Author: Lototska Olena V. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Author: Lototska Olena V. PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 80f622-NDU2M


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Author: Lototska Olena V.


Object and tasks of hygiene. Hygienic standardization as a basis for environmental protection and the health of the population. Author: Lototska Olena V. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:92
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 85
Provided by: eduu1168


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Author: Lototska Olena V.

Object and tasks of hygiene. Hygienic
standardization as a basis for environmental
protection and the health of the population.
  • Author Lototska Olena V.

Hygiene is a basic preventive science in
medicine. It generalizes all dates of theoretical
and clinical disciplines in the field of
prophylaxis, integrates knowledges about complex
influence of an environment for health of the
human, work out principles and systems of
preventive measures.
  • is "the science and art of preventing disease,
    prolonging life and promoting health through the
    organized efforts and informed choices of
    society, organizations, public and private,
    communities and individuals.

Health is defined as a state of complete
physical, mental and social well-being and not
merely absence of disease or infirmity.
So what exactly is preventive medicine?
  • The branch of medicine dealing with the
    prevention of disease and the maintenance of good
    health practices.

(No Transcript)
  • The main task of a doctor is about care of
    healthy people so that they dont fall in
  • Hippocrates (IV century B.C.)
  • The primary task of a doctor lies in preventing a
    disease if you have failed to manage it treat
    it if the disease is incurable alleviate
  • Botkin S.P. (1867)
  • I believe in hygiene. This is where real progress
    of our science lies. The future belongs to
    preventive medicine.
  • Pirogov M.P. (1887)

  • Prophylaxis is divided into three kinds
    primary, secondary and tertiary in accordance to
    the specific kinds of pathology.
  • Primary prophylaxis includes prophylactic
    technologies of preventing disease through
    removing risk factors (causes and conditions of
    its development) and improving general body
    resistance to risk factors.
  • Secondary prophylaxis includes medico-prophylactic
    technologies of revealing a disease, preventing
    its progress, aggravation and possible
  • Tertiary prophylaxis includes medico-prophylactic
    technologies aimed at removing negative
    aftermaths of the disease (relapses,
    complications, temporary and permanent
    disability, death).

Medicine is a system of knowledge and
practical activities that aims to improve and
conserve health, extand human life, prevent and
medicate diseases of human being
  • Specific object of medicine learning is healthy
    and sick human with such a general philosophical
    concept and characteristics, as health
    (individual and public) with numerous indicators
    of its condition and disease with numerous
    manifestations of the disease of the individual

MEDICAL Object of studying sick man
  • Object of studying healthy man, and groups of
    the practically healthy people

Pharmacy is a system of knowledge and
practical activities that aims to search, produce
pharmaceutical drugs (medicines), perfumery and
cosmetological means, etc, their research,
storage and realization
  • Pharmacy, the science and art concerned with the
    preparation and standardization of drugs. Its
    scope includes the cultivation of plants that are
    used as drugs, the synthesis of chemical
    compounds of medicinal value, and the analysis of
    medicinal agents. Pharmacists are responsible for
    the preparation of the dosage forms of drugs,
    such as tablets, capsules, and sterile solutions
    for injection. They compound physicians,
    dentists, and veterinarians prescriptions for

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
To promote and maintain a state of health an
individual needs the following prerequisites
  • Supply of fresh air and sunlight
  • Safe and potable water supply
  • Balanced diet
  • Healthful shelter
  • Adequate clothing hygienic environmental
  • Protection from communicable and other avoidable
  • Complete sense of protection and security both
    socially and economically
  • A congenial social and cultural atmosphere.
  • Regulated way of life with proper rest and
    relaxation and good and simple habits.

Basic aim of hygiene preserving and improving
Professor Winslow defined aim of hygiene as
"science and art of (i) preventing diseases, (ii)
prolonging life, and (iii) promoting health and
efficiency through organized community effort for
(a) the sanitation of the environment, (b) the
control of communicable diseases, (c) the
education of the individual or personal hygiene,
(d) the organization of medical and nursing
services for the early diagnosis and preventive
treatment of disease, and (e) the development of
the social machinery to ensure everyone a
standard of living adequate for the
maintenance of health, so organizing these
benefits as to enable every citizen to realize
birth right of health and longevity".
  • It has many aspects
  • personal hygiene (proper living habits,
    cleanliness of body and clothing, healthful diet,
    a balanced regimen of rest and exercise)
  • domestic hygiene (sanitary preparation of food,
    cleanliness, and ventilation of the home)
  • public hygiene (supervision of water and food
    supply, containment of communicable disease,
    disposal of garbage and sewage, control of air
    and water pollution)
  • industrial hygiene (measures that minimize
    occupational disease and accident)
  • mental hygiene (recognition of mental and
    emotional factors in healthful living) and so on.

Main tasks of hygiene are the following

1. Studying the natural and anthropogenic
environmental factors and social conditions
affecting the health of a human
2. Studying the laws of the impact of
environmental factors and conditions on the human
body or population.
3. Scientific substantiation and working out of
the hygienic norms, rules and measures, which
help use maximum positively influencing on an
organism of the man the factors of an environment
and elimination or restriction up to safe levels
unfavourable operating ones.
4. Practical implementation of developed hygienic
recommendations, rules and standards in national
economy, controlling and improving their
5. Forecasting the sanitary situation for the
nearest and remote future, taking into account
plans of the national economy development, proper
hygienic problems arising from the forecasted
situation, scientific research of such problems.
Basic methods of hygienic researches
Methods of hygiene
1. Methods of environment studying
  • 2. Methods of studying of environmental influence
    on human organism and health

Methods of environment studying
Methods of sanitary examination with further
sanitary description
Instrumental and laboratory methods
Methods of Studying of Environmental Influence on
Human Organism and Health
Methods of natural observation
Methods of experimental investigation
1.Experiment with models of natural condition
2. Physiological
3. Biochemical
4. Toxicological
2.Laboratory experiment on animals
5. Sanitary-statistic
3.Laboratory experiment on humans
6. Medical-geographical
Prevention is better than cure is an old
saying. Preventive medicine deals with the
measures to protect the individuals from the
diseases, and to keep them in a state of positive
health. For this we have to ensure all the
above-mentioned prerequisites required for the
maintenance of positive health. The environments
must be hygienic, with supply of fresh air, safe
potable water and balanced diet.
  • In Greek and Roman mythology, Hygieia (also
    Hygiea or Hygeia, Greek ???e?a or ??e?a, Latin
    Hygea or Hygia), was a daughter of the god of
    medicine, Asclepius.

She was the goddess of health, cleanliness and
sanitation. She also played an important part in
her father's cult. While her father was more
directly associated with healing, she was
associated with the prevention of sickness and
the continuation of good health. Her name is the
source of the word "hygiene".
  • Asclepius and Hygeia, Attic Relief, last quarter
    4th century BC 

People in ancient societies were concerned about
personal hygiene and sanitation for religious
reasons. The Bible contains many rules for
cleanliness, and describes public health measures
still important today. These include quarantining
the sick to prevent the spread of disease and
avoiding contact with objects used by sick people.
The Greek physician Hippocrates first made the
connection between disease and natural
environmental factors in the 4th century bc. His
treatise Airs, Waters, and Places described how
diseases can result from way of life, climate,
impure water, and other environmental factors.
For the next 2000 years, it was the most widely
used text on public health and epidemiology.
Ancient Romans adopted Greek ideas about public
health after colonizing Greece in the 1st century
bc. Rome's greatest contributions to public
health involved sanitary engineering. They built
aqueducts to supply Rome with pure water and a
public sewer system to carry away wastes, as well
as public baths and hospitals. The Roman
government also hired physicians and assigned
them to villages to care for the poor.
After the Roman Empire collapsed in ad 476 public
health efforts were forgotten and unsanitary
conditions returned. Millions of people died when
great epidemics of smallpox, leprosy, bubonic
plague, tuberculosis, and other diseases swept
across Europe in the Middle Ages (5th to 15th
centuries ad).
Illustration of the Black Death from the
Toggenburg Bible (1411)
European painting showing the Plague.
Anthoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) was the first
to observe bacteria and other microscopic
organisms using a rudimentary microscope.
In 1700 Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714)published
first comprehensive occupational health treatise.
This the birth of occupational health.  
During the Renaissance (1500-1700 A.D.), there
was rebirth of thinking about nature and humans.
Scientific advances of the 16th and 17th
centuries laid the foundations of anatomy and
physiology. Observation and classification made
possible the more precise recognition of
diseases. The idea that microscopic organisms
might cause communicable diseases had begun to
take shape.
The environments must be hygienic, with supply of
fresh air, safe potable water and balanced diet.
This aspect of preventive medicine started
gaining more importance from 18th century onwards
with the discovery of various vaccines and sera
for the protection against various diseases like
small pox, cholera, plague, whooping cough,
tetanus, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis etc.
Edward Jenner discovered vaccination against
small pox in 1796.
  • The discovery of causative agents of the diseases
    by Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch
    (1843-1910) gave a great fillip to the science of
    preventive medicine.

Louis Pasteur
Robert Koch
Von Behring (1854-1917) brought up the principle
of serum treatment and use of anti-sera in
various diseases.
Emil Adolf Behring
Environmental Sanitation The word sanitation is
derived from the Latin word Sanitas which means a
state of health.
Environmental Sanitation means the control of
all those factors in man's surroundings, which
cause or may cause adverse effects on his health.
The sanitarian directs his efforts towards
hygiene of water and food supply, hygienic
disposal of human wastes, hygiene of housing and
control of vectors and rodents etc.
Wastes that can cause health problems include
human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic
wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater),
industrial wastes and agricultural wastes.
Hygienic means of prevention can be by using
engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewate
r treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines,
septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene
practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap).
Hygienic standardization
Environmental standards are definite ranges of
environmental factors which are optimal or the
least dangerous for human life and health. In
Ukraine basic objects of hygienic standardization
are MAC maximum admissible concentration (for
chemical admixtures, dust and other hazards) MAL
maximum admissible level (for physical
factors) LD dose limit (for ionizing
radiation) Optimum and admissible parameters of
microclimate, lighting, solar radiation,
atmospheric pressure and other natural
environmental factors. Optimum and admissible
daily requirements in food and water.
Basic objects which are under the hygienic norms
setting can be divided into two groups.
The first group contains factors of
anthropogenous origin which are unfavorable for
human being, and are not necessary for the normal
life activity (dust, noise, vibration, ionizing
radiation, etc.). MAC, MAL and LD are those
parameters which are set for this group of
The second group contains factors of natural
surrounding which are necessary (in certain
amount) for normal life activity (food-stuffs,
solar radiation, microclimatic factors and
others). For this group the following parameters,
must be set optimum, minimum and maximum
admissible parameters.
The methodical scheme of hygienic norms of
substantiation using, the example of MAC for some
toxic substance.
  • The first stage is study physical and chemical
    properties of the substance, elaboration of
    methods of quantitative determination of this
    substance in different subjects, determination of
    its regimen of action on the human (duration,
    interruption, changes of intensity), ways of
    getting into the organism, study migration in
    different elements of the surrounding,
    mathematical prediction of duration of existence
    in different surroundings.

The second stage is study direct influence on the
organism. It is started from 'sharp' experiments
the main purpose of which is getting initial
toxicometric data about the substance
(determination of LD50, or LC50 threshold of
strong action (LIMac) and other. With the
knowledge of physical and chemical properties of
the substance, its initial toxicological
characteristics and approximate level of MAC can
be calculated.
  • The third stage - is conduction of 'subsharp'
    experiment during l-2 months for determination of
    cumulating coefficient and the most vulnerable
    physiologic systems and organs specification of
    mechanisms of action and metabolism.

  • The fourth (basic) stage is carrying out chronic
    experiment which lasts 4-6 months in the case of
    modelling of working conditions, 8-12 - communal
    conditions, 24-36 - in study processes of aging
    or induction of tumours.
  • During the experiment integral parameters are
    studied. They reflect condition of animals,
    degree of strain of regulative systems, functions
    and structure of organs which take part in
    processes of metabolism (activity of enzymes),
    influence of functional loadings.
  • Numbers of MACs of toxic chemical substances in
    the Ukraine are various
  • - for the air of working zone - more than 800,
  • - water- 700,
  • - atmosphere air- 200,
  • - food-stuffs - more than 200,
  • - soil - more than 30.

The first law of hygiene can be formulated as
follows health of the people (disease,
decreasing of the resistance, immunological
status, adaptation-compensatory opportunities of
organism), caused by physical, chemical,
biological and psychogenic etiological factors,
can occur only at presence of three driving
  • source of pollution,
  • mechanism of its influence
  • or ways of its transference

human susceptible organism
What is pollution? The word comes from the Latin
pollutus, which means made foul, unclean, or
dirty. Some is obvious like smoke which you can
see but much of it is not obvious at all. Yet
you're eating it and drinking it and breathing it
most of the time. And what is worse is that all
this muck affects all other life on Earth.
You can find pollution made by people just about
everywhere on the planet. Even remote places like
the Arctic are badly polluted by nasty chemicals
made by people. The polar bears and seals there
have poisonous chemicals made by people in their
bodies and so do the Inuit people who live with
them. These nasty things kill many animals and
make others sick -- including penguins in the
  • - Introduction by man, waste matter or surplus
    energy into the environment, which directly or
    indirectly causes damage to man and his

Pollution - the presence in the environment of
contaminating substances in quantities that
exceed the MCL and can have a negative impact on
the health and living conditions of human
Pollutant is any natural or anthropogenic
physical agent, chemical substance or biological
species that gets into the environment, whether
it appears in quantities exceeding normal
(allowable) content
Anything and Everything is toxic ifthe dose is
made so !!
Paracelsus (1493-1541)
Factor is the reason, the driving force of any
Pollutant is any natural or anthropogenic
physical agent, chemical substance or biological
species that gets into the environment, whether
it appears in quantities exceeding normal
(allowable) content
Pollution - the presence in the environment of
contaminating substances in quantities that
exceed the MCL and can have a negative impact on
the health and living conditions of human
  • Types of actions of environmental factors on the
    human body
  • Isolated is an action, in which one substance
    gets into the human body
  • Combined is an action, in which several
    substances get into the human body from a single
  • Complex is an action, in which a substance gets
    into the human body from different compartments
    of biosphere
  • Incorporated is an action, in which the human
    body is affected by two or more factors of
    different nature (e.g. chemical and noise

  • . Water Pollution
  • . Air Pollution
  • . Land Pollution
  • . Noise Pollution
  • . Thermal Pollution
  • . Electro Pollution
  • . Visual Pollution

On a degree of danger distinguish four groups of
chemical substances pollutes I - especially
high toxic (middle death doze -LD5? - is lower
than 50 mg/kg of weight of body) II - high
toxic (LD5? 50 - 200 mg/kg) ? - middle toxic
(LD5? 200 - 1000 mg/kg) IV - low toxic (LD5?-
more than 1000 mg/kg) The concept about first
driving force of process of change of level of
health allows to study laws of change of
polluting substances in an environment, their
decomposition and transformation under influence
of the physical and chemical factors of an
environment. The basic purpose of these measures
is the decreasing of concentration of polluting
substances in an environment up to a level, which
is safety for health of the population.
Soil contamination - is this content in soil
chemical and biological pollutants that endanger
the health of man by direct contact with
contaminated soil or through contact with the
soil environment according to ecological chain
Ambient Air
Underground water
Drinking water
Surface water
Water organisms
Major condition of high stability of the organism
to adverse factors of environment is healthy way
of life, excluding the using of alcoholic drinks,
smoking, other harmful habits, rational
nutrition, rational mode of work and rest,
observance of rules of personal hygiene, using of
wide improving opportunities of physical culture
and sports, self preparing.
  • Traditional forms of pollution include
  • air pollution, water pollution, and
    radioactive contamination while a broader
    interpretation of the word has led to the ideas
    of ship pollution, light pollution, and noise

Common Sources of Primary Pollutants
  Source  Pollutants Chemical Formulae
Cars, Trucks, Buses    Nitrous oxide,      carbon monoxide,      carbon dioxide,     hydrocarbons  NO2   CO  CO2  CxHy
                     Industry   Nitrous oxide,      carbon monoxide,      carbon dioxide,      hydrocarbons   others          NO2           CO          CO2          CxHy
 Aerosol cans    CFCs         (chlorofluorocarbons),     hydrocarbons    Various
Burning   Coal   Carbon monoxide,     carbon dioxide     sulfur dioxide           CO          CO2          SO2 
  • There are several main types of pollution and
    well-known effects of pollution which are
    commonly discussed. These include
  • smog,
  • acid rain,
  • the greenhouse effect,
  • and "holes" in the ozone layer.
  • Each of these problems has serious implications
    for our health and well-being as well as for the
    whole environment.


Acid rain forms when moisture in the air
interacts with nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide
released by factories, power plants, and motor
vehicles that burn coal or oil.
  • This interaction of gases with water vapour
    forms sulphuric acid and nitric acids. Eventually
    these chemicals fall to earth as precipitation,
    or acid rain. Acid rain pollutants may travel
    long distances, with winds carrying them
    thousands of miles before they fall as dew,
    drizzle, fog, snow or rain.

  • Hazards of Acidic Rain
  • Discoloration of houses,
  • Rusting of metals.
  • Damage of crops.
  • Skin cancer
  • Damage to marine life
  • Lead poisoning due to damage to lead pipes.
  • Prevention
  • i. Treatment of industrial smoke
  • ii. Increase plant growing i.e. Forestation

Green House Effect Green houses are glass huts
seen in hilly areas and in the agricultural
processing areas. Mechanism When light falls on
any surface which is transparent, some rays are
reflected and some are refracted. A process of
partial retention of light takes place in the
green house, so temperature in the glass house is
Causes of Green house effect The air pollution
causes emission of gases like CO2, CH4, CO,
CFC's,NO2,,Chlorine, Methyl chloroform These
gases are known as Green house gases. These gases
cause partial retention of light in the air and
so temperature of the atmosphere increases
  • Hazards of Green House Effects
  • Global warming
  • Increased evaporation from sea.
  • Melting of Ice at poles of earth.
  • Increase in sea level.
  • Floods.
  • Disturbance at coastal areas due to increased sea
  • Prevention
  • Decreased industrialization
  • Treatment of Industrial smoke
  • Check unfit automobiles.

  • Damage to the ozone layer is primarily caused
    by the use of chloroflurocarbons (CFCs). Ozone is
    a form of oxygen found in the earth's upper
    atmosphere. The thin layer of ozone molecules in
    the atmosphere absorb some of the sun's
    ultraviolet (UV) rays before it reaches the
    earth's surface, making life on earth possible.
    The depletion of ozone is causing higher levels
    of UV radiation on earth, endangering both plants
    and animals.

  • The third law of hygiene (of natural
  • The environment is polluted not only under the
    action of people, but some pollutants come from
    natural sources.
  • Volcanoes spew out ash, acid mists, hydrogen
    sulfide, and other toxic gases.
  • Sea spray and decaying vegetation are major
    sources of reactive sulfur compounds in the air.
  • Forest fires create clouds of smoke that blanket
    whole continents.

  • Trees and bushes emit millions of tons of
    volatile organic compounds (terpenes and
  • Pollen, spores, viruses, bacteria, and other
    small bits of organic material in the air cause
    widespread suffering from allergies and airborne
  • Storms in arid regions raise dust clouds that
    transport millions of tons of soil and can be
    detected half a world away.
  • Bacterial metabolism of decaying vegetation in
    swamps and of cellulose in the guts of termites
    and ruminant animals is responsible for as much
    as two-thirds of the methane (natural gas) in the

The fourth law of hygiene is the law of
positive anthropogenic influence on environmental
of human society. However we must not think,
that the environment is absolutely defenseless in
front of the activity of the man. The nature has
huge resources of self-preservation,
self-updating, self-regulation, maintenance of
ecological balance, self-cleaning, but these
reserves are not boundless.
  • Factors Which Keep
  • the Composition of Air Constant
  • Wind, which dilutes, sweeps away or
    aspirates the impurities and gets replaced by
    pure air.
  • Rain, which washes the air and removes gases as
    well as suspended impurities.
  • Oxygen and ozone, which oxidise the organic
    matter present in the air.
  • Plants absorb CO2 and give off oxygen in
    sunlight. During sunlight, chlorophyll
    present in green leaves of the plants absorbs
    carbon from carbon dioxide of the atmosphere and
    gives off free oxygen, but at night this process
    gets reversed.
  • Sun affects the temperature, pressure and volume
    of air. Thus heating of air during the day and
    its cooling at night brings about the air
  • Changing weather and other climatic and
    meteorological factors affect the direction and
    velocity of air movements over vast a tomospheric

The fifth law of hygiene
The fifth law of hygiene is the law of inevitable
negative influence of the muddy environment on
health of the population. People also become
ill through exposure to hazards in the
environment. Many diseases are linked to
environmental problems such as polluted drinking
water, poor waste disposal and air and exposure
to mosquitoes and other carriers of disease.
Effects of Air Pollution
  • Air pollution can affect our health in many
    ways with both short-term and long-term effects.
    Different groups of individuals are affected by
    air pollution in different ways. Some individuals
    are much more sensitive to pollutants than are
    others. Young children and elderly people often
    suffer more from the effects of air pollution.
  • People with health problems such as asthma, heart
    and lung disease may also suffer more when the
    air is polluted.

  • Examples of short-term effects include
    irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and
    upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis
    and pneumonia. Other symptoms can include
    headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions.
    Short-term air pollution can aggravate the
    medical conditions of individuals with asthma and
    emphysema. In the great "Smog Disaster" in London
    in 1952, four thousand people died in a few days
    due to the high concentrations of pollution.

  • Long-term health effects can include chronic
    respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease,
    and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or
    kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution
    affects the lungs of growing children and may
    aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the
    elderly. It is estimated that half a million
    people die prematurely every year in the United
    States as a result of smoking cigarettes.

The sixth law of hygiene
  • The sixth law of hygiene is the law of
    positive influence of the factors of a natural
    environment on health of the population.
  • The natural factors of the environment (air,
    water, good-quality food) have a positive
    influence on peoples health. They provide
    preservation and strengthening of the human health

Healthy Behaviors
  • Dont smoke
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Exercise regularly
  • Drink alcohol in moderation
  • Get adequate sleep

Which healthy behaviors are most important?
Exercise regularly
Dont smoke
Moderate alcohol
Eat a healthy diet
Maintain a healthy weight
Stop Smoking
  • Tobacco is most preventable cause of death in US.
  • 1/3 of all cancer deaths related to smoking
  • Risk factor for lung cancer. Associated with
    other types of cancer
  • Increased risk of heart disease and chronic lung
  • Quitting the best gift you can give yourself and
    loved ones

Healthy Diet
  • Balancing Calories
  • Enjoy your food, but eat less
  • Avoid oversized portions

Healthy Diet
  • Foods to Increase
  • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables
  • Make at least half your grains whole grains
  • Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1) milk.

Healthy Diet
  • Foods to Reduce
  • Choose foods with lower sodium
  • Drink water instead of sugary drinks

Reach and Maintain a Healthy Weight
  • Extra weight increases risk of
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Some types of cancer
  • Sleep apnea
  • Osteoarthritis

Healthy Weight
  • Small weight loss matters a lot
  • 5-15 of body weight can improve health

  • 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic
  • Strength training at least 2x per week
  • Balance exercises for senior adults

Differences between Exerciseand Sport
  • Exercise
  • Its a form of physical activity done primarily
    to improve ones health and fitness.
  • Sports
  • Is complex, institutionalized,
  • competitive and these very characteristics
    works against moderate and rhythmical exercise.

Dont drink too much
  • Why?
  • Increased risk for certain cancers
  • Liver, esophagus, throat, larynx
  • Cirrhosis
  • Immune system problems
  • Brain damage
  • Moderate use isnt harmful for most adults
  • Up to 2 drinks per day for men
  • One drink per day for women
  • Standard drink 12-oz beer or wine cooler, 5-oz
    wine, 1.5-oz of liquor

  • 7 to 8 hours a night for most adults
  • Negative health effects for
  • Oversleeping
  • Too little sleep

Thank you for your attention