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Electron Configurations

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Electron Configurations Objectives: Determine the electron configurations of elements using the principles of orbital energy, orbital capacity & electron spin. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Electron Configurations


1
Electron Configurations
  • Objectives
  • Determine the electron configurations of elements
    using the principles of orbital energy, orbital
    capacity electron spin.

2
4-5 Electron Configurations
  • This refers to the distribution of electrons
    among orbitals of an atom.
  • It is determined by distributing electrons among
    levels, sublevels and orbitals according to these
    rules
  • Aufbau Principle
  • Pauli Exclusion Principle
  • Hunds Rule
  • Orbital diagrams are used to write the electron
    configurations.

3
The Rules for Electron Configurations
  • Aufbau Principle
  • Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest
    energy orbitals until all electrons have been
    included.
  • Lazy Tenant Rule

4
Rules (contd)
  • Pauli Exclusion Principle
  • Each orbital can hold only TWO electrons with
    opposite spins.

5
Rules (contd)
  • Hunds Rule
  • Within a sublevel, place one e- per orbital
    before pairing them.
  • Empty Bus Seat Rule

RIGHT
WRONG
6
Orbital Filling Order
This pneumonic shows how the complex orbitals of
large atoms overlap and fill out of order.
7
Electron configuration demonstrations
  • http//intro.chem.okstate.edu/WorkshopFolder/Elect
    ronconfnew.html

8
Orbital Diagrams
H 1e-
  • Electron Configuration

1s1
9
Orbital Diagrams
10
Orbital Diagrams
11
Orbital Diagrams
  • Your turn..
  • Practice on worksheet

12
Writing Electron Configurations
  • H 1s1
  • He 1s2
  • Li 1s2 2s1
  • C 1s2 2s2 2p2
  • S 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4

13
Exceptions to the Aufbau Principle
  • Recall that some orbitals are very close in
    energy.
  • This is especially true for large atoms having
    lots of d and f orbitals.
  • This causes certain orbitals to fill before one
    would normally expect.
  • Chromium and Copper illustrate the exceptions
    (page 153).
  • A certain amount of energy stability results from
    half-filled orbitals, and this accounts for the
    orbital filling order in Cr and Cu.

14
Exceptions
  • Chromium
  • Instead of
  • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d4
  • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5
  • Copper
  • Instead of
  • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d9
  • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10

15
Did we meet the OBJECTIVES?
  • Describe a wave in terms of its frequency,
    wavelength, speed amplitude.
  • Identify the regions of the electromagnetic
    spectrum.
  • Relate energy of radiation to its frequency.
  • Explain what is meant by a quantum of energy.
  • Distinguish between a continuous spectrum a
    line spectrum.
  • State the main idea in Bohrs model of the
    hydrogen atom.
  • Describe atomic orbitals in terms of shape, size
    energy.
  • Determine the electron configurations of elements
    using the principles of orbital energy, orbital
    capacity electron spin.

16
WOW! We sure covered a lot of territory!
You have finished a very difficult, but
important, chapter in Chemistry.
CONGRATULATIONS!
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