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Literature Review


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Title: Literature Review

Literature Review
  • It involve identification and analysis of
    relevant publications that contain information
    pertaining to the research problem

Purposes of the literature review
  • To determine what is already known about the
    topic that you wish to study (a literature source
    serves as the basis for the topic)
  • Determines gaps, consistencies in the literature
    about a subject, concept, or problem.
  • Discovers unanswered questions about a subject,
    concept, or problem

  • Describes the strengths and weaknesses of
    designs/ methods of inquiry and instruments used
    in earlier work.
  • Many publishes studies contain recommendations
    for future research.
  • To narrow the problem to be studied.

  • Locating theoretical or conceptual formulations
    that help guide the study.
  • Help plan the study methodology.

Electronic Literature Searches
  • Electronic Data Base (EDB) Huge bibliographic
    files that can be accessed by computer. Most of
    the electronic data base of interest to nurses
    can be accessed either through an online search
    (i.e by directly communicating with a host
    computer over telephone lines or the internet) or
    CD-ROM (compact disks that store the
    bibliographic information).

The electronic data base that contain references
on nursing research include the following
  • CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and ALLIED
    Health Literature)
  • MEDLINE (Medical Literature on-line)
  • PsycINFO (Psychology Information)
  • AIDSLINE (AIDS Information on-line)
  • CancerLit (Cancer Literature)
  • Health STAR (Health Services, Technology,
    Administration, and Research)
  • CHID (Combined Health Information Database)

  • Most libraries at institutions with nursing
    schools subscribe to CINAHL, one of the most
    useful database for nurses.

  • 11) Print indexes are books used to locate
    research reports in journals and other documents.
    Indexes that are particularly useful to nurses
    are (International Nursing Index, Cumulative
    Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature,
    Nursing Studies Index, Index Medicus, and
    Hospital Literature Index).

  • 111) Abstract journals Summarize articles that
    have appeared in other journals. Abstracting
    services are generally more useful than indexes
    because they provide a summery of a study rather
    than just a title. Two important abstract sources
    for the nursing literature are Nursing Abstract
    and Psychological Abstract.

Primary and secondary resources
  • A primary sources is description of a research
    study that was written by the original
    investigator (s) who was/ were conduct them. It
    is written by the person (s) who developed the
    theory or conducted the research. In historical
    research, a primary sources is an eye witness or
    an original document.

  • A secondary source is a summary or description
    of a research study that was written by someone
    other than the study investigator (s) or the
    original researcher. Literature review articles
    are secondary sources.

  • Note if you are critiquing the review of the
    literature. It may be difficult for you to
    determine if the author is citing primary or
    secondary sources. The only information you have
    to rely on is contained in the references list at
    the article was published in a research journal.
    The only way to make a definite determination of
    the type of source would be locate each reference.

The following steps are recommended for writing a
literature review
  • 1.Identifying Potential references.
  • 2.Locate and screen them for relevance and

  • Identify the major ideas (usually two or three)
    that are related to the problem statements.
  • List the concepts either in descending order of
    importance or in terms of logical presentation.
  • In a sentence or two , summarize the major
    findings of each study. Include complete
    reference citations

  • At the end of each section, summarize the
    findings for each group of studies write a
    paragraph at the end each major concept or topic
    that summarizes the key points, supports the
    cohesiveness of the subheadings, and establishes
    the relevance of the proposed problem.

  • Compile the entire literature review and scan it
    for coherence, continuity, and smoothness of
    transition from one topic to the next. Carefully
    check each citation for accuracy.

Organizing The Review
  • A crucial task in preparing a written review. It
    is useful to prepare a summery tables. The tables
    could include columns with headings such as
    author, type of study, sample, design, data
    collection approach, and key findings. Such a
    table provides a quick overview that allows the
    reviewer to make sense of a large mass of

How to do Citation Recommend styles
  • Several experts (Abraham, 1999 Lawrence, 2000)
    have asserted that unmet expectations engender
  • previous studies indicate that women who
    participate in preparation for childbirth classes
    manifest less stress during labor than those who
    do not(klotz,2000, McTygue, 1998).

  • The studies by Singleton (1999) and Fortune
    (2000) suggest that doctors and nurses do not
    fully understand the psychological dynamics of
    recovery from a myocardial infarction.
  • Attitudes have been found to be relatively
    enduring attributes that cannot be change
    overnight (OConnell,1999 Valentine, 2000).
  • According to doctor A.Cassard, an authority on
    stress, responsibility is an intrinsic stressor
    (Cassard, 1998, 1999)

  • Example 1
  • Farley and Fay in (2005) developed a system
    for assessing the learning needs of registered
    nurses in England. Registered nurses completed
    questionnaire on their learning needs. The
    response rate was 24 out of 2949. The findings
    revealed that the following topics were
    identified to have highest interest Motivation,
    stress management, counseling,.,physical
    assessment (20)

  • Example 2Urbano et al. in (2007) examined the
    motivational orientations of 500 registered
    nurses, randomly selected, who reside in a large
    metropolitan area. The results showed that

Guidelines for critiquing the literature review
  • Is the literature review comprehensive?
  • Does the review flow logically from the purposes
    of the study?
  • Are all sources relevant to the study topic?
  • Are both classic and current sources included?
  • Are paraphrases or direct quotes used most often?
  • Are supporting and opposing findings should be
  • Are most of the references primary sources?

  • Example1 journal
  • Allmark, p.(2005). Can the study of ethics
    enhance nursing practice. Journal of Advanced
    Nursing 51(6) 618-624.
  • Author name Peter Allmark
  • Year of publishing (2005)
  • The study title Can the study of ethics
    enhance nursing practice.
  • The volume 51
  • Issue 6
  • The page 618-624

  • Example 2 Book
  • O'Connor, A. B. Nursing staff development and
    continuing education(2nd ed.) . Canada Little,
    Brown and company, 2007.
  • Name of the book Nursing staff development and
    continuing education.
  • Canada The place of publishing.
  • Little, Brown and company The name of
  • (2007) Year of publishing

  • - Refereed journals are important sources of
    scholarly literature. It is uses a panel of
    reviewers to review manuscript for possible
  • reviewers are chosen by editor for their experts
    as clinicians, researchers, and / or
  • The reviews are usually performed blind.