NIACE Annual Disability Conference London: 29 September 2008 3rd Tomlinson Memorial Lecture: Assessment for learning: why it matters for all students Dylan Wiliam Institute of Education, University of London - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NIACE Annual Disability Conference London: 29 September 2008 3rd Tomlinson Memorial Lecture: Assessment for learning: why it matters for all students Dylan Wiliam Institute of Education, University of London

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Title: Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment Author: Dylan Wiliam Last modified by: Dylan Wiliam Created Date: 1/31/2002 7:04:10 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NIACE Annual Disability Conference London: 29 September 2008 3rd Tomlinson Memorial Lecture: Assessment for learning: why it matters for all students Dylan Wiliam Institute of Education, University of London


1
NIACE Annual Disability ConferenceLondon 29
September 2008 3rd Tomlinson Memorial Lecture
Assessment for learning why it matters for all
studentsDylan WiliamInstitute of Education,
University of London
  • www.dylanwiliam.net

2
Raising achievement matters
  • For individuals
  • Improved control over ones life
  • Increased lifetime salary
  • Improved health
  • Longer life
  • For society
  • Improved pro-social behaviour (e.g.,
    participation in democracy)
  • Lower criminal justice costs
  • Lower health-care costs
  • Increased economic growth

3
  • Which of the following categories of skill is
    disappearing from the work-place most rapidly?
  • Routine manual
  • Non-routine manual
  • Routine cognitive
  • Complex communication
  • Expert thinking/problem-solving

4
but what is learned matters too
Autor, Levy Murnane, 2003
5
more now than ever
6
There is only one 21st century skill
  • So the model that says learn while youre at
    school, while youre young, the skills that you
    will apply during your lifetime is no longer
    tenable. The skills that you can learn when
    youre at school will not be applicable. They
    will be obsolete by the time you get into the
    workplace and need them, except for one skill.
    The one really competitive skill is the skill of
    being able to learn. It is the skill of being
    able not to give the right answer to questions
    about what you were taught in school, but to make
    the right response to situations that are outside
    the scope of what you were taught in school. We
    need to produce people who know how to act when
    theyre faced with situations for which they were
    not specifically prepared. (Papert, 1998)

7
Preparation for future learning (PFL)
  • Cannot be taught in isolation from other learning
  • Students still need the basic skills of literacy,
    numeracy, concepts and facts
  • Learning power is developed primarily through
    pedagogy, not curriculum
  • We have to change the way teachers teach, not
    what they teach

8
Teachers make a difference
  • Students taught by the best teacher in a group of
    50 learn in 6 months what students taught by the
    average teacher take a year to learn
  • For students taught by the least effective
    teacher in a group of 50, the same learning will
    take two years

9
but more for some than others
Impact of teacher quality on student outcomes
(Hamre Pianta, 2005))
Achievement gaps Disadvantaged background (mothers education) Poor behavior
Teachers provision of instructional support High No (good) Average No (good) Low Yes (bad) High Yes (bad) Average Yes (bad) Low Yes (bad)
Teachers provision of emotional support High Yes (bad) Average Yes (bad) Low Yes (bad) High No (good) Average Yes (bad) Low Yes (bad)
10
The dark matter of teacher quality
  • Teachers make a difference
  • But what makes the difference in teachers?

11
Learning power environments
  • Key concept
  • Teachers do not create learning
  • Learners create learning
  • Teaching is the engineering of effective learning
    environments
  • Key features of learning power environments
  • Create student engagement (pedagogies of
    engagement)
  • Well-regulated (pedagogies of contingency)

12
Why pedagogies of engagement?
  • Intelligence is partly inherited
  • So what?
  • Intelligence is partly environmental
  • Environment creates intelligence
  • Intelligence creates environment
  • Learning environments
  • High cognitive demand
  • Inclusive
  • Obligatory

13
Motivation cause or effect?
(Csikszentmihalyi, 1990)
14
How do students make sense of this?
  • Attribution (Dweck, 2000)
  • Personalization (internal v external)
  • Permanence (stable v unstable)
  • Essential that students attribute both failures
    and success to internal, unstable causes. (Its
    down to you, and you can do something about it.)
  • Views of ability
  • Fixed (IQ)
  • Incremental (untapped potential)
  • Essential that teachers inculcate in their
    students a view that ability is incremental
    rather than fixed(by working, youre getting
    smarter)

15
Prediction is hard, especially about the future
Source Autumn package (2001), DfES
16
Why pedagogies of contingency?
  • Several major reviews of the research
  • Natriello (1987)
  • Crooks (1988)
  • Kluger DeNisi (1996)
  • Black Wiliam (1998)
  • Nyquist (2003)
  • all find consistent, substantial effects

17
The AfL hi-jack continues
  • Long-cycle
  • Span across units, terms
  • Length four weeks to one year
  • Medium-cycle
  • Span within and between teaching units
  • Length one to four weeks
  • Short-cycle
  • Span within and between lessons
  • Length
  • day-by-day 24 to 48 hours
  • minute-by-minute 5 seconds to 2 hours

18
Unpacking formative assessment
  • Key processes
  • Establishing where the learners are in their
    learning
  • Establishing where they are going
  • Working out how to get there
  • Participants
  • Teachers
  • Peers
  • Learners

19
Aspects of formative assessment
Where the learner is going Where the learner is How to get there
Teacher Clarify and share learning intentions Engineering effective discussions, tasks and activities that elicit evidence of learning Providing feedback that moves learners forward
Peer Understand and share learning intentions Activating students as learning resources for one another Activating students as learning resources for one another
Learner Understand learning intentions Activating students as ownersof their own learning Activating students as ownersof their own learning
20
Five key strategies
  • Clarifying, understanding, and sharing learning
    intentions
  • curriculum philosophy
  • Engineering effective classroom discussions,
    tasks and activities that elicit evidence of
    learning
  • classroom discourse, interactive whole-class
    teaching
  • Providing feedback that moves learners forward
  • feedback
  • Activating students as learning resources for one
    another
  • collaborative learning, reciprocal teaching,
    peer-assessment
  • Activating students as owners of their own
    learning
  • metacognition, motivation, interest, attribution,
    self-assessment

(Wiliam Thompson, 2007)
21
and one big idea
  • Use evidence about learning to adapt teaching and
    learning to meet student needs

22
Practical techniques eliciting evidence
  • Key idea questioning should
  • cause thinking
  • provide data that informs teaching
  • Getting away from I-R-E
  • basketball rather than serial table-tennis
  • No hands up (except to ask a question)
  • class polls to review current attitudes towards
    an issue
  • Hot Seat questioning
  • All-student response systems
  • ABCD cards, Mini white-boards, Exit passes

23
Practical techniques feedback
  • Key idea feedback should
  • cause thinking
  • provide guidance on how to improve
  • Comment-only marking
  • Focused marking
  • Explicit reference to scoring guides and mark
    schemes
  • Suggestions on how to improve
  • Not giving complete solutions
  • Re-timing assessment
  • (eg three-quarters-of-the-way-through-a-unit test)

24
Practical techniques sharing learning intentions
  • Explaining learning intentions at start of
    lesson/unit
  • Learning intentions
  • Success criteria
  • Intentions/criteria in students language
  • Posters of key words to talk about learning
  • e.g., describe, explain, evaluate
  • Planning/writing frames
  • Annotated examples of different standards to
    flesh out mark schemes (e.g. lab reports)
  • Opportunities for students to design their own
    mark-schemes and tests

25
Practical techniques activating students
  • Students assessing their own/peers work
  • with scoring guides
  • with exemplars
  • two stars and a wish
  • Training students to pose questions/identifying
    group weaknesses
  • Self-assessment of understanding
  • Traffic lights
  • Red/green discs
  • End-of-lesson students review

26
Putting it into practice
27
Implementing AfL requires changing teacher habits
  • Teachers know most of this already
  • So the problem is not a lack of knowledge
  • Its a lack of understanding what it means to do
    AfL
  • Thats why telling teachers what to do doesnt
    work
  • Experience alone is not enoughif it were, then
    the most experienced teachers would be the best
    teacherswe know thats not true (Hanushek, 2005
    Day, 2006)
  • People need to reflect on their experiences in
    systematic ways that build their accessible
    knowledge base, learn from mistakes, etc.
    (Bransford, Brown Cocking, 1999)

28
Teacher learning takes time
  • To put new knowledge to work, to make it
    meaningful and accessible when you need it,
    requires practice.
  • A teacher doesnt come at this as a blank slate.
  • Not only do teachers have their current habits
    and ways of teachingtheyve lived inside the old
    culture of classrooms all their lives every
    teacher started out as a student!
  • New knowledge doesnt just have to get learned
    and practiced, it has to go up against
    long-established, familiar, comfortable ways of
    doing things that may not be as effective, but
    fit within everyones expectations of how a
    classroom should work.
  • It takes time and practice to undo old habits and
    become graceful at new ones. Thus
  • Professional development must be sustained over
    time

29
A model for teacher learning
  • Content, then process
  • Content (what we want teachers to change)
  • Evidence
  • Ideas (strategies and techniques)
  • Process (how to go about change)
  • Choice
  • Flexibility
  • Small steps
  • Accountability
  • Support

30
Design and intervention
Our design process
cognitive/affective insights
synergy/ comprehensiveness
set ofcomponents
Teachers implementation process
set of components
synergy/ comprehensiveness
cognitive/affective insights
31
Summary
  • Learning power is developed more by howthan by
    whatwe teach
  • Teaching is the engineering of effective learning
    environments
  • Effective learning environments involve
  • Pedagogies of engagement
  • Pedagogies of contingency
  • Personalisation
  • Mass customization (rather than mass production
    or individualisation)
  • Diversity
  • A valuable teaching resource (rather than a
    challenge to be minimized)
  • Assessment is the bridge between teaching and
    learning, and thus the central process of
    teaching (as opposed to lecturing).
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