    circulatory system has a complicated network of
    blood vessels that perform different functions.
  • Oxygen-rich blood is carried away from the heart
    in blood vessels called arteries. Arteries are
    strong thick-walled vessels that are elastic and
    durable. They are able to withstand high
    pressures exerted by the pumping heart.

Blood Vessels
  • When arteries get closer to their intended
    destination (usually an organ or a tissue), they
    begin branching off into thin-walled delicate
    vessels known as capillaries.
  • Capillaries are small, delicate blood vessels,
    that sometimes are only 1 cell thick, where the
    exchange of important substances and wastes
  • After the blood travels through the capillaries
    they enter the veins, which carry oxygen-poor
    blood back to the heart.

Capillaries and Veins
Blood Vessels
  • Veins do not have to withstand high pressures as
    the arteries do. Once the blood has passed
    through the capillaries, much of the blood
    pressure generated by the heart has already been
  • Veins rely on the movement of skeletal muscles to
    pump the deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
  • Veins also have one-way valves that prevent blood
    from flowing backwards.

Arteries and Veins
The Heart
  • The main function of the heart is to pump
    oxygenated blood to the body, and to pump
    deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • The heart is divided into four chambers.
  • The two chambers on the top of the heart are the
    right atrium and left atrium (plural, atria).
  • The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from
    the body. The left atrium receives oxygenated
    blood from the lungs.

Four-Chambered Heart
The Heart
  • The two lower chambers of the heart, that pump
    blood away from the heart are called the right
    and left ventricles.
  • The strong thick-walled left ventricle pumps
    oxygenated blood to the body. The thinner-
    walled right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood
    to the lungs.
  • The beating of the heart is controlled by a group
    of cells in the right atrium called the pacemaker
    or sinoatrial node (SA node for short).
  • The SA node causes the atria to contract, the
    Atrioventricular (AV) node contracts the

The Human Heart
The Blood
  • Blood is made up of four components plasma, red
    blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • Plasma is a clear, yellowish fluid. More than
    50 of the blood is plasma. Plasma is about 90
    water and 10 dissolved materials.
  • Plasma carries digested food, vitamins, minerals,
    hormones, and waste products.
  • Red blood cells carry oxygen to all the body's
    cells. Red blood cells look like donuts.

Composition of Blood
The Blood
  • Red blood cells in mammals have no nuclei.
  • This is an adaptation that allows the blood cells
    to carry more oxygen.
  • Red blood cells are made up of an iron-rich
    protein known as hemoglobin.
  • Iron turns red in the presence of oxygen, giving
    blood rich in oxygen its reddish color.
  • White blood cells are cells that fight off

Red and White Blood Cells
The Blood
  • Platelets are cell fragments that form blood
    clots when a cut occurs.
  • When a blood vessel is cut, platelets collect and
    stick to the site of the wound.
  • The platelets then release chemicals that produce
    a protein called fibrin.
  • Fibrin weaves a network of fibers across the cut
    that traps more platelets and red blood cells.
  • As more platelets and red blood cells collect,
    eventually a blood clot forms.

The Blood
Circulatory System Disorders
  • Blood clots and deposits of fats can sometimes
    lead to a blockage of arteries.
  • A disorder caused by the condition of blocked
    arteries is referred to as atherosclerosis.
  • Signs of clogged arteries are high blood pressure
    and high cholesterol.
  • Atherosclerosis can lead to diseases like heart
    attacks or strokes.

Circulatory System Disorders
  • Heart attacks occur when blood is prevented from
    returning to the heart.
  • Strokes occur when blood is prevented from
    reaching the brain.
  • Heart attacks result in damage to the heart or
    death. Strokes most often result in brain damage.

  • In order to function, all of the body's cells
    need a continuous supply of oxygen, and they need
    to expel carbon dioxide produced from
  • The mechanical action that moves air into and out
    of the lungs is called breathing.
  • External respiration is the exchange of gases
    that occurs between the air and the blood.
  • Internal respiration is the exchange of gases
    between the blood and the body's cells.

Breathing and Respiration
The Respiratory System
  • The tissues and organs of the respiratory system
    include the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx,
    epiglottis, trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles,
    alveoli, and the diaphragm.
  • When air first enters the mouth or the nose,
    small hairs in the nose and nasal passages filter
    out dust and particles.
  • The filtered air then passes through the area of
    the upper throat called the pharynx.

Nasal Passages and Pharynx
The Respiratory System
  • A small flap of tissue called the epiglottis
    covers the larynx (voice box). The epiglottis
    prevents food from entering the trachea
  • After air passes through the larynx, it travels
    down the trachea. The trachea branches into two
    large tubes called the bronchi.
  • After the air passes through the bronchi it
    enters into the lungs.
  • Once into the lungs, the bronchi branch off into
    smaller tubes called bronchioles.

The Respiratory System
  • At the end of the bronchioles are small air sacs
    that are only one cell thick and surrounded by
    capillaries. These air sacs are called alveoli.
  • Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli.
  • The lungs fill up with air when the muscular
    diaphragm contracts. When the diaphragm muscles
    relax, the lungs push air back out.
  • There are many common disorders of the
    respiratory system like asthma, bronchitis,
    emphysema, pneumonia, and lung cancer.

The Respiratory System
The Excretory System
  • The main function of the excretory system is to
    remove the body's wastes.
  • Another important function of the excretory
    system is it helps regulate the body's fluids,
    salt concentrations, and the pH of the blood.
  • The main organs of the excretory system include
    the skin, lungs, liver, and kidneys.
  • The lungs excrete carbon dioxide, and the skin
    excretes water and salt, but the kidneys are the
    most important part of the excretory system.

The Human Excretory System
The Excretory System
  • Small bean-shaped organs called kidneys do the
    biggest job of the excretory system.
  • The kidneys are divided into three parts the
    renal cortex, renal medulla, and renal pelvis.
  • Inside the kidneys there are approximately 1
    million filtering units called nephrons.
  • In the nephrons, blood enters a structure called
    the Bowman's capsule.
  • Inside the Bowman's capsule is a ball of
    capillaries called the glomerulus.

The Excretory System
The Excretory System
  • When the blood reaches the glomerulus and the
    Bowman's capsule, high pressures filter urea out
    of the blood.
  • Larger molecules like blood cells mostly stay in
    the bloodstream.
  • The filtrate coming out of the Bowman's capsule
    enters an area of the nephron called the
    convoluted tubule and the loop of Henle.
  • This part of the nephron reabsorbs any of the
    good substances like glucose and minerals.

Anatomy of the Kidneys
The Excretory System
  • Eventually at the end of the nephron, the waste
    product that will be removed is called urine.
  • Urine leaves the nephron through collecting
    tubules. The collecting tubules lead to ureters.
    The ureters lead to the urinary bladder, where
    urine is stored until it is finally removed from
    the body.
  • Remarkably, even though kidneys filter about 180
    L (about 48 gallons) of blood each day, they only
    produce about 1.5 L (almost ½ gallon) of urine
    each day.

The Kidneys and Nephron Filtration