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1.The difference between plant and animal cells is that animal cells contain a cell wall and chloroplasts.

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1. The difference between plant and animal cells is that animal cells contain a cell wall and chloroplasts. 2. The main source of energy for our bodies is protein. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1.The difference between plant and animal cells is that animal cells contain a cell wall and chloroplasts.


1
  • 1. The difference between plant and animal cells
    is that animal cells contain a cell wall
    and chloroplasts.
  • 2. The main source of energy for our bodies is
    protein.
  • 3. Fats can be saturated or unsaturated.
    Saturated fats are more beneficial to
    our bodies.
  • 4. Cells in our body convert energy (glucose) to
    energy (ATP) through the process of
    photosynthesis.
  • 5. Almost all energy comes originally from
    sunlight.

2
Molecular Biology
3
What is molecular biology?
  • -Molecular biology is the study of biology at a
    molecular
  • level.
  • The field overlaps with other areas of biology,
    particularly
  • genetics and biochemistry.
  • Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with
  • understanding the interactions between the
    various systems
  • of a cell.

4
Is this an animal or plant cell? Explain.
Cell Structure Function 1036
5
Plant Cell How do plant and animal cells differ?
6
Organelles have specific functions.
  • Lysosome contains enzymes that break down
    nutrients, wastes, bacteria and worn
  • out cell parts
  • Ribosome take information from DNA and use it to
    make proteins
  • Vacuole a membrane-bound sac that plays roles in
    intracellular digestion and the
  • storage and release of
    cellular waste products
  • Nucleus a large, oval structure that directs all
    of the cells activities houses
  • genetic material
  • Mitochondria produce most of the energy/ATP the
    cell needs to carry out its
  • functions where
    respiration occurs
  • Golgi Body (apparatus) receives and packages
    products, including proteins, for

  • use in the cell
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum where chemical reactions
    take place a system whose
  • functions include
    synthesis and transport of lipids and, in regions
  • where ribosomes are
    attached, of proteins
  • Cell Membrane forms the outside boundary that
    separates the cell from its
  • environment
    controls what enters and leaves the cell
  • Cytoplasm the region between the cell membrane
    and the nucleus
  • Cell Wall plant rigid structure that gives the
    cell shape

- Gizmo Cell Structure - Matching activity
7
Cell Division Reproduction
With division of the nucleus, body cells go
through mitosis and reproductive cells go through
meiosis.
8
Fat Comparison Chart The following table shows,
in grams, how much saturated, monounsaturated,
polyunsaturated and trans fats are contained in 1
tablespoon of various commonly used oils and
fats. Trans fat is double trouble for your
heart health Trans fat raises your "bad" (LDL)
cholesterol and lowers your "good" (HDL)
cholesterol. Find out more about trans fat and
how to avoid it. By Mayo Clinic staff When it
comes to fat, trans fat is considered by some
doctors to be the worst type of fat. Unlike other
fats, trans fat also called trans-fatty acids
both raises your "bad" (LDL) cholesterol and
lowers your "good" (HDL) cholesterol. A high LDL
cholesterol level in combination with a low HDL
cholesterol level increases your risk of heart
disease, the leading killer of men and women.
Here's some information about trans fat and how
to avoid it. 1. What is trans fat? Trans fat is
made by adding hydrogen to vegetable oil through
a process called hydrogenation, which makes the
oil less likely to spoil. Using trans fats in the
manufacturing of foods helps foods stay fresh
longer, have a longer shelf life and have a less
greasy feel. Scientists aren't sure exactly why,
but the addition of hydrogen to oil increases
your cholesterol more than do other types of
fats. It's thought that adding hydrogen to oil
makes the oil more difficult to digest, and your
body recognizes trans fats as saturated fats.
2. Trans fat in your food Commercial baked
goods such as crackers, cookies and cakes and
many fried foods, such as doughnuts and french
fries may contain trans fats. Shortenings and
some margarine can be high in trans fat. Trans
fat used to be more common, but in recent years
food manufacturers have used it less because of
concerns over the health effects of trans fat.
Food manufacturers in the United States and many
other countries list the trans fat content on
nutrition labels. However, you should be aware
of what nutritional labels really mean when it
comes to trans fat. For example, in the United
States if a food has less than 0.5 grams of trans
fat per serving, the food label can read 0 grams
trans fat. Though that's a small amount of trans
fat, if you eat multiple servings of foods with
less than 0.5 grams of trans fat, you could
exceed recommended limits. 3. Reading food
labels How do you know whether food contains
trans fat? Look for the words "partially
hydrogenated" vegetable oil. That's another term
for trans fat. It sounds counterintuitive, but
"fully" or "completely" hydrogenated oil doesn't
contain trans fat. Unlike partially hydrogenated
oil, the process used to make fully or completely
hydrogenated oil doesn't result in trans-fatty
acids. However, if the label says just
"hydrogenated" vegetable oil, it could mean the
oil contains some trans fat. Although small
amounts of trans fat occur naturally in some meat
and dairy products, it's the trans fats in
processed foods that seem to be more harmful
I N T E R P H A S E
C Y T O K I N E S I S
9
How do cells use food?
  • 1. Is this a plant
  • or animal cell?
  • 2. How do you
  • know?
  • 3. What nutrients
  • are needed by
  • various
  • organelles?

Food and Digestion 959
10
Molecular Biology and Food how o they relate?
  • The composition of various substances relate to
    their ability to provide energy and building
    materials for growth and repair of organisms.
  • Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and
    building material for all organisms.
  • Day 1 Begin Food Analysis Activity using
    food lines ?
  • (see food nutrition label chart activity)
  • Day 2 Food Tasting Activity
  • Day 3 Analyze chart, Calculate Metabolism Time
  • Homework Complete Student Food Log for 1 week
  • (food plate activity)

See Forms of Energy Coach 7
Cell Processes Energy 822
11
Understanding Nutrient Labels
  • 1. Serving Size
  • Serving Size Per Container
  • Calories
  • Calories from Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Unsaturated Fat
  • Sodium
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein

12
What is food?
  • material or molecules that provide living things
    with the nutrients they need for energy and
    growth

And Carbohydrates (simple complex carbs)
Foods with natural sugars (carbs) tend to be the
healthiest for you.
13
Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and
building material. (see compound PowerPoint)
  • What is a molecule? The smallest particle of a
    substance that retains the chemical and physical
    properties of the substance and is composed of
    two or more atoms a group of like or different
    atoms held together by chemical forces.
  • The substance (compound) here is water. It is
    made up of oxygen (1 atom) and hydrogen (2
    atoms). H2O (chemical formula for 1 molecule of
    water)


-
  • Water is a polar molecule because
  • it has electrically/oppositely charged
    areas.
  • Water is not considered food because
  • it does not provide the body with energy.


14
What biological compounds do our cells need?
  • The four major biological compounds are
  • Proteins (key for building body tissues aim for
    10 to 35 of calories)
  • Nucleic Acids (RNA and DNA)
  • Carbohydrates (fuels our brain and muscles
    energy source - aim for 45 to 65 of calories)
  • Lipids (contributes essential fatty acids and
    promotes absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
    A,D,E, and K energy source aim for 20 to 35
    of calories mostly unsaturated)
  • Only proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are
    considered food because they are the only ones
    in which the body/cells get energy.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vH8WJ2KENlK0
    Biological Molecules You are what you eat.
    1409

15
What is protein?
  • One of the three nutrients used as energy sources
    (calories) by the body.
  • Proteins are essential components of the muscle,
    skin, and bones.
  • aim for 10 to 35 of calories
  • Proteins and carbohydrates each provide 4
    calories of energy per gram, whereas fats provide
    9 calories per gram.

16
Sources of Protein
  • In your notebook, make a list of the various
    sources of protein.

17
Top 10 Plants High in Protein
  • 1 asparagus 2 pumpkin seeds 3
    cauliflower 4 peanuts

5 oats 6
beans 7 almonds
8 spinach 9
broccoli 10 quinoa
18
Sources of Carbohydrates
See Carbohydrates in Foods Lists
  • In your notebook, make a list of the various
    sources of carbohydrates.

19
Simple vs Complex Carbs
Carbohydrates and fats are the main source of
energy for your body. Carbs are made up of
sugars, which break down to provide either quick
energy or slow-burning, sustained energy over a
period of several hours. "Simple" carbs are
quick energy sources, while "complex" carbs
provide longer-lasting energy. In addition to
providing physical energy, carbohydrates also
effectively fuel the brain.
20
What are lipids/fats?
  • a biological compound that is not soluble
    (dissolvable) in water, e.g. a fat. 
  • Fats are classified as saturated ? or
    unsaturated ?.
  • Unsaturated fats are more beneficial to our body
    and are liquid at room temperature.
  • Saturated fats are less beneficial to our bodies
    and are solid at room temperature.
  • Trans Fats are a type of unsaturated fat that
    is not beneficial to our bodies.
  • Lipids/fats have more energy however,
    unsaturated fats are healthy.

21
The Real Story on Fats! ?
22
Are fats good or bad for you? What do you
think?
Unsaturated Fats VS
Saturated Fats
23
Unsaturated FatsIn your notebook, make a list of
foods that contain unsaturated fats.
24
Cont. Unsaturated Fats
25
Saturated FatsIn your
notebook, make a list of foods that contain
saturated fats. (solid at room temperature)
See Fat Comparison Chart
26
b
Based on this information, what group should most
of our food come from?
(Food Digestion Program 959)
27
  • Your Eating Plate How do you rate? ?

What foods are good sources of carbohydrates?
fats/lipids?
Student 1 Week Food Log Analysis
28
Molecules of Saturated and Unsaturated Fat
http//www.cbsatlanta.com/story/23911850/fda-propo
ses-banning-trans-fats
Both saturated and unsaturated fats are made up
of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
29
Effects of Long-term Consumption of Saturated
Fats
  • - Eating fatty foods appears to take an
  • almost immediate toll on both
  • short-term memory and exercise
  • performance.
  • - Studies have suggested that long-term
  • consumption of a high-fat diet is
  • associated with weight gain, heart
  • disease and declines in cognitive
  • (mental) function.
  • New research shows how indulging in
  • fatty foods over the course of a few
  • days can affect the brain and body long before
    the extra pounds show up.


30
Atherosclerosis is a type of hardening of the
arteries in which lipids, particularly
cholesterol, build up on the side arterial walls.
Risk factors cigarette smoking, a high fat/high
cholesterol diet, and hypertension.
31
Atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries actual
images
32
Progression of Cholesterol Accumulation
Food Analysis Activity The Big Picture ?
33
Plants and Food Production
  • The three major functions that are basic to plant
    growth and development are
  • Photosynthesis The process of capturing light
    energy and converting it to sugar energy, in the
    presence of chlorophyll using carbon dioxide and
    water. (releasing O2 and H2O)
  • Respiration The process of metabolizing
    (burning) sugars to yield energy for growth,
    reproduction, and other life processes.
    (releasing H2O and CO2)
  • Transpiration The loss of water vapor through
    the stomata of leaves.

(O2)
(CO2)
(H2O)
Respiration Excretion 916
34
In photosynthesis
  • - carbon dioxide from the air and water from the
    soil react with the suns energy to form sugars,
    starches, proteins, and carbohydratesand release
    oxygen as a byproduct. 
  • - the plant uses water and nutrients from the
    soil, and carbon dioxide from the air with the
    suns energy.  Oxygen is released as a byproduct.
  • - Photosynthesis literally means to put together
    with light.  It occurs only in the chloroplasts,
    tiny sub cellular structures contained in the
    cells of leaves and green stems. 
  • The chemical equation for photosynthesis is
  • 6CO2 6H2O light energy C6H12O6 6O2
  • The word equation for photosynthesis is
  • carbon dioxide water light energy
  • glucose
    oxygen

35
Respiration in Plants
  • In respiration, plants (and animals) convert the
    sugars back into energy for growth and other life
    processes (metabolic processes). 
  • A simple chemical equation for respiration is
    given below. Notice that the equation for
    respiration is the opposite of that for
    photosynthesis.
  • The word equation for aerobic respiration is
  • - glucose oxygen carbon dioxide water
    energy
  • The chemical equation is
  • - C6H12O6 6O2  6CO2 6H2O 2900 kj
  • Chemically speaking, the process is similar to
    the oxidation that occurs as wood is burned,
    producing heat.  When compounds combine with
    oxygen, the process is often referred to as
    burning, for example, athletes burn energy
    (sugars) as they exercise.  The harder they
    exercise, the more sugars they burn so the more
    oxygen they need.  That is why at full speed,
    they are breathing very fast.  Athletes take in
    oxygen through their lungs. 
  • At night, plants take in a small amount of
    oxygen through the stomata in their leaves and
    through their roots.

36
Do plants take in oxygen (O2)?
  • All plants and animals on earth engage in a
    process called respiration.
  • One of the byproducts of respiration is carbon
    dioxide. In other words, respiration is the
    opposite of photosynthesis.
  • Respiration
  • Respiration doesnt depend on light it goes on
    24 hours a day, so that plants and animals have
    enough energy to perform the basic functions that
    keep them alive.
  • However, during the day, the amount of oxygen
    plants release as part of photosynthesis makes
    the amount of oxygen they consume for respiration
    at night seem negligible.
  • Nighttime Battle?
  • At night, when photosynthesis cant take place,
    plants continue to consume oxygen but they dont
    release any back into the atmosphere.
  • The amount of oxygen the plants use at night is
    trivial.

37
Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration
Photosynthesis Respiration
Produces sugars from light energy Stores energy Occurs only in cells with chloroplasts Releases oxygen Uses water Uses carbon dioxide - Requires light Burns sugars for energy Releases energy Occurs in most cells Uses oxygen Releases water Produces carbon dioxide - Occurs in darkness and light
What are the waste products of photosynthesis?
(dissolved O2 demo.)
What are the waste products of respiration?
(Yeast Respiration lab)
38
Transpiration in Plants
  • Water in the roots is pulled through the plant by
    transpiration (loss of water vapor through the
    stomata of the leaves). 
  • Transpiration uses about 90 of the water that
    enters the plant.  The other 10 is an ingredient
    in photosynthesis and cell growth.

The capillary action of water molecules keep
water moving up the roots and through the plant.
39
Transpiration
  • After securing the bag on the plant, water is
    captured as it travels out the leaves of the
    plant..
  • What is the process that leads to transpiration?
  • 2. What are the waste products of photosynthesis?

40
What is chemical energy?
  • Consider the ability of your body to do work.
  • The glucose (blood sugar) in your body is said to
    have "chemical energy" because the glucose
    releases energy when chemically reacting
    (combusting) with oxygen.

41
Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and
building material for all organisms.
  • Plants use the energy in light to make sugars out
    of carbon dioxide and water through a process
    called photosynthesis.
  • This process transforms light energy from the sun
    into stored chemical energy. Chemical energy is
    transferred from one organism in an ecosystem to
    another as they interact with each other for
    food.
  • Minerals and other nutrients from soil are not
    food
  • (They dont provide energy.), but are needed
    for
  • plants to make complex molecules from the
    sugar
  • they make.

42
How do plants take in carbon dioxide
(CO2)?(assessment probe - stomata)
  • Provide your feedback of the assessment probe.

43
Matter is transferred among organisms.
  • Molecules from food react with oxygen to produce
    carbon dioxide (CO2) and water in a process
    called cellular respiration.
  • Through the process of cellular respiration,
    cells convert energy (glucose) to a usable form
    of energy (ATP).
  • Energy stored in ATP enables cells to grow,
    develop, repair organisms, locomotion and
    transportation of molecules across the cell
    membrane.
  • Some plants (like legumes - i.e. peas) form a
    relationship with microorganisms. This happens in
    their roots, and nodules are formed. These
    microbes can take nitrogen from the air (which is
    about 80 nitrogen) and turn it into ammonia,
    which is absorbed by the plants root.
  • Animals get nitrogen by eating other plants or
    animals, which contain protein (which is made of
    nitrogen and other things). Nitrogen is a
    component in both protein and chlorophyll.

44
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45
Energy Flow Recycling of Matter
  • The atoms that make up organisms in an ecosystem
    are cycled repeatedly
  • between the living (biotic) and nonliving
    (abiotic) parts of the ecosystem.
  • The total amount of matter remains constant,
    even though its form and location
  • change. (Law of Conservation of Matter it
    cannot be created or destroyed, it only
  • changes form)

46
Ecosystem Recycling
  • Natures Way of Recycling

47
(producers)
48
- Energy can change from one form to another in
living things. - Animals get energy from
oxidizing their food, releasing some of its
energy as heat.- Plants use the energy
from light to make sugars (food) from carbon
dioxide and water. This transforms light
energy from the sun into stored chemical
energy.- Almost all food energy comes
originally from sunlight.
49
In plant and animals, molecules from food
  • (1) react with oxygen to provide energy that is
    needed to carry out life functions
  • (2) build and become incorporated into the body
    structure or
  • (3) are stored for later use.

50
Food is the fuel for our bodies. How do animals
convert food to energy?
  • Mitochondria are the converters they convert the
    fuel into useable energy.
  • When food is digested, or broken down into its
    smallest molecules and nutrients, and air is
    taken in, the smallest molecules and nutrients
    cross into the bloodstream. These molecules and
    nutrients include things such as glucose (a sugar
    molecule derived from carbohydrates) and oxygen.
  • You will consume more fuel than is necessary to
    make the machine called your body function. The
    excess gets stored for later as fat.
  • Just as fire burns oxygen and gives off carbon
    dioxide and water, mitochondria act like furnaces
    when they convert glucose into adenosine
    triphosphate (ATP) They burn (use) oxygen and
    give off carbon dioxide and water in a process
    called respiration. Because the process uses
    oxygen, it is said to be aerobic (as in aerobic
    exercise).
  • This chemical process of respiration occurs in
    every cell, so it is called aerobic cellular
    respiration.

51
Cellular Respiration
  • 1. Food (ingested) Air (inhaled)
  • 2. Carbohydrate Oxygen and Nitrogen
  • 3. Glucose Oxygen (final products of digestion
    and inhalation)
  • 4. ATP (energy) Carbon Dioxide (exhaled)
    Water

  • (exhaled and excreted)
  • 5. Do not confuse respiration with breathing.
  • - Breathing is just a part of respiration.
    Breathing actually is the act of inspiring
    and expiring.
  • - Respiration is the exchange of oxygen and
    carbon dioxide between cells and the
    atmosphere. So, people respire, but it
    happens at the cellular level.
  • Demonstration breathing onto a mirror or window

52
What is metabolism?
  • Metabolism is the energy (calories) your body
    needs to function, and it operates at a different
    rate for each person.
  • This involves a set of chemical reactions that
    store fuel (food) molecules and convert them into
    energy. In order for the body to use the fuel
    energy stored in food, the food must first be
    digested and combined with oxygen (oxidized).
  • Three factors contribute to the overall
    metabolic rate of the body.
  • 1. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) accounts for about
    60 of all energy used by the body.
  • 2. Daily physical activities account for another
    30 of the energy used by the body.
  • 3. 10 of the energy used by the body is used to
    digest and process (oxidize) food.

53
Relationship Between the Respiratory
Circulatory SystemsTo burn food for the release
of energy stored in it, oxygen must be supplied
to cells, and carbon dioxide removed.
  • Respiratory System
  • 1. Heart lungs work together to deliver
    oxygen rich blood to all organs, tissues and
    cells
  • 2. Lungs take in oxygen for the combustion
    of food and eliminate carbon dioxide as a
    waste product.
  • Circulatory System
  • 1. Moves substances processed in the respiratory
    system to or from cells where they are needed or
    produced
  • Regular exercise is important to maintain a
    healthy heart/lung system, good muscle
  • tone, and bone strength.
  • Regular exercise and physical activity
    increases the heart rate providing more oxygen
  • for the body to use for processing food.

54
Metabolism at a Glance
55
What affect does exercise have on metabolism?
56
Rank the Exercise ?
  • Put the following activities in order based on
    the number of calories that are burned off. List
    the activities from most calories burned (1) to
    least calories burned (10).
  • - Squash - Jump Roping - Biking
  • - Rugby - Boxing - Rock Climbing
  • - Running - Rowing -
    Swimming
  • - Cross Country Skiing
  • (see Activities and Calories
    Burned)

http//cltampa.com/dailyloaf/archives/2010/09/20/i
s-propylene-glycol-in-food-making-us-fat
57
10 Activities that Burn Calories
Activity Calories Burned (140 lb. woman) Calories Burned (175 lb. man)
Dancing 15 min. 95 120
Gardening 20 min. 105 130
In-line skating 20 min. 120 150
Housecleaning 30 min. (vacuuming, mopping) 90 110
Softball 25 min. 120 150
Stair walking 10 min. 75 90
Fast walking 15 min. 65 85
Moderate cycling 20 min. 125 155
Yoga 15 min. 60 80
Swimming 20 90 110
58
Calorie Countdown
  • Did you know that
  • 1. 1,750 calories is equivalent to half a pound
    of body weight.
  • 2. In theory, if you want to lose half a pound
    of weight in a week, youll
  • need to cut back or burn up about 250 extra
    calories per day.
  • Option A Eat 250 fewer calories.
  • Option B Burn 250 more calories through
    physical activity.
  • Option C Eat 125 fewer calories and burn 125
    more calories.
  • If you consume more calories than you use, the
    excess
  • is stored as fat and weight is gained.
  • Weight loss occurs when fewer calories are taken
    in
  • than the body needs.

59
Energy In Energy Out
  • 1. In order for energy balance to occur,
    caloric intake equals caloric output.
  • 2. What happens to food components (protein,
    fat/lipids,
  • carbohydrates taken into the body
  • They can be used to fuel metabolic
    activities and physical activities.
  • They can be incorporated into growing body
    tissues.
  • They can be stored as fat.

60
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