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NATIONALISM AND UNIFICATION

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Title: NATIONALISM AND UNIFICATION


1
NATIONALISM AND UNIFICATION
2
Latin America
  • Haiti (French Colony) inspired by Liberty,
    Equality, Fraternity
  • 1791 Slave Revolt
  • Toussiant LOuvertureex-slave became a leader
    and freed the slaves on the island of Hispaniola.
    French eventually captured and imprisoned him
    (died in 1803)

3
  • Contributions of Toussaint LOuverture
  • Former slave who led Haitian rebellion against
    French
  • Defeated the armies of three foreign powers
    Spain, France, and Britain
  • Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and
    won independence.

4
Bolivia/Venezuela
  • Contributions of Simón Bolivar
  • Native resident who led revolutionary efforts
  • Liberated the northern areas of Latin America

5
Revolution in Latin America cont
  • Mexico revolted out of anger and threw off
    Spains control
  • Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican
    independence movement.
  • Portugal revolted and got independence!

6
How did the Monroe Doctrine impact revolutions in
Latin America? 
  • Impact of the Monroe Doctrine
  • The Monroe Doctrine was issued by President James
    Monroe in 1823.
  • Latin American nations were acknowledged to be
    independent.
  • The United States would regard as a threat to its
    own peace and safety any attempt by European
    powers to impose their system on any independent
    state in the Western Hemisphere.

7
Russia
  • Russia in 1800s still struggling with its
    identity struggled with the challenges of
    modernization wanted to rid country of serfdom
    because it was a major hindrance to advancement

8
Russia cont
  • 1853Czar Nicholas I attempted to take over part
    of the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War.
  • Problem Russia was not modernized/advanced
    enough to challenge the Ottoman Empire

9
Russia cont
  • Alexander IImade it his mission to modernize and
    advance Russia
  • Greatest accomplishment was emancipating the
    serfs in 1861
  • Alexander II was assassinated in 1881

10
Russia cont
  • Alexander IIIdetermined to expand the planned
    reforms of his predecessor. By now,
    nationalism-pride and loyalty towards Russian
    people, was a major factor in Alex. III plan

11
Russia cont
  • Started a program called Russificationa plan
    to unite all Russian people (Russian language,
    church, etc.) harsh measures were used to force
    people to comply
  • Jews were often targeted. Their lands and
    businesses were seized and they were forced into
    ghettos and were eventually massacred in the
    pogroms

12
Austria-Hungary
  • Mostly a German speaking kingdom, but there were
    other ethnic nationalities living there.
  • Hoped that by uniting Austria and Hungary and the
    many nationalities it would make it a much more
    powerful nation

13
Austria-Hungary cont
  • 1867 Francis Joseph (Emperor of Austria)
    proclaimed a dual monarch Austria-Hungary. The 2
    empires were technically independent states in
    terms of parliaments, but Joseph was ruler of both

14
Austria-Hungary cont
  • Two sides were supposed to compliment each other
    and make the empire one of the strongest in
    Europe. Empire definitely one of the largest,
    but ironically the nationalism that united the
    empire eventually destroyed the empire and it
    officially disbanded at the end of WWI

15
Italy
  • Formed as a result of nationalism. Movement was
    known as Risorgimento in Italy (resurgence of
    nationalism which led to the unification of Italy)

16
Italy cont
  • Italy in 1815
  • North controlled by Austria
  • Spain controlled Sicily and South mainland
  • Pope controlled most lands around Rome

17
Italy cont
  • 1832 process begins to unite due to nationalism
  • Giuseppe Mazzini (26 years old)Young Italyno
    one older than 40 . Nationalist Group

18
Italy cont
  • 1848year of many revolutions throughout the
    Italian peninsula
  • Most of the revolutions failed
  • One success story was in Sardinia where the 1848
    revolution had brought a liberal constitution

19
Italy cont
  • 1852 Sardinias King Victor Emmanuel II named
    Camillo di Cavour as Prime Minister
  • Cavour will be able to expand Sardinias power
    and influence and became an instrumental leader
    in Italian unification

20
Italy cont
  • Process of unification
  • 1 To secure the north he had to remove Austrian
    influencehe allied w/France and the 2 defeated
    Austriathey received everything but Venetia

21
Italy cont
  • 2 The south was secured by Giuseppe Garibaldi
    and the Red Shirts. Garibaldi secured Sicily and
    then the southern mainland. Garibaldi then
    united the southern regions w/the kingdom of
    Sardinia

22
Italy cont
  • 3 Venetia was incorporated in 1866 when they
    (Italy) sided in the Seven Weeks War

23
Italy cont
  • 4 Papal Stateslands governed by the PopeRome
    came under Italian control. Rome became the
    capital. The Pope refused to surrender the lands
    immediately surrounding his home and those lands
    became known as Vatican City

24
Problems with Unification
  • Rivalries btwn industrial north/agricultural
    south
  • Different dialects
  • Economic problemsstrikes, riots, heavy
    taxespoor country

25
German Unification
  • Prussia will lead the way
  • Process
  • 1-N. German Confederation created at the Congress
    of Vienna
  • 2-Zollverein (economic union) created in 1834
  • 3-Wilhelm I became king of Prussia in 1861
    appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister
  • Wilhelm and Bismarck supported by the Junkers
    (wealthy Landowners

26
German Unification cont..
  • 4-Bismarcks strategies
  • Realpolitik
  • 3 wars used to unite Germany

27
Bismarcks Plan
  • RealpolitikRealistic Politics do whatever is
    necessary
  • 1-increase the army
  • Reduce Austrias influence
  • Unite the rest of the German states under
    Prussian rule
  • Use 3 wars to accomplish plan

28
3 Wars
  • Danish War (Used to set Austria up) Prussia
    fought the Danes because they ruled over the
    territories of Schleswig and Holstein. Schleswig
    had large German population. Prussia persuaded
    Austria to fight against the Danes (Denmark).
    After 3 months, Denmark surrendered and Prussia
    convinced Austria to let tem have Schleswig and
    Austria took Holstein.

29
3 Wars cont
  • 7 Weeks War (Used to eliminate Austria) Prussia
    made alliances with everyone to isolate Austria.
    Prussia invaded Holstein and got Austria to
    declare war on Prussia. Austria lost. Prussia
    got Holstein, Italy got Venetia, and Austria
    removed from the North German Confederation.

30
3 Wars cont
  • Franco-Prussian War Used to complete
    unification and bring in S. German states
  • France worried that a Hohenzollern would take
    throne of Spain to surround France. Meeting took
    place. Bismarck altered a telegram insulting the
    French.

31
3 Wars cont
  • Franco-Prussian War The French declared war on
    Prussia. The Fr. Would march through the south to
    get to Prussiaso the S. German states had to
    unite w/Prussia
  • Unification complete 1871!!!

32
3 Wars cont
  • Wilhelm I Kaiser
  • Bismarck Chancellor
  • Berlin Capital
  • German Empire had a constitution w/democracy!!!
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