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Russian Revolution

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Title: Russian Revolution


1
Russian Revolution WWII10.7-10.8
  • Study Guide

2
The Russian Revolution
  • November 1917 (October 1917 on the Russian
    calendar) Bolsheviks took over the government
    offices in Petrograd
  • Problems had been developing for generations
  • Communist Party remained in power until 1991.

3
Causes of Russian Revolution
  • Suffering under autocracya form of government in
    which one person, in this case the czar, has
    absolute power
  • Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II
  • Poor working conditions, low wages, and hazards
    of industrialization
  • New revolutionary movements that believed in
    worker-run government

4
Causes- cont
  • Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1905), which
    led to rising unrest
  • Bloody Sunday, the massacre of unarmed protestors
    outside the palace, in 1905
  • Devastation of World War Ihigh casualties,
    economic ruin, widespread hunger
  • The March Revolution in 1917, soldiers for crowd
    control ultimately joined labor activists in
    calling Down with the autocracy!

5
Consequences of Russian Revolution
  • Gov taken over by Bolshevik Party/ Lenin
  • Farmland to farmers, factories to workers
  • Banks are nationalized national council is
    assembled to run the economy
  • Russia pulls out of World War ITreaty of
    Brest-Litovsk land to Germany
  • Czarist rule ends. Nicholas II, his wife and five
    children are executed

6
Consequences- cont
  • Civil war Bolshevik (red) and anti-Bolshevik
    (white) forces from 1918 to 1920. Around 15
    million die
  • Economy is in shambles production drops, trade
    all but ceases, skilled workers flee the country
  • Lenin asserts control by cruel methods Gulag,
    vast brutal network of prison camps for
    criminals/political prisoners

7
Stalinist Russia
  • After death of Lenin, Joseph Stalin took control
  • Lenin wanted to unite workers of the world,
    Stalin focused on transforming Russia into a
    totalitarian state.
  • gov takes near total control over daily lives.
    Stalin party leaders used violence

8
Economic Control
  • Stalins gov made all economic decisions-command
    economy.
  • Control included
  • Setting goals for rapid industrial growth
  • Choosing workers setting their wages
  • Telling workers where they could live
  • Organizing collective farms, to produce food for
    the state

9
Political Control
  • Stalin held absolute power, outlawed all other
    political parties, and demanded
    obedience-enforced by secret police (and a system
    of police terror that treated ordinary citizens
    like criminals)
  • Government control included
  • Using tanks weapons to stop protests
  • Tapping telephone reading mail
  • Jailing executing political opponents
  • Asserting right to punish for any disobedience

10
Cultural Control
  • Under Stalin, gov used mass communication to
    shape peoples thinking toward absolute faith in
    the Communist Party, including
  • Controlling all newspapers, radio stations,
    movie studios
  • Destroying churches and synagogues killing or
    imprisoning religious leaders
  • Controlling all education, including curriculum,
    textbooks, teaching
  • Censoring many writers, painters, composers,
    forced others to create propaganda

11
Reign of Terror
  • Under Stalin, Russians lost most basic rights.
  • Millions diedest 8 to 13 million
  • Ukraine, resisted Stalin, his government
    confiscated food, forcing an estimated 5 million
    people to starve Terror Famine

12
  • After World War I, Germany, Italy, and the Soviet
    Union saw the rise of totalitarian regimes
  • state attempts to assert control over every
    aspect of public and private life
  • infamous for cruelty
  • rose to power after World War I, promising
    strength stability to war-ravaged nations

13
Nation Germany
Leader Adolf Hitler
Political Party Nazi (National Socialists)
Dates In Power 19331945
Unifying Idea Germans as master race
Economic Policy capitalist government/ business partnerships
Control of Media total
Religious Control some freedom, but not for Jews
Use of Terror Millions killed Jews and Romani particularly, and many non-Germans, and minorities were singled out for terror.
14
Nation Italy
Leader Benito Mussolini
Political Party Fascist
Dates In Power 19221945
Unifying Idea strongly nationalistic
Economic Policy capitalist government/ business partnerships
Control of Media less than total
Religious Control Catholicism was state religion free choice
Use of Terror murder rare about 4,000 imprisoned
15
Nation Soviet Union
Leader Joseph Stalin
Political Party Communist
Dates In Power 19281953
Unifying Idea desire for a classless society
Economic Policy communist state owns everything, controls economy
Control of Media total
Religious Control religion suppressed
16
The totalitarian regimes shared a number of
similarities, including
  • Ruled by a dictator, glorified as a hero
  • Only one political party
  • Emphasized total loyalty to the government/leader
  • Denied individual rights
  • Censored the press other media
  • Used art, culture, mass communications to
    spread propaganda
  • Encouraged a high birthrate rewarded women who
    had many children
  • Controlled people by terror, especially by means
    of secret police
  • As police states, used secret police to terrorize
    people

17
Drive for Empire
  • After World War I, Italy, Japan, and Germany
    sought to increase their might
  • Italy and Germany still suffered the effects of
    the war, and Japan wanted to further the power it
    had gained during wartime
  • By the 1930s, all three were led by military
    dictatorships sought to expand that power by
    invading neighbor nations

18
Italy
  • Led by
  • Sought
  • Conquests

19
Italy
  • Led by Benito Mussolini
  • Sought a New Roman Empire of colonial land
  • Conquests
  • Ethiopia in 1935 Albania in 1939
  • After about seven months of warfare, Italy
    claimed Ethiopia as its colony

20
Japan
  • Led by
  • Sought
  • Conquests

21
Japan
  • Led by series of military leaders, with Emperor
    Hirohito as a figurehead
  • Sought natural resources, new markets for its
    goods, room for population growth
  • Conquests Manchuria, a Chinese province, in
    1931 China in 1937
  • From December 1937 to March 1938, Japanese troops
    massacred an estimated 350,000 Chinese civilians
    in what became known as the Rape of Nanking
  • During the Japanese occupation, millions of
    Chinese were killed tens of millions became
    homeless

22
Germany
  • Led by
  • Sought
  • Conquests

23
Germany
  • Led by Adolf Hitler
  • Sought rebuild army assert its strength
  • Conquests Rhineland (between Germany and France)
    in 1936 Austria in 1938 the Sudetenland area of
    Czechoslovakia in 1938 Czechoslovakia in 1939
  • West/France and Britain, desiring peace at any
    cost, did not at first try to stop German
    aggression.
  • To the east, Russia posed no threat after the
    Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939, Germany Russia agreed
    never to attack one another

Ms. Ramos
24
Conditions in Europe and the United States in the
1930s
  • Great Britain, France, and the United States are
    suffering severe economic depressions.
  • Great Britain and France, remembering World War
    I, are determined to keep the peace.
  • Germany and Italy, seeking power, move to conquer
    other nations

25
German and Italian Aggression
  • 1935 Italy invades Ethiopia.
  • 1936 Germany invades the Rhineland, an area
    between France and Germany.
  • 1938 Germany annexes Austria and claims the
    Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia.

26
British, French, and U.S. Reaction
  • Appeasementgiving in to a potential enemy in
    order to keep the peace
  • Great Britain France re German Italian
    aggression.
  • Munich Conference of 1938, Great Britain and
    France agree to let Germany claim the
    Sudetenland.
  • Isolationismpolicy of avoiding political or
    economic ties to other countries
  • The U.S. passes three Neutrality Acts

27
German and Italian Aggression Continue, 1939
  • March Germany occupies Czechoslovakia
  • April Italy invades Albania
  • September 1 Germany invades Poland
  • September 3 Great Britain France declare war
    on Germany-World War II officially begins

28
World War II was fought between
  • Axis powers Allied powers
  • Germany, Italy, and Japan
  • Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States,
    other nations that came together to fight the
    Axis powers.

29
Major Turning Points in World War II
30
A Continent Divided
  • 1945, even before the war ended, the Allied
    leaders met at the Yalta Conference to plan for
    dividing Germany into two halveswest and eastin
    order to weaken it.
  • Rest of Europe was left divided into (generally)
    democratic western nations and communist eastern
    nations. The boundary of this divide was called
    the iron curtain.

31
Leader Winston Churchill
Role
Alliance
Actions in World War II
After the War
32
Leader Winston Churchill
Role Prime Minister of Great Britain
Alliance Allies
Actions in World War II Was among the first to speak out against the Nazis led Britain and the Allies in the struggle against the Nazis
After the War Was reelected prime minister in 1951
33
Leader F. D. Roosevelt
Role
Alliance
Actions in World War II
After the War
34
Leader F. D. Roosevelt
Role President of the United States
Alliance Allies
Actions in World War II Ordered U.S. entry into the war and the internment of 110,000 Japanese Americans
After the War Died just before the war ended in 1945
35
Leader Emperor Hirohito
Role
Alliance
Actions in World War II
After the War
36
Leader Emperor Hirohito
Role Emperor of Japan
Alliance Axis
Actions in World War II Served mainly as a figurehead for various military leaders
After the War Was emperor until his death in 1989
37
Leader Adolf Hitler
Role
Alliance
Actions in World War II
After the War
38
Leader Adolf Hitler
Role Dictator of Germany
Alliance Axis
Actions in World War II Started the war by invading Poland in 1939 invaded lands in all directions in 19401941 led the Nazi party, which killed 11 million
After the War Committed suicide in 1945
39
Leader Benito Mussolini
Role
Alliance
Actions in World War II
After the War
40
Leader Benito Mussolini
Role Dictator of Italy
Alliance Axis
Actions in World War II Formed an alliance with Germany suffered military defeats and was overthrown by the Italian king in 1943
After the War Killed by Italian insurgents in 1945
Ms. Ramos
41
Leader Joseph Stalin
Role
Alliance
Actions in World War II
After the War
42
Leader Joseph Stalin
Role Dictator of the Soviet Union
Alliance Allies
Actions in World War II Cooperated with Germany until Germany violated the Hitler-Stalin pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941, then joined the Allies
After the War Was dictator until his death in 1953
43
Leader Douglas MacArthur
Role
Alliance
Actions in World War II
After the War
44
Leader Douglas MacArthur
Role U.S. Army General
Alliance Allies
Actions in World War II Commanded Allied forces in the Pacific
After the War Led U.S. troops in the Korean War
45
Leader Dwight Eisenhower
Role
Alliance
Actions in World War II
After the War
46
Leader Dwight Eisenhower
Role U.S. Army General
Alliance Allies
Actions in World War II Commanded Allied forces in Europe led the D-Day invasion of mainland Europe helped unite Allied troops
After the War Elected U.S. president in 1952
Ms. Ramos
47
Nazi Ideology
  • People were racially unequal.
  • Germanic peoples, whom they called Aryans, were
    the master race.
  • Other peoples were considered inferiorespecially
    Jews. The Nazis believed that other races
    threatened the purity of the Aryan race they
    wanted to increase the Aryan race and limit other
    races.
  • Implications
  • they used it to justify their drive for
    Lebensraumliving space, or room for their own
    population growthby invading the eastern
    European lands of Slavic peoples, whom they
    deemed inferior. But the most violent Nazi
    ideology targeted the Jews.

48
Persecution of the Jews
  • Soon after Hitler took power in 1933, Jewish
    persecution began. Under Hitler, Jews were
  • stripped of citizenship and other rights under
    the Nuremberg Laws (1935)
  • terrorized by attacks on their homes and
    businesses, such as Kristallnacht (1938)
  • deprived of property and forced into
    ghettoscrowded, isolated areas where many died
    of starvation and disease (1940)

49
The Final Solution
  • After World War II broke out in 1939, Jewish
    persecution spread. In Eastern Europe, the Nazis
    began to send out killing squads. They also built
    brutal slave-labor camps.
  • Around 1942, the persecution became a genocidean
    effort to kill an entire group of people. The
    Nazis built death camps that served as centers
    for the mass murder of Jews. Most of the killing
    took place at six camps in Poland. Hitler called
    this his final solution to the Jewish question.

50
The Holocaust
  • The persecution and mass murder of European Jews
    during World War II became known as the
    Holocaust. The word holocaust means total
    destruction. The Nazis killed six million
    Jewsand five million non-Jews, including many
    Polish, Romani (Gypsies), and Russians. More than
    one half of European Jews perished in the
    Holocaust.

51
World War II Military Deaths World War II Military Deaths
Nation Estimated Military Losses
Russia 7,000,000
Germany 3,500,000
China 2,200,000
Japan 1,300,000
Britain 350,000
United States 300,000
52
Civilian Losses
  • May have exceeded the nearly 20 million total
    military losses.
  • Millions killed in the Nazi mass exterminations
    of Jews, Poles, and other persecuted groups.
  • The civilian death toll was a reason for postwar
    trials for war crimesacts that violate the
    customs of war, including civilian murder and
    other crimes against humanity. The most famous
    were the Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminals

53
Wounded
  • In addition to military and civilian deaths,
    there were more than 13 million military wounded
    more than 6 million civilian wounded.
  • The death toll might have been twice as great
    were it not for penicillin other medical
    advances in treating the wounded.

54
Total losses
  • Military civilian deaths during the war, as
    well as death from disease following the
    warhave been estimated as high as 40 million.

55
HW STUDY!
  • Study!!!
  • Review your PPt notes, readings, and map.
  • Exam will consist of 12 multiple choice, 8 people
    matching, and maps on the Pacific and European
    theatres.
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