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Ali After Siffin: Nahrawan

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Title: Ashuraa and Men of Valor Author: Dr. Hashim Last modified by: Dr. Hashim Created Date: 4/23/2011 6:01:20 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ali After Siffin: Nahrawan


1
Ali After Siffin Nahrawan
  • A.S. Hashim, MD
  • From www.wikipedia.com

2
Sources of Reference
  • ibn Jarir al-Tabari,
  • Ibn Qutaybah,
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali".
  • Madelung,
  • Encyclopaedia of the Holy Prophet and Companions
  • Tabatabaei,
  • Lapidus,
  • The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman
    Empire by Edward Gibbon
  • Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
  • Dakake
  • Nahj Al-Balagha, Sermon 3
  • Holt, P.M. Lambton, Ann K.S. Lewis, Bernard.
    Cambridge History of Islam.
  • Watt, William Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca.
    Oxford University Press.

3
In this Slide Show
  • The Kharijis ???????
  • Ali Sends an Envoy
  • Alis Argument
  • Kharijis hopeless Demand
  • Danger of the Kharijis
  • Alis Speech Warning the Kharijis
  • The Kharijis Attack Alis Army
  • Following Nahrawan
  • Ibn Muljim before Siffin
  • Ibn Muljim the Assassin
  • Ali, While Wounded
  • Burial

4
The Kharijis ???????
  • Battle of Nahrawan ???????? was a battle
  • between Ali ibn Abi Talib (the fourth Sunni
    Caliph and the 1st Shi'a Imam)
  • and the Kharijis ???????.
  • After the unsatisfactory conclusion to the Battle
    of Siffin,
  • Ali returned with his army back to Kufa on the
    13th of Safar 37H (30 July 657AD)
  • During the march,
  • a group of 12,000 men kept themselves at a
    distance from the main part of the army.
  • They came to be known as Kharijis (???????) or
    the dissenters ????????

5
The Vacillating Kharijis
  • The Kharijis were furious at their role in Siffin
    and its consequences, i.e. the way Siffin was
    concluded.
  • The Kharijis mean dissenters ???????? .
  • They were the same people who had put down their
    weapons on Siffin battlefield forcing Ali to halt
    the battle.
  • Now they put the blame on Ali, accusing him of
    betraying Islam by agreeing to the truce and
  • should have referred judgment to the Quran alone
    or continued to fight.
  • They demanded that he repents for this.

6
On Approaching Kufa
  • When Alis army neared Kufa,
  • the Kharijis camped at a village named Harura
    ?????.
  • They started saying that all Muslims were equal
    and nobody could rule over the other.
  • In this way, they denounced both Ali ibn Abi
    Talib and Mu'awiya
  • They said their belief was in "?? ??? ??? ???",
    meaning, "No Rulership but by Allah alone."

7
Ali Sends an Envoy
  • Ali sent Sa'sa'a ibn Sauhan
  • and Ziyad ibn Nazr al-Harithi in the company of
    ibn Abbas towards them.
  • and afterwards Ali himself went to the place of
    their stay
  • and tried to explain to them that they were
    misunderstanding the words of "La Hukma Illa
    Lillah?? ??? ??? ???,
  • and that in accepting the arbitration (peace
    talks) at Siffin,
  • Ali had not gone against the teachings of the
    Quran.

8
Alis Argument
  • Ali pointed out that they themselves were at
    fault,
  • because they should never have laid down their
    arms to begin with at Siffin
  • and force him to call back Malik al-Ashtar,
  • who was at the point of securing victory over
    Muawiya.
  • Ali reminded them that they themselves had
    pressed for the arbitration and
  • had forced him to appoint Abu Musa al-Ash'ari as
    their representative.
  • He told them that he found their present behavior
    very strange, considering their involvement in
    Siffin.
  • To this they admitted that they had sinned but
    now they had repented for it and he should do the
    same.

9
The Kharijis Await the Arbitration
  • Ali ibn Abi Talib assured them of his firm Faith,
    and they dispersed after the discussion.
  • The Kharijis, however refused to accept the words
    of Ali and
  • They awaited the decision of the Arbitration by
    Amr al-Aas and Abu Musa al-Ash'ari.
  • When finally they learned of the decision, they
    were enraged and decided to revolt,
  • They set up their headquarters at Nahrawan
    ????????,
  • Nahrawan is twelve miles from Baghdad.
  • Some people came from Basra to join these rebels.

10
Nahrawan ??????
11
Ali Raises a Force to Face Muawiya
  • On the other side, after hearing the verdict of
    the Arbitration
  • Ali ibn Abi Talib raised a force for fighting the
    army of Muawiya
  • Ali wrote to the Kharijis about the verdict
    passed by the two arbitrators
  • And that verdict was not acceptable to him,
  • that he had therefore decided to fight it
  • And they should support him for crushing the
    enemy.

12
Kharijis hopeless Demand
  • But the Kharijis gave him this reply,
  • By having agreed to the Arbitration,
  • in our view you had turned against the Faith.
  • So if you admit that and offer repentance
  • we will think this matter over, and decide what
    we should do."
  • Ali ibn Abi Talib understood from their reply
    that their disobedience and misguidance had
    become very serious.
  • To entertain any kind of hope from them now would
    be futile.
  • Consequently, ignoring them, he encamped in the
    valley of al-Nukhaylah
  • With a view to marching towards Syria to fight
    against Muawiya.

13
Ali Changes Direction
  • Ali and his force had already started towards
    Muawiya
  • when he received the news that the Kharijis had
    butchered
  • the governor of Nahrawan (Abdullah ibn Khabbab)
  • and have killed his slave maid with the child in
    her womb,
  • and have killed three women of Banu Tayyi and Umm
    Sinan as-Saydawiyyah.
  • Ali sent to them al-Harith ibn Murrah for
    investigation
  • but he too was killed by them.
  • When their rebellion reached this stage it was
    necessary to deal with them.

14
Danger of the Kharijis
  • There was a danger that the Kharijis might attack
    Kufa as Ali and his men were marching towards
    Muawiya,
  • So Ali decided to stop his march and
  • He changed his course eastward,
  • crossed the river Tigris and approached Nahrawan.
  • On reaching there Ali sent a messenger to the
    Kharijis
  • Demanding that those people who had murdered
    innocent Muslims around their camp should be
    surrendered.
  • The Kharijis replied that they were all equally
    responsible for killing these sinners.

15
Al-Ansaari Convinces Some
  • There was some reluctance in the army of Ali to
    fight the Kharijis,
  • because they had been their companions against
    Mu'awiya at Siffin.
  • Ali himself did not desire the bloodshed of these
    misguided fanatics,
  • so he sent Abu Ayyub al-Ansaari with a message of
    peace.
  • who spoke to them aloud,
  • "Whoever comes under this banner or separates
    from that party and goes to Kufa or al-Mada'in
  • would get amnesty and he would not be
    questioned.

16
The Leftover Kharijis
  • As a result of this
  • Farwah ibn Nawfal said that he did not know why
    they were at war with Ali to begin with.
  • Saying this he separated from the Kharijis along
    with five hundred men.
  • Similarly, group after group began to separate
    and
  • Some of them even joined Alis forces.
  • In the end, only a core of 1,800 die-hards were
    left (some claim 3000)
  • They were under the command of Abdullah ibn
    Wahab.
  • These Kharijis swore that they would fight Ali at
    any cost.

17
Alis Speech Warning the Kharijis
  • Nahjul Balaaghah - Sermon 36 Warning the people
    of Nahrawan of their fate
  • "I am warning you that you will be killed on the
    bend of this canal
  • and on the level of this low area while you will
    have no clear excuse before Allah nor any open
    authority with you.
  • You have come out of your houses and then divine
    decree entangled you.
  • I had advised you against this arbitration but
    you rejected my advice like adversaries and
    opponents till I turned my ideas in the direction
    of your wishes.
  • You are a group whose heads are devoid of reason
    and intelligence. Allah's woe be to you! I have
    not put you in any adversity nor wished you any
    harm."

18
The Kharijis Attack Ali Army
  • The Kharijis attacked Ali army with desperation.
  • However, they did not stand a chance against
    Alis superior army
  • and they were all killed except nine men.
  • These nine managed to flee to Basra and
    elsewhere, where they spread the fire of their
    hatred, thus recruting more followers.
  • From Alis army there were only eight casualties,
    people whom Ali's followers regard as martyrs.
  • The battle took place on the 9th Safar, 38 A.H.
  • Two years later, in 40H, it was the Kharijis who
    sent out three assassins to kill Ali, Muawiya
    and Amr ibn al-Aas.

19
Looking for Someone
  • When the battle was over Ali was looking for
    someone in a feverish manner, but he couldn't
    find him. 
  • People asked for whom he was searching and he
    answered
  • Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) told me about this 30
    years ago, saying
  • that among these people there will be a man
  • whose forearm is without bone,
  • will have a hairy round lump on it,
  • and if you pulled at it, it would stretch down to
    the fingers
  • and if left it will fill again. 

20
They Find him
  • They kept looking and looking for this man
  • and finally they saw his body
  • and his lump was indeed quite large,
  • and it could be pulled down then reduced in size
    with pressure,
  • as we see in cases of huge hemangioma! 
  • Truly it is amazing how accurate it is what
    Jubra'eel told Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

21
The Prophets Prediction
  • The Prophet had predicted that Ali would fight
    the Kharijis with the words
  • "In truth there will be, among you, one who shall
    fight over the Interpretation of the Quran just
    as I fought over its Revelation."
  • Abu Bakr and Omar asked
  • "Am I he?"
  • The Prophet said "No, it is the one who is
    mending the shoes.
  • He had given his shoes to Ali to mend.
  • The Prophet also predicted Alis martyrdom with
    the words
  • "This shall be dyed red from this"
  • and he pointed to Alis beard and head
    respectively.

22
Following Nahrawan
  • Having disposed of the Kharijis at Nahrawan, Ali
    left to resume his march to Syria.
  • However, the chiefs of his followers urged him to
    stop at Kufa
  • to let the men rest before the long and arduous
    journey and
  • to enable the army to repair its weapons and
    armor.
  • Ali agreed to this request and camped at
    al-Nukhaylah ????? outside Kufa.
  • The soldiers were allowed to leave the camp for a
    day.

23
The Dispersion of Alis Fighters
  • On the next day,
  • hardly any of the men returned,
  • and at length, Ali entered Kufa and
  • gave a stern sermon to the people.
  • However, nobody came forward and his call was not
    heeded
  • Finally, Ali turned away from them in
    disappointment.
  • The Syrian expedition had to be abandoned, never
    to be resumed.

24
The Prophet About Alis end
  • 30 years earlier, the Muhammad said to Ali
  • The most evil of evildoers is the one who will
    wet this (beard) with the blood from this
    (forehead)
  • ???? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????  
  • ????? ??? ????? ?? ????

25
Ibn Muljim before Siffin
  • Ibn Kathir writes in Usudu'l-Ghaiba, Vol 4, Pg 25
    (and others also have reported) that
  • Ibn Muljim came to Ali, and he recited some
    verses in praise of Amir al-Mu'minin in the
    presence of the companions.
  • He said
  • "You are the true guide, free from all faults and
    doubts. You are generous and kind and are the
    son of those lion-hearted and gallant ancestors,
    who were so distinguished in bravery from the
    very beginning.
  • O successor of the Prophet! Allah has given you
    this rank and bestowed upon you that virtue and
    greatness present in the Holy Quran."
  • Ali replied "I advise you to love me
    open-heartedly, even though I know that inside
    you are just the opposite."

26
Ibn Muljim, After Nahrawan
  • Ibn Muljim, one of the Kharijis,
  • Along with 2 other Kharijis met in Mecca after
    Haj to set the plan to kill
  • Ali
  • Muawiya
  • Ibn Aas
  • These Kharijis were involved in Nahrawan.
  • Two relatives of the wouldbe wife of Ibn Muljim
    were killed in Nahrawan by Alis fighters.
  • They planned to avenge
  • Muawiya and Ibn Aas escaped being killed
  • But Ali was the only one killed

27
Ibn Muljim the Assassin
  • It was the month of Ramadhan, the month of
    fasting.
  • It was the time of the morning prayer the Kufa
    mosque was full of Muslims.
  • One man called Ibn Muljim, pretended to be
    sleeping, with his face downward.
  • He had hidden a poisonous sword under him.
  • Ali was in Sujood,
  • When as he raised his head, a terrible blow fell
    upon him
  • giving him a deep wound from Ibn Muljims sword.
  • There was a great commotion in the Kufa mosque.
  • Ibn Muljim started to run but was arrested and
    brought before Ali.
  • Ali was on the prayer rug drenched in blood and
    reclining upon his sons.

28
Alis Assassination
  • Upon being so wounded Ali said
  • ??? ??? ??????
  • I have won by the Lord of the Kaba
  • A lot of commotion ensued
  • Taken home, Ali gave final advice to his son
    Al-Hasan, and other children
  • Two days later Ali died on Leilatul Qadr 21st of
    Ramadhan

29
Ali, While Wounded
  • Though severely wounded
  • Ali ordered his sons not to attack the Kharijis,
  • even though a single member of these Kharijis
    tried to kill him.
  • Ali said to his son, (Al-Hasan) that if he lives
    on he will forgive ibn Muljim and free him,
  • however, in the event of his death, ibn Muljim
    should get one equal hit and not more,
  • regardless if this man dies from that hit or not,
    just as Ali himself received one hit from him
    (ibn Muljim).
  • Thus, Al-Hasan fulfilled Qisas ???? and gave
    equal hurt to ibn Muljim as he gave it to Ali.

30
Alis Assassination II
  • Alis last words before he died quoting the Holy
    Quran were
  • ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????
  • ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????
  • He with the slightest act of goodness will so be
    rewarded
  • And he with the slightest act of evil deeds will
    so be rewarded

31
Site of Wounding Ali Kufa
Ali wounded while in Sujood, on Leilatul Qadr
32
Ali Wounded Mosque of Kufa
Ali wounded in this mosque
33
Burial
  • According to Al-Sheikh Al-Mufid, Ali did not want
    his grave to be desecrated by his enemies
  • and consequently asked his friends and family to
    bury him secretly.
  • This secret gravesite was revealed later during
    the Abbasi Khilaafah by Imam Ja'far al-Saadiq,
    his descendant and the sixth Shi'a Imam.
  • Most Shi'as accept that Ali is buried at the Tomb
    of Imam Ali in the Imam Ali Mosque at what is now
    the city of Najaf,
  • which grew around the mosque and shrine called
    Masjid Ali.

34
The Final Burial Place of Ali.
35
Non-Muslim Point of View of Ali
  • Thomas Carlyle
  • Dr. Henry Stubbe
  • Washington Irving
  • Edward Gibbon
  • Philip Khuri Hitti
  • Khalil Gibran

36
Ali Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)
  • Scottish historian, critic, and sociological
    writer
  • As for this young Ali, one cannot but like him.
  • A noble-minded creature, as he shows himself, now
    and always afterwards
  • full of affection, of fiery daring.
  • Something chivalrous in him brave as a lion
  • yet with a grace, a truth and affection worthy of
    Christian knighthood.
  • On Heroes, Hero-Worship, And the Heroic In
    History, 1841, Lecture 2 The Hero as Prophet.
    Mahomet Islam. May 8, 1840)

37
Ali Dr. Henry Stubbe (1632-1676)
  • About Ali
  • He had a contempt of the world, its glory and
    pomp,
  • he feared God much, gave many alms,
  • was just in all his actions, humble and affable
  • of an exceeding quick wit and of an ingenuity
    that was not common,
  • he was exceedingly learned, not in those sciences
    that terminate in speculations but those which
    extend to practice.
  • An Account of the Rise and Progress of
    Mohammedanism, 1705, p. 83

38
Ali Washington Irving (1783-1859)
  • "He was of the noblest branch of the noble race
    of Koreish.
  • He possessed the three qualities most prized by
    Arabs courage, eloquence, and munificence.
  • His intrepid spirit had gained him from the
    Prophet the appellation of The Lion of God,
  • Specimens of his eloquence remain in some verses
    and sayings preserved among the Arabs
  • And his munificence was manifested in sharing
    among others, every Friday, what remained in the
    treasury.
  • Of his magnanimity, we have given repeated
    instances his noble scorn of everything false
    and mean, and the absence in his conduct of
    everything like selfish intrigue."
  • Lives of the Successors of Mahomet, London,
    1850, p. 165

39
Ali Edward Gibbon (1737-1794)
  • The British historian Edward Gibbon stated
  • "The zeal and virtue of Ali were never
    outstripped by any recent proselyte.
  • He united the qualifications of a poet, a
    soldier, and a saint
  • his wisdom still breathes in a collection of
    moral and religious sayings
  • and every antagonist, in the combats of the
    tongue or of the sword, was subdued by his
    eloquence and valor.
  • From the first hour of his mission to the last
    rites of his funeral, the apostle was never
    forsaken by a generous friend, whom he delighted
    to name
  • his brother ???,
  • his vicegerent ??????? ???? ,
  • and the faithful Aaron of a second Moses ??????
    .".

40
Ali Philip Khuri Hitti (1886-1978)
  • Professor of Semitic Languages at Princeton
    University
  • Valiant in battle, wise in counsel,
  • Eloquent in speech, true to his friends,
    magnanimous to his foes,
  • He became both the paragon of Muslim nobility and
    chivalry (futuwah ???? )
  • And the Solomon of Arabic tradition,
  • around whose name poems, proverbs, sermons and
    anecdotes innumerable have clustered.
  • History of the Arabs, London, 1964, p. 183

41
Ali Khalil Gibran ???? ????? View
  • The poet Khalil Gibran said of him
  • "In my view, Ali was the first Arab to have
    contact with and converse with the universal
    soul.
  • He died a martyr of his greatness,
  • He died while prayer was between his two lips.
  • The Arabs did not realize his value until
    appeared among their Persian neighbors
  • some who knew the difference between gems and
    gravels."

42
In Sermon 125, Ali About the Kharijis
Certainly the best man before Allah is he who loves most to act according to the Right (even though it causes him hardship), rather than according to the Wrong, (even though it is to his advantage). So, where are you being misled and from where have you been brought to this state? Be prepared to march to people who have deviated from the Right and do not see it, have been entangled in Wrong-doing and are not corrected. They are aliens to the Book and had turned away from the right path. ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????! ?????? ?????? ??????????! ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ???? ??????????.
43
In Sermon 110, Ali About the Quran
????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????.
Learn the Quran for it is the fairest of discourses and understand the Quran thoroughly for it is the blossom of the hearts. Seek cure with its light for it is the cure for hearts. Recite it well for it is well nigh the best narration. Certainly, a scholar who acts not according to his knowledge is like the off-headed ignorant who finds no relief from his ignorance, But the plea of Allah is greater on the learned and the grief more incumbent, and before Allah he is more blameworthy.
44
In Conclusion
  • Ali and the Kharijis
  • The Kharijis ???????
  • Ali Sends an Envoy
  • Kharijis hopeless Demand
  • Danger of the Kharijis
  • Alis Speech Warning the Kharijis
  • The Kharijis Attack Ali Army
  • Following Nahrawan
  • Ibn Muljim before Siffin
  • Ibn Muljim the Assassin
  • Ali, While Wounded

45
Finally we quote the Quran
By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????
46
THANK YOU
  • Be in Gods Care
  • Dr. A.S. Hashim
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