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RADIATION SAFETY

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Radiation dose limits; dose monitoring. Basic principles of radiation protection. Contamination; contamination control; contamination survey. Radioactive material ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RADIATION SAFETY


1
RADIATION SAFETY Refresher Training Part 2
2
COURSE PART 2 OBJECTIVES
  • Radiation dose limits dose monitoring
  • Basic principles of radiation protection
  • Contamination contamination control
    contamination survey
  • Radioactive material regulations RAM project
  • Signs, postings, labels
  • RAM ordering, use and inventory
  • Safe laboratory practices PPE
  • Radioactive material security
  • Radioactive waste disposal
  • Emergencies

3
DOSE LIMITS
  • Occupational dose limits set by NRC and adopted
    by DHEC
  • Whole body 50 mSv (5 rem)
  • Skin, extremities 500 mSv (50 rem)
  • Lens of Eye 150 mSv (15 rem)
  • Embryo 5 mSv (0.5 rem)
  • General Public 1 mSv (0.1 rem)
  • In their rulemaking NRC uses Linear Non-Threshold
    (LNT) model of dose-effect. This model assumes
    increase in stochastic (cancer) risk with
    increase, however small, in dose. Therefore, when
    working with radioactive material, we must keep
    doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).

4
RADIATION DOSIMETRY
  • External Dose From radiation sources outside
    the body
  • Internal Dose From radiation sources inside the
    body
  • When evaluating individuals dose, both external
    and internal doses must be taken into account

5
RADIATION DETECTION INSTRUMENTS (hover over
instruments for more information)
6
MONITORING EQUIPMENT CHECK
  • Every day before use
  • Check calibration expiration date. Contact
    radiation safety office when calibration
    expiration date is close or passed. Only use
    instrument with expired calibration in emergency
    and if all operational checks are OK.

7
MONITORING EQUIPMENT CHECK
  • Every day before use
  • Check calibration expiration date.
  • Check battery. Set switch to BAT position.
    Needle should be within sector BAT TEST (or
    BAT OK, or similar). Replace batteries if it is
    not. It is a good idea to always have extra
    batteries of proper size for your instrument.

Meter Dial mR/hr
Battery Check
On-Off Switch / Range Selector
Battery Compartment
8
MONITORING EQUIPMENT CHECK
Meter Dial mR/hr
  • Every day before use
  • Check calibration expiration date.
  • Check battery.
  • Set switch to the proper range. Usually,
    radiation levels in research lab should be within
    the lowest range. If meter pegs, switch to higher
    scale and press Reset button. Highest scale
    usually has its own dial

x100 Dial
Reset Button
On-Off Switch / Range Selector
9
MONITORING EQUIPMENT CHECK
Meter Dial mR/hr
  • Every day before use
  • Check calibration expiration date.
  • Check battery.
  • Set switch to the proper range.
  • Check background radiation level in a clean area
    away from radiation sources. You may want to set
    Fast/Slow switch to S to have stable reading.

Fast/Slow Response
10
MONITORING EQUIPMENT CHECK
Meter Dial mR/hr
  • Every day before use
  • Check calibration expiration date.
  • Check battery.
  • Set switch to the proper range.
  • Check background radiation level.
  • Check instrument response using dedicated check
    source or any other available known source of
    radiation (stock vial, sample, etc.)

11
MONITORING EQUIPMENT CHECK
Meter Dial mR/hr
  • Every day before use
  • Check calibration expiration date.
  • Check battery.
  • Set switch to the proper range.
  • Check background radiation level.
  • Check instrument response
  • When performing survey, move probe slowly (2
    in/sec) over survey area. Set Fast/Slow switch
    to F for immediate response to
    contamination, and Audio
    to ON.

Audio On-Off
Fast/Slow Response
12
PERSONNEL DOSE MONITORING
  • The use of personnel monitors is required for
  • Anyone who could receive 10 of annual radiation
    dose limit
  • Anyone who enters a high radiation area
  • Your badge must remain at work. It is intended
    for measuring occupational dose only.
  • Only wear your issued dosimeter.
  • Store dosimeters away from radiation sources.

13
TLD RING DOSIMETER
  • Ring dosimeters are required for persons working
    with open beam x-ray systems.
  • Radiation Safety Committee may require use of
    ring dosimeters for persons working with high
    activities of radioactive materials (eg., 1mCi of
    P-32).

14
DOSE REPORT
15
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION PROTECTION
Radiation Dose is inversely proportional to the
square of the distance from the source.

Distance INcreases x2 -gt Dose DEcreases x4
Distance INcreases x3 -gt Dose DEcreases x9
Radiation Dose is directly proportional to the
exposure time
Heavier materials (eg., lead) provide better
shielding from radiation
  • Time.
  • Distance.
  • Shielding.

16
RANGE OF 5 MeV ALPHA PARTICLES
External sources of alpha radiation do not
require shielding. Even high energy alpha
particles are easily absorbed by air, clothing
and outer, dead layers of skin. Care must be
taken not to allow alpha emitting materials
inside human body.
Material Range
Air 3.58 cm
Aluminum 0.0022 cm
Water 0.0046 cm
17
RANGE OF BETA PARTICLES
High energy beta emitters may require shielding.
To avoid production of bremsstrahlung
(breaking) x-ray radiation, use low-Z materials
(acrylic, Plexiglas, wood)
Radionuclide (Max. Energy) Air (cm) Plastic (cm) Glass (mm)
H-3 (18.6 keV) 0.47 0.0005 0.0002
C-14 (156.5 keV) 21.7 0.023 0.011
S-35 (166.7 keV) 24.8 0.0267 0.012
P-32 (1710 keV) 581 0.625 0.288
18
PHOTON ATTENUATION
  • Half-Value Layer Thickness of an absorber that
    reduces the intensity of a radiation beam by 50

Energy Water Lead
100 keV 4 cm 0.1 cm
400 keV 6.5 cm 0.3 cm
1 MeV 10 cm 1 cm
19
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION PROTECTION
  • Time.
  • Distance.
  • Shielding.
  • Contamination Control

Contamination is a source of both external and
internal contamination
20
SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION
  • Sloppy work practices, such as cross-contamination
    of tools, equipment, or workers.
  • Not wearing gloves, or removing them prematurely.
  • Poor housekeeping in contaminated areas.
  • Opening radioactive materials/systems without
    proper controls.
  • Leaking containers or tears in radiological
    containers such as barrels, plastic bags, boxes,
    or protective gear.
  • Spills, glass breakage, and animal fluids.
  • Airborne contamination depositing on surfaces.
  • Not adhering to standard laboratory procedures.
  • Emergencies including
  • Fire.
  • Earthquake, etc.

21
CONTAMINATION PREVENTION
  • Plastic backed absorbent paper
  • should cover all surfaces where
  • open radioactive sources are
  • handled. Lab coats, gloves and
  • safety glasses, goggles or face
  • shield must be worn when
  • working with radioactive
  • material.
  • When wearing gloves, never touch anything that
    you will handle without gloves pens, notebooks,
    telephones, switches, door handles, computer
    keyboard, etc.
  • Secondary containment must be used for transfer
    and storage of all radioactive materials.

22
CONTAMINATION SURVEY
  • Contamination surveys should be performed after
    handling RAM, before breaks, lunch, at the end of
    work day.
  • Recordable lab contamination surveys must be
    performed every week RAM is used in the lab.
  • Use survey equipment suitable for detection of
    RAM used at location being surveyed.
  • To survey for removable contamination,
    approximately a 100 cm2 area should be swiped
    in an S shaped pattern.
  • Record results of the survey.
  • Any area with an alpha or beta count rate
    significantly over background should be
    immediately cleaned.

23
CONTAMINATION SURVEY RECORD
  • Contamination survey report must contain
  • Drawing of the surveyed area
  • Locations of measurements and/or swipes taken
  • Model and serial number of instrument(s) used for
    survey
  • Date and time of survey
  • Results of measurements
  • Identity of the person performed survey

24
CONTAMINATION LIMITS
  • Contamination can be
  • Fixed cannot be readily removed
  • Removable can be readily removed with basic
    wiping or casual contact
  • Airborne contamination suspended in air,
    presents the possibility of inhalation
  • Contamination Limits
  • Any detectable contamination should be cleaned as
    well as reasonably possible.

Type of Contamination Beta/Gamma Alpha
Removable lt 200 dpm/100 cm2 lt 20 dpm/100 cm2
Fixed lt 100 cpm above bkg, or lt 0.05 mR/h N/A
25
SPILLS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
  • All spills of RAM require immediate response.
    Initial response to a spill rests with the lab
    personnel. Untrained personnel is not allowed to
    examine or clean RAM spill.
  • Minor spills may be decontaminated by lab
    personnel.
  • If contamination widespread, includes
    unrestricted areas, unauthorized personnel, or
    involves high-µCi or mCi amounts of RAM, notify
    RSO.
  • Notify all lab personnel. Have all personnel not
    involved with the spill to vacate the area, but
    remain in one place to minimize possibility of
    contamination spread.
  • Contain the spill from further spread. If the
    material is a liquid, place an absorbent material
    over the spill to prevent its spread. If the
    material spilled is a powdered solid, attempt to
    contain its spread by covering the area with a
    protective barrier (ex., wet cloth or absorbent
    paper). If appropriate, close doors and windows,
    turn off room ventilation fans.

26
SPILLS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (continued)
  • Monitor any personnel that were in the area at
    the time of the spill. Give special attention to
    the nose and mouth areas. Report any facial
    contamination to the RSO immediately.
  • Remove contaminated clothing at once flush
    contaminated skin areas thoroughly.
  • Decontaminate the area Plan ahead. Provide
    adequate protection and supplies for personnel
    involved in the cleanup. Besides required PPE,
    wear double gloves and shoe covers. Begin at the
    periphery and work toward the center of the
    contamination. Cover cleaned areas with plastic
    or paper to prevent its recontamination. Place
    all contaminated items in the proper waste
    containers.
  • Monitor the area Survey area after each
    decontamination effort. If contamination persists
    after several decontamination efforts, notify RSO.

27
INTERNAL EXPOSURE PATHWAYS
  • Inhalation
  • Gases, aerosols, dusts, mists, fumes, smoke
    (including cigarettes)
  • Ingestion
  • Food, water, hand contamination
  • Absorption thru Skin
  • Thru intact skin, cuts, abrasions, etc.
  • Punctures
  • Needle sticks

28
ANNUAL LIMITS ON INTAKE (ALI), TEDE
  • ALI - The amount of radioactive material taken
    into the body of an adult worker that would
    result in a radiation dose of 50 mSv (5 rem) to
    the whole body or 500 mSv (50 rem) to any
    individual tissue or organ per year
  • ALI allows to account for effects of the internal
    exposure in conjunction with the external dose
  • Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) takes into
    account both external and internal exposures.
    TEDE is the sum of effective dose equivalent
    from external exposure and committed effective
    dose equivalent from internal exposure

29
ALI VALUES
ALIs for all radioisotopes have been calculated
and listed by the NRC. There are some examples
below
Radionuclide Ingestion Inhalation
Tc-99m H-3 (Water) S-35 I-123 C-14 P-32 I-125 I-131 80,000 µCi 80,000 µCi 10,000 µCi 3,000 µCi 2,000 µCi 600 µCi 4 µCi 3 µCi 200,000 µCi 80,000 µCi 20,000 µCi 6,000 µCi 2,000 µCi 400 µCi 60 µCi 60 µCi
30
SKIN DECONTAMINATION
Mechanical Remove with Sticky Tape
Washing Soap or Detergent and Cool Water Surgical Scrub Brushes with Povidone-Iodine Complexing Agents (1 Citric Acid) Chelating Agents (1 Versene)
Biological Sweat it out
Washing affected areas with soap and cool to
lukewarm water is the first, and usually, the
only required action for skin decontamination at
a research lab of the Clemson University
31
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL AUTHORIZATION
  • The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is the
    Federal agency authorized by the Congress to
    regulate radioactive material use
  • States that assume the function of the NRC are
    called Agreement States
  • South Carolina became an Agreement State in 1969
  • South Carolinas Department of Health and
    Environmental Control (DHEC)
  • licenses radioactive material use
  • regulates X-ray registration and use
  • performs inspections of licensed facilities
  • regulates use of lasers.

32
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL AUTHORIZATION
  • Clemson University has a Broad Scope Radioactive
    Material License
  • Allows use of radioactive isotopes with atomic
    numbers 1-98 in any chemical or physical form
  • All activities involving radioactive material
    (projects) within the Clemson University must
    be approved by the Radiation Safety Committee
    (RSC)
  • RAM Project includes
  • Responsible Investigator (RI)
  • list of authorized isotopes and possession
    limits
  • list of personnel
  • facilities where RAM use is authorized
  • approved protocol(-s).

33
PERIODIC INSPECTIONS
  • Clemson Universitys Radioactive Material License
    requires semi-annual inspections of RAM projects
  • Radiation safety personnel contacts projects RI
    to set mutually acceptable date and time for
    inspection
  • RI does not have to be physically present during
    inspection, but (s)he has to assign AU to assist
    inspector. This AU has to be knowledgeable about
    projects activities and capable to answer
    inspectors questions.

34
WHO MAY WORK WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL?
  • Only individuals listed on a Project may use RAM
  • Must receive instructions from the RI
  • To become Authorized User (AU), must complete
    Initial Radiation Safety training
  • may start working with RAM before attending
    Initial Training, but only under direct
    supervision of RI or AU (status called Radiation
    Worker (RW))
  • Must complete annual refresher training (online
    or classroom).

35
WHO MAY WORK WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL?
  • Fill form R-003 Request To Add An Individual To A
    Radionuclide Project and submit to Radiation
    Safety.
  • You may be listed on several Projects.
  • Or, you may start your own project.

36
SIGNS, POSTINGS, LABELS
  • All entrances to the labs where RAM is used or
    stored must be posted with the Caution,
    Radioactive Material sign.
  • Assume all materials within radioactive materials
    area are potentially contaminated.
  • All areas where dose rate is above 5 mrem/hour
    must be posted with the Caution, Radiation Area
    sign.
  • Do not enter radiation area unless absolutely
    necessary and you are authorized to do so.

37
SIGNS, POSTINGS, LABELS
  • All equipment, containers, glassware, tools, etc.
    that may come into contact with RAM must be
    labelled with Caution, Radioactive Material
    Sign.

38
ORDERING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
  • You can only order radionuclides that the project
    is authorized for and within your possession
    limits
  • Use a licensed supplier (Amersham, MP
    Biomedicals, Perkin Elmer, etc.)
  • All radioactive material shipments must be
    addressed to
  • Radiation Safety Officer
  • Clemson University
  • 114 Long Hall
  • Clemson, SC 29634
  • For RN-ltyour projectgt, ltRI namegt
  • Research Park (Rich, CETL) was recently added as
    approved destination for RAM packages

39
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL USE RECORD
  • Upon RAM package receipt, radiation safety
    personnel
  • checks radiation and contamination levels,
    package labelling and documentation
  • assigns shipment number
  • adds RAM to the projects inventory and checks
    against possession limits
  • produces RAM Use/ Inventory Record
  • notifies project personnel and delivers shipment.

40
OPENING PACKAGE
  • Follow these steps when opening RAM package in
    your lab
  • Check paperwork to make sure that you are an
    intended recipient and you received what you
    ordered
  • Open package, check integrity of the internal
    packaging. Notify Radiation Safety Office and
    manufacturer if internal package is broken and/or
    leaks
  • Remove container with RAM from the packaging and
    mark it with the shipment number listed on the
    RAM Use form
  • Survey inside of the packaging for residual
    contamination. Use appropriate survey equipment.
  • Remove or deface Radioactive Material labels from
    the packaging and dispose of it.

41
DEFACING LABELS
  • Wrong
    Right

42
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL TRANSFER
  • Inside Clemson make sure transferee is approved
    to possess RAM being transferred
  • Outside Clemson obtain a copy of the other
    institutions RAM license
  • Complete Radioactive Material Transfer Report
  • For shipping outside Clemson RAM must be packaged
    according to DOT/IATA rules
  • Package and paperwork must be inspected by the
    RSO.

43
GENERAL LAB RULES
  • Working with radioactive material in a research
    laboratory may involve exposure to many other
    hazards chemical, biological, mechanical,
    electrical, etc.
  • Following best lab practices described in the
    Laboratory Safety Manual is critical in avoiding
    these hazards.
  • www.clemson.edu/research/safety/manuals/labSafety/
    index.html
  • Besides general lab safety, radiation safety
    requires additional considerations.

44
SAFE LAB PRACTICES
  • All work areas should be kept uncluttered to
    prevent accidents and minimize cross
    contamination.
  • There must be no eating, drinking, smoking, or
    storage of food in areas in which radioactive
    materials are used.
  • No mouth pipetting is allowed in a radioisotope
    work area.
  • Containers used in mixing, shaking, or
    centrifuging operations should be intact and
    sealed to prevent spillage.
  • Heating, drying, distilling, and other operations
    which could result in volatilization of the
    material should be performed in a fume hood or
    glove box.
  • Whenever possible, rehearse operations with
    non-radioactive materials to ensure that the
    technique will be reasonably free of incidents.
  • Maintain accurate records of radioactive material
    use.

45
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
  • When working with radioactive material minimum
    required PPE is lab coat, gloves and safety
    glasses or goggles.
  • No shorts, no open-toe shoes, no short sleeves
    are allowed for any lab work.
  • Depending on the scope of activities and hazards
    involved, additional PPE requirements may be
    imposed on a project personnel by the Radiation
    Safety Committee.

46
RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SECURITY
  • Radioactive material must be secured against
    unauthorized use or removal
  • Entrances to unoccupied labs must be closed and
    locked, or
  • All radioactive material, including waste, must
    be kept in locked cabinets
  • NRC commentary on 10 CFR PART 20The Commission
    believes that locking radiotracer laboratories
    when not being used is a small nuisance compared
    to the consequences of unauthorized access to or
    theft of radioactive materials, which could
    result in contamination of unrestricted areas or
    exposure of individuals, as well as having to
    report a loss of licensed material to the NRC.

47
ESCORTING VISITORS IN THE LABORATORY
  • Inform guests that they are entering a
    radioactive materials area.
  • Point out locations of any hazards or high
    radiation areas.
  • Do not allow guests to handle any materials from
    a radioactive materials area.
  • Demonstrate how to perform a personal scan prior
    to exiting the lab (or, survey them yourself).
  • If guests will be working with you in the lab,
    consult with RSO if personal dosimetry is
    required. But remember, only individuals listed
    on the RAM Project may work with radioactive
    material.

48
RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL
  • Dry solid waste must be separated into Short
    (less than 65 day) and Long half-life. Waste bags
    and containers are color-coded green for short,
    yellow for long half-life.

49
RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL
  • Deface all Radioactive Material labels before
    placing items into radioactive dry waste
    container.
  • Prohibited for disposal into radioactive dry
    waste
  • sharp objects
  • sealed sources
  • biohazardous waste or bags
  • lead containers
  • liquids
  • Sharp objects must be collected
  • in a special sharps waste
  • container labelled with
  • Radioactive Material sign
  • Radioactive biohazard waste must
    be treated in the same manner as
    regular biohazard waste (i.e., autoclaving,
    bleach) before being placed into radioactive
    waste containers.

50
RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL
  • For mixed (hazardous radioactive) liquid waste
    follow hazardous waste compatibility guidelines.
  • If possible, use biodegradable
    LSC cocktail.
  • Do not wait for waste containers
    to overflow. Request waste pick-up
    when containers are about 2/3 full.
  • Do not let housekeeping personnel to empty
    radioactive waste containers.
  • Keep reasonably accurate waste disposal record.

51
LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL
  • Some projects may be allowed to dispose liquid
    radioactive waste down the sewer. These disposals
    must be approved by the Radiation Safety
    Committee.
  • Only materials that are soluble or miscible in
    water or biological materials that are readily
    dispersible may be disposed via sink.
  • No hazardous chemicals! Mixed liquid waste
    containing short half-life RAM will be held by
    Radiation Safety Office for minimum of 10
    half-lives, and then disposed as hazardous
    non-radioactive waste. Long half-life mixed waste
    has to be disposed through approved waste broker,
    and it is expensive!
  • It is very important to keep reasonably accurate
    record of all sewage disposals.

52
EMERGENCIES
  • Personal safety and health take
  • precedence over radiological
  • concerns.
  • Notify Radiation Safety in the
  • event of radiological emergency
  • accidental uptake
  • lost/stolen RAM
  • fire (call 911 first), flood, etc.
  • Konstantin Povod, RSO
  • 656-3516,
  • kpovod_at_clemson.edu
  • Stephen Price, ARSO
  • 656-7165
  • price3_at_clemson.edu

53
SUMMARY
  • Follow general lab safety rules.
  • Apply Time-Distance-Shielding to keep doses
    ALARA.
  • Control contamination.
  • Perform surveys at meaningful times.
  • Maintain records of RAM use and disposal.
  • If you cannot resolve a safety issue bring it to
    the attention of your peer/advisor/RSO.

You are the primary responsibility for your
safety and safety of your peers!
54
This completes the online radiation refresher
training. Please use the following link to
access the quiz
  • http//www.clemson.edu/research/safety/training/ra
    d/radQuiz.html
  • There is also a link on the training page if
    powerpoint is not linking correctly.
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