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Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Nutrients Involved in Bone Health

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Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Nutrients Involved in Bone Health Chapter 8, 9,10 (cont.), 11 BIOL1400 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Nutrients Involved in Bone Health


1
Vitamins, Minerals, and WaterMicronutrientsFlui
d and Electrolytes Balance.Nutrients Involved in
Bone Health
  • Chapter 8, 9,10 (cont.), 11
  • BIOL1400
  • Dr. Mohamad H. Termos

2
Open Book Quiz
  • List the functions of water in human body
  • Classify minerals into major and trace minerals
  • List the types of mineral interactions in the
    body. Give one example on the importance of such
    interactions.
  • Which minerals are important for the bones?
  • Which minerals are important for nerve impulse
    conduction and/or nerve function?

3
Open Book Quiz
  • List all minerals with their respective symbols
  • How tea and sweets affect calcium absorption?
  • What is hypertension? What are the possible
    causes that may lead to it? Which minerals are
    good?
  • Compare and contrast between heme and non-heme
    irons
  • In general which food is rich in trace minerals?

4
Water
  • Introduction
  • - Water is a solvent dissolving many body
    components
  • - 50 to 70 of the body's weight
  • - Lean tissue 73 water
  • - Fat tissue 20 water
  • - Humans can survive only a few days without water

5
Water
  • Water flows freely in and out of the cell through
    cell membranes by osmosis
  • Ion or electrolyte concentrations control the
    amount of water in the inside and the outside of
    cells

6
Water
  • - Water contributes to temperature regulation
  • - Water helps remove waste products
  • - Most unused substances in the body can dissolve
    in water and exit in the urine
  • - Healthy urine output 1 liter or more per day
  • Less than 500 milliliters (2 cups) forces
    kidneys to excessively concentrate the urine
  • Heavy ion concentration in urine increases risk
    of kidney stones

7
Water
  • Other functions of water
  • Helps form lubricants found in knees and other
    body joints
  • Basis for saliva, bile, and amniotic fluid

8
Water Need per day
  • - Adequate Intake for total water intake
    including fluid from food and beverages
  • Women 2.7 liters (11 cups)
  • Men 3.7 liters (15 cups)
  • - Water losses
  • Urine production 500 or more milliliters
  • Lungs 250 - 350 milliliters
  • Colon 100 - 200 milliliters
  • Skin 450 - 1900 milliliters
  • Coffee, tea and soda or any other beverage
    containing caffeine increases urine output

9
Too Much Water?
  • - An amount above what the kidneys can excrete
    can cause low blood concentrations of
    electrolytes
  • - Excessive amounts would be many quarts each day
  • - Blurred vision can result

10
Minerals
  • General functions
  • - Roles cofactors, nerve impulse transfer,
    growth and development, and water balance.
  • - Categorized by the amount our bodies need
  • Major
  • Trace

11
Mineral bioavailability
  • - Is the capability of our body to absorb and use
    minerals in our food
  • - Food composition tables generally do not
    reflect bioavailability
  • - Only 5 of calcium in spinach is absorbed
    because oxalic acid in spinach binds the calcium
  • - Minerals from animal products absorbed better
    than from plants because fewer binders and
    dietary fibers to hinder absorption

12
Fiber-mineral interactions
  • - Phytic and oxalic acid
  • - High-fiber diets (greater than 25-35g) can
    decrease the absorption of iron, zinc, and
    probably other minerals
  • - Yeast used in bread making releases enzymes
    that break the bonds between the minerals and
    phytic acid

13
Mineral-mineral interactions
  • - Minerals with similar size and charge compete
    with one another for absorption such as
    magnesium, copper, iron and calcium
  • - Taking excess zinc can decrease copper
    absorption

14
Vitamin-mineral interactions
  • Vitamin C enhances absorption of iron
  • Vitamin D enhances absorption of calcium

15
Major minerals Sodium (Na)
  • Functions
  • - Fluid balance water retention in extracellular
    fluid
  • - Nerve impulse conduction
  • - Aid absorption of some nutrients (e.g. glucose)
  • - Diet low in sodium with increased losses can
    cause cramps, dizziness, shock and coma
  • Sodium in foods and needs
  • - Table salt, White bread and rolls, Cheese,
    Potato chips and French fries
  • - DV is 2400 mg/day, UL is 2300 mg per day

16
Potassium (K)
  • Functions
  • Fluid balance maintains intracellular fluid and
    decreases blood pressure
  • Nerve impulse conduction
  • Deficiency is life-threatening
  • Muscle cramps
  • Confusion
  • Constipation
  • Irregular heartbeats

17
Potassium (K)
  • Potassium sources and needs
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Milk, whole grains, dried beans, and meats
  • DV 3500 mg
  • People at risk of deficiency
  • Alcoholics
  • Taking diuretics
  • Low calorie intake or eating disorder
  • Athletes who exercise excessively
  • No UL set, if kidneys function normally, excess
    is excreted.

18
Chloride (Cl)
  • Functions
  • Component of stomach hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  • Nerve function
  • Deficiency unlikely because of salt intake
  • Chloride sources and needs
  • Fruits and some vegetables
  • Table salt (sodium chloride) is 60 chloride
  • DV is 3400 mg
  • UL is 3600 mg

19
Calcium (Ca)
  • Functions
  • - Forming and maintaining bones and teeth 99 of
    Ca is in bones
  • - Blood clotting
  • - Muscle contraction low calcium causes tetany
    (muscles cannot relax)
  • - Normal nerve transmission
  • - Decrease risk of colon cancer and kidney stones
  • - May reduce blood pressure
  • - Promote weight loss
  • - Dietary glucose and lactose enhance absorption.
  • - Phytic acid, Tannins in tea, andvitamin D
    deficiency inhibit absorption

20
Calcium in foods and needs
  • Food sources Dairy products, bread, leafy
    greens, broccoli, sardines, and canned salmon
  • Adequate Intake 1,000 to 1,200 mg/day
  • - Upper Level 2,500 mg/day
  • - Greater than UL increases risk of Kidney
    stones, and kidney failure

21
Phosphorus (P)
  • - 70 is absorbed, Vit D enhances absorption
  • - Deficiency leads to bone loss in older women
  • - Functions Component of enzymes, DNA, all cell
    membranes, and bone
  • Sources Milk, cheese, bread, meat
  • Need DV 1000 mg
  • - Upper Level 3 to 4 g/day, impairs kidney
    function
  • - Too much P (usually from too much soda) coupled
    with not enough Ca leads to bone loss

22
Magnesium (Mg)
  • Functions
  • - Nerve and heart functions
  • - Maintenance of bone.
  • - Cofactor for many enzymes
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • - Irregular heartbeat and muscle pain
  • Benefits
  • - Decreases blood pressure
  • - Prevents heart rhythm abnormalities
  • Sources Whole grains, broccoli, beans, milk, and
    coffee
  • Average intake Males 320 mg/day, Females 220
    mg/day, UL is 350 mg/day

23
Sulfur (S)
  • Functions
  • - Acid-base balance
  • - Part of liver's drug detoxifying pathways
  • - Used in food preservation
  • - Found in foods with protein

24
Minerals and hypertension
  • Introduction
  • - One in 5 adults has hypertension
  • - Systolic blood pressure
  • Higher number
  • Pressure in the arteries when the heart is
    contracting
  • Optimal is 120 mm Hg
  • - Diastolic blood pressure
  • Lower number
  • Pressure in the arteries when the heart is at
    rest
  • Optimal is 80 mm Hg
  • - Silent disorder, usually no signs, get checked
    often

25
Minerals and hypertension
  • Why control blood pressure?
  • - Prevent cardiovascular disease, kidney disease,
    strokes, poor circulation, vision problems and
    sudden death
  • - Smoking and elevated blood lipids increase risk
    even more
  • Causes of hypertension
  • - Risk factors
  • Family history
  • Age
  • Overweight
  • Inactivity
  • Excessive alcohol intake
  • - Build up of plaque in arteries
  • - Sodium sensitivity

26
Minerals and hypertension
  • - Other minerals and blood pressure
  • Diets rich in calcium, potassium and magnesium
    and low in sodium can decrease blood pressure
  • Diet rich in low fat dairy products, fruits and
    vegetables, whole grains and some nuts decrease
    risk of hypertension and stroke

27
Trace minerals
  • - Also called microminerals
  • - Need 100 mg/ day or less
  • - Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Copper, Iodine are all
    trace minerals.
  • - Seafood is rich in trace minerals.

28
Iron (Fe)
  • Absorption and distribution
  • 1- Heme Iron
  • Iron from animal flesh, (i.e. hemoglobin,
    myoglobin.
  • 2- Non-heme iron
  • Iron primarily from plant food, and eggs.
  • - Heme iron are absorbed more efficiently than
    non-heme ones.
  • - Heme iron increases non-heme iron absorption.

29
Iron (Fe) Absorption and distribution
  • 1- Factors that can increase non-heme iron
    absorption
  • Iron-binding meat protein.
  • Vitamin C.
  • More absorbed during pregnancy and growth
  • 2- Factors that reduce non-heme iron absorption
  • Phytic acid, oxalic acid, tannins in tea, and zinc

30
Functions of iron
  • - Component of hemoglobin and myoglobin
  • - Oxygen transport
  • - Component of enzymes
  • - Brain and Immune function
  • - Drug detoxification in liver
  • - Bone health

31
Iron-deficiency anemia
  • Decreased oxygen-carrying capacity
  • High risk categories
  • - Childbearing years because of menstruation
  • - Pregnancy
  • - Blood loss from ulcers, colon cancer, or
    hemorrhoids
  • Clinical signs and symptoms
  • - Pale skin
  • - Poor temperature regulation
  • - Loss of appetite
  • - Reduced amount of red blood cells and
    hemoglobin

32
Iron in foods and needs
  • Food sources
  • - Animal products best sources
  • - Iron-fortified formulas and cereals for
    children
  • - Milk is a poor source
  • Recommended Daily Allowence
  • - Males 8 mg per day
  • - Females 19 to 50 years old 18 mg per day
  • - DV is 18 mg/d

33
Iron Upper level
  • Upper Level 45 mg/day
  • - Stomach irritation
  • - Single 60 mg dose can be life threatening to
    infant
  • - Iron deposits in heart, muscles and pancreas
    can lead to severe organ damage

34
Zinc (Zn)
  • Absorption
  • - High calcium intake decreases absorption
  • - Zinc competes with iron and copper absorption
  • Functions
  • - Cofactor for many enzymes
  • - DNA synthesis, wound healing and growth
  • - Proper bone and sexual organ development

35
Zinc (Zn)
  • Deficiency
  • - Symptoms
  • Acne like rash
  • Reduced sense of taste and smell
  • Hair loss
  • Growth, sexual development, and learning ability
    may also be hampered

36
Zinc sources and needs
  • Food sources
  • Animal foods are primary source because they
    dont contain phytic acid (Beef, milk, and
    poultry)
  • Plant sources whole grains, peanuts, legumes
  • RDA
  • Males 11 mg per day
  • Females 8 mg per day
  • DV is 15 mg

37
Zinc (Zn)
  • Toxicity
  • - Upper Level 40 mg/day
  • - Possible increased risk prostate cancer
  • - Inhibits copper metabolism
  • - Depressed immune system function

38
Selenium (Se)
  • Function
  • - Antioxidant
  • - Contributes to thyroid hormone metabolism
  • Deficiency
  • - Muscle pain, heart damages
  • Food sources
  • - Fish, meats, eggs, organ meats
  • - DV is 70 microgram/day
  • Toxicity
  • - Upper Level 400 micrograms /day
  • - Hair loss

39
Iodine (I)
  • Function
  • - Synthesis of thyroid hormones
  • - Regulate metabolic rate
  • - Promote growth and development
  • Deficiency
  • Goiter (enlarged thyroid gland from iodine
    deficiency)
  • Food sources Iodized salt, saltwater fish, and
    seafood
  • DV 150 microg/day,Upper Level 1.1 mg/day
  • - Thyroid hormone synthesis inhibited

40
Copper (Cu)
  • Functions
  • - Metabolizes iron
  • - Immune system functions
  • - Blood clotting
  • Absorption
  • - Higher intake leads to lower absorption
  • - Absorbed in stomach and small intestines
  • - Phytic acids, fiber, zinc and iron interfere
    with Cu absorption

41
Copper (Cu)
  • Symptoms of deficiency
  • - Anemia, low white blood cell count, bone loss,
    poor growth, and some forms of cardiovascular
    disease

42
Copper (Cu)
  • Copper in foods and needs
  • - Liver, seafood, cocoa, legumes, nuts, dried
    fruits, whole grains
  • - DV is 2 mg
  • Toxicity
  • - Upper Limit 10 milligrams per day
  • - Toxicity can occur from a single 10 mg dose
  • - Vomiting
  • - Liver toxicity

43
Fluoride (F)
  • Functions
  • - Strengthens the structure of bones and teeth
  • - Decreases the rate of dental caries
  • - Also inhibits growth of bacteria causing caries
  • Fluoride sources and needs
  • - Tea, seaweed, seafood
  • - Toothpaste
  • - Adequate Intake 3.1 to 3.8 mg/day for adults

44
Fluoride (F)
  • Toxicity
  • - UL is 1.3 - 2.2 mg per day for young children,
    10 mg per day for children over 9
  • - Mottling (white or yellow spots) of the teeth
  • - Can occur from swallowing toothpaste also
  • - Mottling occurs during tooth development, can
    not occur in adulthood

45
Chromium (Cr)
  • Functions
  • - Glucose entry into cells by aiding insulin
    function
  • - Deficiency leads to high serum cholesterol and
    triglyceride levels, as well as poor blood
    glucose control
  • Food sources and needs
  • - Egg yolks, mushrooms, nuts, and yeast
  • - Daily value is 120 mcg
  • Toxicity
  • - No UL set
  • - Liver damage
  • - Lung cancer

46
Manganese (Mn)
  • - Functions
  • Cofactor of enzymes
  • Bone formation
  • - No known deficiency
  • - Food sources Nuts, rice, oats, whole grains,
    beans, leafy vegetables
  • - DV is 2 mg
  • - Upper Level 11 milligrams per day, higher
    amount would damage nerves

47
Molybdenum (Mo)
  • - Functions
  • Cofactor of enzymes
  • - Food sources Milk products, beans, whole
    grains, nuts
  • - DV is 75 mcg

48
Minerals and Osteoporosis
  • Osteoporosis Definition
  • - Decreased bone density
  • - Caused by
  • Vitamin D deficiency, osteomalacia
  • Use of drugs like cortisol and anti-seizure
    medications
  • Cancer

49
Minerals and Osteoporosis
  • Introduction to osteoporosis
  • - Leads to about 1.5 million bone fractures per
    year in US
  • - Slender inactive women who smoke are most
    susceptible
  • - Spine fractures can cause pain and deformity
  • - Fracture related complications can lead to
    death in elderly

50
Minerals and Osteoporosis
  • - Bone strength is dependant on mass and density
  • - Bone mass total amount of mineral in a cross
    section of bone
  • - Bone density grams of mineral per cubic
    centimeter of specific bone
  • - The more densely packed the bone minerals, the
    stronger the bone.
  • - Bone mass is related to gender, race and
    familial pattern

51
Minerals and Osteoporosis
  • - Peak bone mass
  • By age 20
  • Affected by dietary intake of calcium, protein,
    phosphorous, Vitamins A, D and K, magnesium, iron
    zinc and copper
  • More bone mass in youth means more can be lost
    without consequences
  • - Bone loss begins at 30 and speeds significantly
    after menopause

52
Preventing Osteoporosis
  • - Once present, not reversible
  • - For young women three main elements
  • Meet calcium, vitamin D, protein and other
    nutrient needs
  • See physician if irregular menstruation
  • Weight-bearing and resistance activities
  • - Once reached menopause
  • Discuss therapies with physician
  • Weight bearing activity
  • Adequate calcium intake and sun exposure or
    consumption of Vit D
  • Minimize risk of falls
  • Avoid smoking and excess alcohol
  • Avoid excess phosphorous, caffeine, sodium
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