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Old Science and Popular Culture in Europe in the 1500

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Old Science and Popular Culture in Europe in the 1500 s The world is a spiritual world, evil spirits. The local priest might be illiterate, but a source of comfort. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Old Science and Popular Culture in Europe in the 1500


1
Old Science and Popular Culture in Europe in the
1500s
  • The world is a spiritual world, evil spirits.
  • The local priest might be illiterate, but a
    source of comfort.
  • Witches were suspected and considered bad luck.
  • Recreation was limited.
  • Geocentric Theory of the universe.
  • Scholasticism is believed and God controls an
    objects movement.
  • Body is made of four humors, each controlling an
    emotion.
  • Bleeding and purging curedbut no dissections
    allowed!
  • Print culture changes this!!!!
  • Almanacs spread knowledge.

2
Four temperamental tendencies Blood good
spirits Black melancholic, depressed Yellow
choleric, hostile Phlegmatic slow and complaisant
3
The Scientific Revolution Swept Europe
  • Experimentation through observation started the
    Scientific Revolution.
  • Verifying results by the Scientific Method.
  • Bacon- Inductive Reasoning
  • Descartes- Deductive ReasoningCogito,ergo sum
  • Cartesian Dualism
  • Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry and Anatomy

4
Descartes
Bacon
5
Scientific Revolution
  • Scientific Societies- promoted to research and
    spreading knowledge
  • Women Science- considered inferior and excluded
    from education, but worked along side of husbands
    and fathers (Maria Winkleman, Maria Cunitz
    Margaret Cavendish)
  • Religion-
  • Superstition
  • Science and the Church
  • Spinoza Pascal
  • Deism
  • Atheist

6
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7
Cavendish
8
The Social Contract
  • Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were two English
    philosophers who lived through the English Civil
    War.
  • Hobbes thought that man was cruel, and greedy. To
    escape anarchy one needed to live by a social
    contract. A strong government peace..wrote
    Leviathan
  • Locke thought that people were basically good.
    People had natural rights, life liberty and the
    right to own property. If government violates the
    rightsthen good-bye government.

9
Hobbes Locke
10
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11
Astronomy
  • Geocentric Theory
  • Copernicus and the heliocentric theory. Proved
    nothinggot people thinking!!!!
  • Tycho Brahe
  • Kepler
  • Galileo

12
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13
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14
Brahe
Kepler
15
Physics, Chemistry and Anatomy
  • Anatomy-
  • Vesalius and Harvey-experimentation and
    observation to improve medicine.
  • Physics-
  • Isaac Newton - Principals of Mathematics . Newton
    and Leibniz developed calculus.
  • Chemistry-
  • Robert Hooke - the theory of cells.
  • Lavoisier and Boyle Fathers of Chemistry.

16
Harvey
Newton
17
The Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment Applied Scientific Ideas to
    Politics
  • The 1700s are referred to as the Age of
    Enlightenment
  • Science and Reason could explain everything in
    the Universe.
  • Rationalism - truth is arrived at by using
    rational, logical thinking. Everything in the
    world can be explained. (Descartes, Kant, Leibniz)

Descartes
18
Enlightenment
  • Economic change political reform.
  • Possible AND desirable .New idea? RADICAL
  • Movement of people ideas.ENLIGHTENMENT
  • Think of possibilitiesnot just actualities.
  • Apply rules of reason to EVERYTHING.
  • CHIEF DUTY Common desire to reform thought,
    society, government for the sake of HUMAN
    LIBERTYIn touch with common people

19
Influences.
1. Isaac Newton Avoid metaphysical/supernaturali
sm. If nature was rational, society could also
be organized rationally 2. John Locke- Human
nature can be molded by changing environment..
soo change environment! 3. Great
Britainpost-1688 4. France Louis XIV 5. Print
Culturereading is a GOOD thing!!
20
Great Britainpost-1688
  • Enlightened reforms benefit all
  • Religious toleration (Voltaire)
  • Relative free speech/press
  • Limited monarchy Parliamentpolitical
    sovereignty
  • Courts protected citizens
  • Small standing army
  • Domestic economyless regulated
  • Liberal policies Prosperity/stability/loyalty
  • Britain significantly freer than ANY European
    nation

21
France Louis XIV
  • Absolute monarchy
  • Large standing army
  • Heavy taxation
  • Religious persecution
  • Restrictions on free speech/press

22
Print Culture
  • Journals, Books, Newspapers, and Pamphlets
  • Printed word ? chief vehicle for communication
  • Ideas/opinion/thought
  • Who are the readers?
  • Monarchs, Nobles, Upper middle classes
    bourgeoisie
  • NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE POWER OF THE PEN OR
    THOSE WHO BUY INK BY THE BARREL

23
Crusaders of the Enlightenment
  • -The thinkers of the Enlightenment were called
    philosophes.
  • -were critics of society and government.
  • -used the printed word to spread ideas.
  • -The Encyclopedia, was published and edited by
    Denis Diderot
  • Philosophes A bunch of guys sitting around in
    some womans living room (salon), chatting
    discussing current eventsasking themselves
  • Whats wrong with our society?
  • How can we fix it?

24
Crusaders of the Enlightenment
25
Baron de Montesquieu
  • The ideas of John Locke inspired Montesquieu.
  • Montesquieu wrote his book, The Spirit of the
    Laws
  • Liked the English government separation of
    powers
  • Influenced the U.S. Constitution.

Montesquieu
26
Voltaire
  • Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) was a famous
    writer.
  • Voltaire was imprisoned for a time in the
    Bastille until he fled to England liked the
    English political system.
  • A defender of the right to free speech.
  • Becomes the symbol of the Revolution.
  • I do not agree with what you have to say, but
    I'll defend to the death your right to say it.
  • Each player must accept the cards life deals him
    or her but once they are in hand, he or she
    alone must decide how to play the cards in order
    to win the game.
  • Behind every successful man stands a surprised
    mother-in-law.

Voltaire
Crush the Infamous Thing
27
  • If there were just one religion in England,
    despotism would threaten, if there were two
    religions, they would cut each others throats,
    but there are thirty religions, and they live
    together peacefully and happily.
  • Voltaire
  • Philosophic Letters on the English, 1733

28
Churches hindered the pursuit of a rational life
and the scientific study of humanity and nature
29
Rousseau
  • -Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social
    Contract.
  • -said that man had been born pure, but was
    corrupted by society.
  • -The free state of man can only be maintained
    if they choose their own government.
  • -Popular sovereignty is the will of the people.
  • -distrusted reason and logic.
  • -thought the individual should be subordinate
    to the group or masses.

30
Much of worlds evil is caused by uneven
distribution of wealth Discourse of the Origin
of Inequality, 1755
31
Mary Wollstonecraft and Adam Smith
  • -A feminist who wrote A Vindication of the
    Rights of Woman.
  • -Advocated education for women and equality
    with men.
  • Physiocrates
  • -urged a policy of laissez-faire
  • -limited tariffs or taxes.
  • -Adam Smith wrote Wealth of Nations argued for
    the free market or supply and demand.
  • -The market place was better off without
    government interference.

32
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34
Enlightened Despots (ruling based on rational
reasoning, ideas are a tool for ruling)
  • Frederick II (the Great)
  • First servant of the state
  • (r. 1740-1786)
  • Military Genius
  • Enforced a centralized bureaucracy
  • Believed in religious toleration
  • Into culture (arts, music, thinking)
  • Offered little social mobility
  • Joseph II of Austria
  • (r. 1780-1790)
  • Reformed Austrias social classes
  • Eliminated serfdom
  • Edict of Toleration (1781) Granted religious
    toleration equal legal status to all
  • Wanted to have more control of the church

35
Catherine the Great
  • (r. 1762-1796) Strong German Ruler
  • Abolished torture and capital punishment
  • Believed in equal rights for girls education
  • Expanded serfdom, even with the Pugachev Revolt
  • Added more territory

36
Partitioning of Poland (1772,1793 1795)
  • Austria, Prussia and Russia wanted Polands land
  • Helped to maintain balance of power
  • Enlightened rulers laid foundation for the
    revolutions to come!!!!
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