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Chapter 18 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

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Chapter 18 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Section 1: What Are Psychological Disorders? Section 2: Anxiety Disorders Section 3: Dissociative Disorders Section 4: Somatoform ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 18 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS


1
Chapter 18PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
  • Section 1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
  • Section 2 Anxiety Disorders
  • Section 3 Dissociative Disorders
  • Section 4 Somatoform Disorders
  • Section 5 Mood Disorders
  • Section 6 Schizophrenia
  • Section 7 Personality Disorders

2
Question What is the basis for classifying
psychological disorders?
Section 1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
  • CLASSIFYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
  • Most psychologists believe that it is important
    to have a widely agreed upon classification of
    psychological disorders
  • It is important to classify psychological
    disorders so that individuals can be correctly
    diagnosed and treated
  • Deviation from average, ideal, subjective
    discomfort, inability to function and insanity

3
Question What is the basis for classifying
psychological disorders?
Section 1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
  • Models of Psychopathology
  • Medical Model (Biological Model) underlying
    causes or etiology of a mental disorder has a
    biological basis. Treat as illness with
    medication and medical therapies.
  • Learning Model abnormal behaviors are learned
    the same as normal behaviors through
    conditioning, reinforcements , imitation etc.
    Treatment consist of retraining and conditioning.

4
Question What is the basis for classifying
psychological disorders?
Section 1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
  • Psychoanalytic Model (Psychodynamic Model)
    unconscious motives and conflict. Treatment with
    psychoanalysis.
  • Humanistic-Existential Model ( Phenomenological
    Model) abnormal behavior the result of failure
    to fullfill ones self potential. Treatment is
    therapies used to increase self acceptance.
  • Cognitive Model negative thinking causes
    abnormal behavior, treatment to change faulty
    thinking.

5
Question What are anxiety disorders?
Section 2 Anxiety Disorders
  • ANXIETY DISORDERS
  • Feeling anxious all or most of the time or having
    anxiety that is out of proportion to the
    situation provoking it
  • Anxiety that interferes with effective living,
    the achievement of desired goals, life
    satisfaction, and emotional comfort

6
(No Transcript)
7
Question What are anxiety disorders?
Section 2 Anxiety Disorders
  • General Anxiety Disorders continuous,
    long-lasting uneasiness and tension, cannot
    identify specific cause.
  • Panic Disorders recurrent attack of overwhelming
    anxiety, heart palpitations, shortness of breath,
    sweating, faintness and great fear (panic
    attacks)
  • Phobic Disorders intense fear of specific
    object, snake, spiders, agoraphobia (public
    places, or away from home)
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders obsessions are
    persistent unwanted thoughts that are
    unreasonable (germs) compulsions repetitive
    behaviors or mental acts performed rituals used
    to reduce anxiety.
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)always
    follows a traumatic event which causes intense
    fear and/or helplessness in an individual.
    Typically the symptoms develop shortly after the
    event, but may take years. The duration for
    symptoms is at least one month for this
    diagnosis.
  • Causes genetic factors, chemical deficiencies,
    overreaction to lactic acid or learned responses
    to stress.

8
Question What are dissociative disorders?
Section 3 Dissociative Disorders
  • Characterized by a loss of contact with portions
    of consciousness or memory, resulting in
    disruptions in ones sense of self. They appear
    to be an attempt to overcome anxiety and stress
    by dissociating oneself from the core of ones
    personality and result in a loss of memory,
    identity or consciousness

9
Question What are the four dissociative
disorders?
Section 3 Dissociative Disorders
  • FOUR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
  • Dissociative Amnesia characterized by a sudden
    loss of memory usually following a particularly
    stressful or traumatic event
  • Dissociative Fugue characterized not only by
    forgetting personal information and past events
    but also by suddenly relocating from home or work
    and taking on a new identity. Rare and occurs
    most often during extreme stress, wartime or
    natural disaster

10
Question What are the four dissociative
disorders?
Section 3 Dissociative Disorders
FOUR DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS (continued)
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder involves the
    existence of two or more personalities within a
    single individual associated with severe
    psychological stress in childhood, most often
    ritualistic sexual or physical abuse.
  • Depersonalization Disorder feeling of
    detachment from ones mental processes or body
  • Cause about 94 of people were abused as children

11
Question How do the two most common somatoform
disorders differ?
Section 4 Somatoform Disorders
  • DIFFERENCES IN SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
  • Behavior characterized by complaints of physical
    symptoms in the absence of any real physical
    illness. About 1 person in 300 has a somatoform
    disorder, and they are slightly more common in
    women than in men.
  • Conversion disorder is characterized by a sudden
    and severe loss of physical functioning that has
    no medical explanation.
  • Hypochondriasis is the unhealthy fear of having a
    serious disorder

12
Question How do psychologists attempt to explain
mood disorders?
Section 5 Mood Disorders
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF MOOD DISORDERS
  • Some people are prone to depression because they
    suffered a real or imagined loss of a loved
    object or person in childhood
  • Some believe that learned helplessness, lack of
    control over ones life, makes people prone to
    depression
  • Others believe that some people are prone to
    depression because of their habitual style of
    explaining life events

13
Question How do psychologists attempt to explain
mood disorders?
Section 5 Mood Disorders
  • Involve moods or emotions that are extreme and
    unwarranted. Strong enough to interfere with
    daily life.
  • Major depression frequent episodes of intense
    hopelessness, lowered self esteem, eating
    sleeping problems, reduced sex drive and thoughts
    of death. 10-25 women once in lifetime and 5-12
    men
  • Dysthymic disorder more common less severe than
    major, last longer (2 years)
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) sunlight,
    winter require more sleep and eat more
    carbohydrates.
  • Bipolar I Disorder depression and mania, mood
    swings
  • Bipolar II Disorder hypomania which does not
    interfere with everyday life.
  • Cyclothymia which has less extreme mood swings
    than bipolar.

14
Question How do psychologists attempt to explain
mood disorders?
Section 5 Mood Disorders
  • Causes are both psychological and biological
  • Psychodynamic theory states that depression is
    more frequent in people with strong dependency
    needs and represents anger or aggression turned
    inward at oneself.

15
Question What is schizophrenia?
Section 6 Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic disorder
    (out of touch with reality) it involves disorders
    of thought. Thought is incoherent, sometimes use
    neologisms (words that only make sense to them),
    loose associations where thought appears
    logically unconnected, and word salad (jumbled
    words that do not make sense). Have delusions,
    hallucinations, flat (absent) or inappropriate
    affect ( no emotions) and socially withdrawn.

16
Question What are the subtypes of schizophrenia?
Section 6 Schizophrenia
  • SUBTYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • Paranoid Schizophrenia delusions or frequent
    auditory hallucinations relating to a single
    theme
  • Disorganized Schizophrenia incoherent in their
    thoughts and speech and disorganized in their
    behavior
  • Catatonic Schizophrenia disturbance of
    movement, still to extreme excitement.

17
Question What are the subtypes of schizophrenia?
Section 6 Schizophrenia
  • Undifferentiated no one type dominates, 40
  • Residual has had prior episode of schizophrenia
    but currently is not displaying major symptoms.

18
Question How do personality disorders differ
from other psychological disorders?
Section 7 Personality Disorders
  • PERSONALITY DISORDERS
  • A personality disorder is part of an individuals
    makeup influencing virtually all behavior and
    thought
  • Other psychological disorders tend to be discrete
    episodes of illness that can be distinguished
    from the individuals usual behavior

19
Question How do personality disorders differ
from other psychological disorders?
Section 7 Personality Disorders
  • Antisocial no regard for moral/ethics, violates
    rights of others, manipulative, impulsive,lacks
    conscience or guilt. Ex. Iceman
  • Narcissistic exaggerated sense of self,
    fantasies of success. Lack empathy, expect
    special treatment.
  • Paranoid suspicion/mistrust of people, easily
    offended.
  • Histrionic overreacts in response to minor
    situations, vain shallow, dependent or
    manipulative.
  • Avoidant loner, oversensitive to rejection, low
    self esteem
  • Schizotypal strangeness in thinking, speech and
    behavior, cognitive and perceptual disturbances.
  • Schizoid discomfort from social relationships
  • Borderline instability in interpersonal
    relationships
  • Dependent submissive and clinging relationships,
    excessive need to be taken care of.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive orderliness, perfectionism
    and control
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