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The Arab Spring

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The Arab Spring December 17, 2010: Igniting spark was the self-immolation of a Tunisian fruit & vegetable vendor, leading to protests throughout the country – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Arab Spring


1
The Arab Spring
  • December 17, 2010
  • Igniting spark was the self-immolation of a
    Tunisian fruit vegetable
  • vendor, leading to protests throughout the
    country

2
  • Bouazizi dies on January 4, 2011 and President
    Ben Alis rule
  • comes to an end on January 14, 2011.
  • Following the example of Tunisia, protests
    against governments and calls for reforms emerge
    throughout the Arab world
  • January 2011
  • first protests in the streets of Egypt, Morocco,
    Syria, Oman, Yemen
  • Especially noteworthy are huge protests in Tahrir
    Square in Cairo, Egypt, against President Hosni
    Mubarak

3
  • February 2011
  • The Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak resigns on
    February 11
  • On February 15, protests break out in neighboring
    Libya against
  • Muammar Gaddafis regime, developing into the
    Libyan Civil War

4
  • In coming months unrest can be witnessed from
    Morocco to Bahrain
  • protesters in Morocco demand reforms and social
    justice
  • protesters in Bahrain demand greater political
    freedom and
  • equality for Shia majority under a Sunni
    government
  • - in March 2011 troops from Saudi Arabia and
    other Gulf States
  • intervene to support Al Khalifas monarchy
  • - dozens are killed the West remains largely
    silent due to
  • security interests via Iran the revolt is
    crushed
  • various Shia mosques are destroyed throughout
    the nation

Bahrain Pearl
Roundabout in Manama King Al Khalifa
5
  • June 2011
  • President Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen is injured
    and flees the country
  • August 2011
  • Military crackdown in Syria against protesters
    the US and the EU call
  • for Assad to step down
  • Battle of Tripoli between loyalists and National
    Transitional Council
  • Gaddafi is essentially overthrown and goes
    into hiding
  • October 2011

6
  • November 2011
  • protests in Cairos Tahrir Square against the
    Supreme Council
  • of the Armed Forces (in power since Mubaraks
    resignation)
  • February 2012
  • Former Yemeni President Saleh officially resigns
    and transfers
  • to Vice-President Al-Hadi
  • Syrian government attacks the city of Homs
  • Increased weakening of Libyas National
    Transitional Council and
  • clashes between Arab Zawi and African Tebu
    groups in Libya
  • April 2012
  • - Protest in Egypt for a transfer of power and
    democratic elections

7
  • May 2012
  • Syrian regime kills more than 100 people
    (including children) in the
  • Houla massacre
  • June 2012
  • Hosni Mubarak sentenced to life in prison by
    Egyptian court
  • Mohamed Morsi (Muslim Brotherhood) elected
    new President
  • of Egypt

8
  • July 2012
  • Syrian situation gets worse, now officially Civil
    War Syrian regime
  • forces and opposition forces begin battle of
    Aleppo hundreds are
  • killed already more than 200,000 refugees
    fled country
  • August 2012
  • - General National Congress in Libya takes over
    power from NTC
  • September 2012
  • Free Syrian Army moves headquarters from S-Turkey
    into N-Syria
  • October 2012
  • Free Syrian Army makes territorial gains

9
  • December 2012
  • Controversial referendum in Egypt about a new
    constitution,
  • signed into law in late December
  • January 2013
  • Protests against Morsi on second anniversary of
    2011 revolution
  • February 2013
  • Syrian rebels begin offensive on Damascus death
    toll in the country
  • exceeds 70,000
  • March 2013
  • Syrian rebels capture Raqqa

10
  • July 2013
  • Morsi is deposed as President of Egypt in a coup
    d-etat
  • August 2013
  • Syrian government hits Ghouta and other areas in
    Syria with
  • chemical attacks (sarin nerve agent) killing
    up to 1,000 people
  • January 2014
  • - Syrian opposition faces ISIS, a new group
    surfacing in the region

11
  • February 2014
  • Government in Egypt resigns army chief al-Sisi
    can run for President
  • May 2014
  • Al-Sisi elected Egyptian President
  • Syrian rebels withdraw from Homs
  • June 2014
  • - Situation in Libya deteriorates as fighting
    between groups escalates
  • - ISIS declares caliphate in territory from
    Aleppo to eastern Iraq and Raqqa eventually
    becomes the ISIS capital

12
  • September 2014
  • US and five Arab countries launch airstrikes
    against ISIS in Aleppo
  • and Raqqa
  • November 2014
  • armed group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis on Egyptian
    Sinai peninsula
  • pledges allegiance to ISIS and declares the
    Sinai Province
  • December 2014
  • Beji Caid Essebsi elected President in Tunisia
  • January 2015
  • Kurdish forces push ISIS out of Kobane in Syria
    ISIS takes
  • a foothold in Libya in the port city of Sirte

13
  • May 2015
  • ousted President Morsi sentenced to death for a
    mass breakout of
  • Muslim Brotherhood prisoners back in 2011
  • ISIS seizes the ancient city of Palmyra in Syria,
    destroying artifacts
  • June 2015
  • ISIS gunman kills 38 tourists at the resort
    Sousse in Tunisia
  • government closes extremist mosques in
    response
  • In Syria fight between Kurdish fighters and ISIS
    intensifies
  • between Raqqa and Turkish border

14
  • July 2015
  • ISIS launches attack in North Sinai
  • September 2015
  • Russia gets increasingly involved in Syria,
    carries our first airstrikes,
  • saying it targets ISIS but West claims it
    targets Syrian opposition
  • October 2015
  • ISIS claims responsibility for downing of Russian
    airliner in Sinai
  • 224 people on board of Airbus A321 get killed

15
  • November 2015
  • British ISIS militant known as Jihadi John dies
    in a drone attack
  • he appeared in several ISIS propaganda films
    depicting beheadings
  • December 2015
  • France launches air strikes against ISIS after
    November Paris attacks
  • January 2016
  • ISIS destroys oldest Christian monastery in Iraq
    (1,400 years old)

16
General Causes for the Arab Spring
  • Internal Factors
  • leaders are too authoritarian and dictatorships
    have outlived their legitimacy
  • region has a poor economy
  • low GDP and very little growth
  • economy dominated by the state with big public
    sectors
  • little engagement with global economy
  • non-oil exports of the Arab world equals that of
    Finland
  • 3) Large part of Arab society is young (60-65)
  • - high unemployment
  • - prone to political shifts

17
  • External Factors
  • Why did the Arab Spring (as the Green Wave) not
    happen earlier?
  • Technology
  • - efficient grassroots organizing made possible
    with twitter, Facebook and smart phones
  • 2) Food Security Security in Other Important
    Commodities
  • - global shortages and changes in food
    production impacts of global warming
    occurrence of severe droughts
  • - rising food prices in poor countries leads to
    societal issues
  • - fluctuation in gasoline prices (see Jordan)
    can also act as triggers

18
  • Lessons of the Arab Spring
  • (Vali Nasr lecture The Arab Spring Where Do
    We Go From Here)
  • Despite Negative Developments, Important general
    gains
  • - Arab world didnt have a public sphere before
  • - despite setbacks, people have developed a
    sense of empowerment
  • - growing sense of the right to vote, social
    justice, right to protest, and governmental
    accountability
  • - thus far the only country with a successful
    transition to a more democratic society seems
    Tunisia (revolution of the Middle Class)
  • Challenges of political organizing
  • - Arab liberals not well organized revolutions
    in Iran and Egypt happened too early
    amorphous uprising without leader(s)
  • - well organized entities like Muslim
    Brotherhood jumped in, but had different
    goals the West didnt know how to deal with them
  • - while countries like Tunisia and Egypt are
    fairly homogenous, others are more diverse
    with many rivaling interests

19
Religious Composition of Middle Eastern Areas
Example Lebanon
Core Area of Middle East
- The rise of ISIS explained in 14 maps
20
  • 3) Unfinished Business in the Middle East
  • - colonial powers left, but countries they
    created remain, as do ethnic compositions and
    power structures (political and economic)
  • - Bahrain Sunni minority rules a Shia majority
  • - Syria Alawite minority rules Sunni majority
  • - Iraq post-Saddam Shia government rules Sunni
    minority
  • - disenfranchised groups have become larger but
    their status as secondary citizens remains
  • - dictatorships have been suppressing a
    resolution of this issue
  • - importance of national identity vs. national
    citizenship
  • - Middle East needs a successful Civil Rights
    Movement
  • 4) Lack of investment in the Middle East
  • - no democratization without investments and
    economic growth
  • - 1990s 100 billion invested in E-Europe 0
    in the Middle East
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